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What Works in Conservation 2020

William J. Sutherland
Lynn V. Dicks
Silviu O. Petrovan
et al.

4. Farmland conservation

4.8 Threat: Hunting and trapping (for pest control, food or sport)

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Unknown effectiveness (limited evidence)

Enforce legislation to protect birds against persecution

1Two before-and-after studies from Denmark and the UK found increased numbers or survival of raptors under legislative protection. Assessment: unknown effectiveness — limited evidence (effectiveness 90 %; certainty 18 %).


Provide ‘sacrificial’ grasslands to reduce the impact of wild geese on crops

3All six studies from the UK (including four replicated, controlled trials) found that managing grasslands for geese increased the number of geese using these areas. Four of these studies found geese were moving within the study sites. Assessment: unknown effectiveness — limited evidence (effectiveness 20 %; certainty 5 %).


No evidence found (no assessment)

5We have captured no evidence for the following interventions:

  • Avoid use of lead shot
  • Use alerts to reduce grey partridge by-catch during shoots

Evidence not assessed

Use scaring devices (e.g. gas guns) and other deterrents to reduce persecution of native species

6A replicated, controlled trial in Germany found phosphorescent tape was more effective than normal yellow tape at deterring one of three mammal species. Assessment: this intervention has not been assessed.


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