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Altering Eye

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Robert Phillip Kolker

Index

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A bout de souffle. See Breathless

Accident, 271

Afkir, Walid, xiv

Age of Earth, The, 225

Aguirre: The Wrath of God, 187-88, 191, 193, 195

Aldo, G. R., 56

Ali. See Fear Eats the Soul

Alice in the Cities, 167

Alienation: in Ali, 184; of Antonioni’s characters, 104; effect, 144; in European cinema of sixties, 98-99; Marxist, 200-01; in Voyage in Italy, 96, 99

Allegro barbaro, 232n.

All That Heaven Allows, 175, 176, 184

Alphaville, 175, 240

Altered States, 164

Althusser, Louis, concept of break in consciousness, 14

Altman, Robert, 139, 226n.

Amarcord, 64

American cinema: ix-x, xiv, xvi, xvii, 64-65, conventions, xi, 20-22; economic base, 15-16; effect of expressionism on, 23; and neorealism, 18, 65, 68; influence on Wim Wenders, 166-67, 171; New Wave’s attitude toward, 123-24, 170-71; 180-degree rule, 251; politics in, 197-98; road images in, 167; separation from politics, 8; studio system, 1-2, 15, 65; in thirties, 14; women in, 3

American Friend, The, 167, 168-71

American Soldier, The, 172

American Tragedy, An, 27 Amidei, Sergio, 17

Amores perros, xv

Anderson, Lindsay, 65

András, Ferenc, 233

Andreotti, Giulio, 57

Angi Vera, 233-36

Antonio Das Mortes, 220, 224-25, 228, 232

Antonioni, Michelangelo, x, xiv, 56, 58, 60, 64, 96, 99-107, 109-10, 116, 226n., 199-200; influence on Wim Wenders, 167; visual style, 56-57, 99-103, 106-07, 109-10

Aparajito, 67

Apocalypse Now, 140, 188n., 254n., 262

Aragon, Manuel Guttiérrez, 282

Argentina, 217

Ariaga, Guillermo, xv

Artaud, Antonin, 162

Artists under the Big Top: Disoriented, 165

Ashes and Diamonds, 95, 236n.

Astruc, Alexandre, on auteur theory, 125

Audience. See Viewer

Audran, Stéphane, 134

Au hazard, Balthazar, 158

Auteur, 113, 122, 126; theory, 5, 125

Auteuil, Daniel, xiii

Avant-garde, 2, 93; French, 4, 24

Aviator’s Wife, The, 138

Avildsen, John G., 226n.

Bad Timing, 162

Babel, xv

Barravento, 219-20

Barren Lives. See Vidas Secas

Barthes, Roland, on Brecht, 141

Basehart, Richard, 58 Bates, Alan, 273

Battle of Algiers, The, 209-10, 282

Bazin, André, xi, 5, 227; on analogue nature of film image, 108-09, 110-11; on Bicycle Thieves, 55; on Fellini, 62; Godard’s response to, 127-28; on image fact, 34; on montage, 34, 127; on narrative, 40; on neorealism, 33, 55-56, 75, 78; and New Wave, 121-22; on objectivity, xii, 34; on Paisan, 45; and realism movement, 11; on religion in film, 56, on Renoir, 28-29, 33; on von Stroheim, 27

Beast with Five Fingers, The, 68 de Beauregard, Georges, 2

Belle de jour, 156-57

Bellocchio, Marco, 226n.

Belmondo, Jean-Paul, 129, 131, 170

Bénichou, Maurice, xiii, xiv

Benny’s Video, xii

Berger, John, 268-69

Bergman, Ingmar, 6, 15, 62, 95, 98, 119-21, 122, 135, 139, 160, 172, 199, 232, 239, 266, 271; influence on Fassbinder, 182; influences on, 93, 120

Bergman, Ingrid, 58, 59, 96, 98n.

Bertolucci, Bernardo, 2, 11, 81-83; 139;

199, 226n., 232, 240, 250-65, 284;

Eisensteinian techniques used by, 81-82; films on fascism, 251-57, 264

Bertolucci, Giuseppe, on neorealism, 12

Bertucelli, Jean-Louis, 190-91

Beware of a Holy Whore, 172

Bicycle Thieves, xi, 12, 13-14, 17, 33, 35-39, 47, 48, 51, 55, 82, 83, 145

Binoche, Juliette, xiv

Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant, The, 178-84

Black Brood, 282

Black God, White Devil, 219-20

Blake, William, xix

Blind Husbands, 26

Blood of the Condor, 218-19, 221 Blow Up, 100, 102-03

Bogarde, Dirk, 271, 272

Bolivian cinema, 217-19

Bonnie and Clyde, xiv

Boomerang!, 65

Borges, Jorge Luis, “Theme of the Hero and Traitor,” 251

Boudu Saved from Drowning, 28

Bouquet, Carole, 282, 284

Brando, Marlon, 208, 209, 257, 262-63

Brazilian cinema, 67-68, 95, 202, 203, 217-18, 220-26; censorship, 226n. See also Cinema Novo

Breathless, 127-30, 131, 145, 156-7, 240

Brecht, Bertolt, 49, 89, 91, 140-46, 147-48, 151-52, 153, 155-56, 160-62, 164, 165, 172-73, 175-77, 194, 197, 200-02, 210, 232, 245, 265, 267, 268, 269, 270, 274; on actor and character, 172; The Affairs of Mr. Julius Caesar, 201-02; on epic theatre, 143-45; on historical perspective in cinema, 203; posthumous influence, 145

Bresson, Robert, 121-22, 123, 156-61, 162, 163, 270

British cinema: American influence, 14-15; influence of neorealism on, 65-67; Regional Arts Councils, 2

British Film Institute Film Production Board, 2

British Sounds, 201

Bruno S., 191-93, 194

Buñuel, Luis, xv-xvi, xix, 2, 27, 28, 68-73, 93, 156-57, 278-86; dream imagery, 279; entrapment theme, 281; foot fetishism in films, 280; perverse imagery, 70-74

Burch, Noël, To a Distant Observer (on Japanese cinema), 7

Burn! (Queimada!), 208-09, 219

Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, The, 23

Caché, xiii-xiv, xv

Cahiers du cinéma, 5, 107, 124

Cain, James M., The Postman Always Rings Twice, 17

Caine, Michael, 274

Calamai, Clara, 17

Camp, 176-77

Canterbury Tales, The, 164

Carstensen, Margit, 179, 180

Catholicism, 32, 58, 136; elements of, in neorealism, 42-43, 55-56; ironic representation, in Padre Padrone, 85; in Perceval, 138; in Viridiana, 279

Céline et Julie vont en bateau, 130

Chabrol, Claude, 5, 121, 126, 129, 131-35, 156, 157, 175, 177, 195, 226n., 282

Chamberlain, Richard, 163

Chiarini, Luigi, 38; on subjectivity, 39

Children, in Fellini films, 61; in Indian cinema, 67; in Los Olvidados, 69; in neorealist film, 48-49

Chile, 199n., 217, 249

Chimes at Midnight, 217

Chinese Roulette, 177n.

Chloe in the Afternoon, 135-36

Christianity, in The Last Supper, 206-07 Christie, Julie, 273

Chronicle of a Love Affair, 99

Chronicle of Anna Magdalena Bach, 152, 153-55

Cinema Novo, 67-68, 203, 217, 219-26

Citizen Kane, 4, 24-25, 93

City of Women, The, 64, 65

Clair, René, 93

Claire’s Knee, 135, 137-38

Clayton, Jack, 65

Clementi, Pierre, 156-57, 254, 267

Cloquet, Ghislain, 118

Closely Watched Trains, 233

Closeup, xi, 85; Eisenstein on, 21; Godard on, 127

Cochran, Steve, 58, 100, 101

Cocteau, Jean, xvi, 93, 121, 122

Code Unknown, xii-xiii, xiv, xv

Communist Party, in Angi Vera, 234-36; financing of La terra trema, 50

Conformist, The, 73, 252-58, 256, 264

Confrontation, The, 227

Contempt, 171n., 172

Conversation Piece, 58

Coppola, Francis Ford, x, 140, 171, 188n., 254n., 262

Corner in Wheat, A, 22

Cornù, Aurora, 137

Costa-Gavras, 198, 199, 219, 282

Coutard, Raoul, 156

Crawford, Broderick, 58

Cries and Whispers, 120

Criticism, 5, 7, 8. See also Bazin, André

Cross-cutting, 21-22

Cuban cinema, 8, 95, 203-08

Cubism, 90, 106

Czechoslovakian cinema, 95, 232-33

Dali, Salvador, 2, 68

Damned, The, 59, 252, 253

Dancigers, Oscar, 68

Dardenne, Jean-Pierre and Luc, x-xi

Dassin, Jules, 65

Death in Venice, 59

Decameron, The, 164

Del Toro, Guillermo, xv-xvi

Delluc, Louis, 93

Delon, Alain, 104, 276

Deneuve, Catherine, 156, 280

De Niro, Robert, 58, 79 Depardieu, Gérard, 79, 118

Der Golem, 23

Der Leone Have Sept Cabezas (The Lion Has Seven Heads), 225 des Forêts, Guillaume, 159

De Sica, Vittorio, 12, 14, 17, 34-38, 51, 55, 56, 82, 83, 121; editing style, 35; influence on Satyajit Ray, 67; on realism, 34; use of children, 48-49

Despair, xiv, 177n., 276-77

Devil is a Woman, The, 283

Devil’s Backbone, The, xv-xvi

Devils, The, 163, 215 Die Neue Sachlichkeit, 25-26

Dietrich, Marlene, 283

Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie, The, 278, 281

Domicile conjugal, 266

Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands, 226

Don Giovanni, 278, 279

Don’t Look Now, 161-62

dos Santos, Nelson Pereira, 67-68, 226

Down and Dirty, 86

Dreyer, Carl-Theodor, 121-22, 147

Dudow, Slatan, 145

Dupont, E. A., 93

Duras, Marguerite, 90, 117-19, 120, 142

Dyer, Richard, 250; on camp, 176-77

Eastern European cinema, 4, 6, 8, 199, 231, 233, 270; postwar, 95, 236n.

Easy Rider, 167

Edvard Munch, 2, 163-64

Effi Briest, 177, 182 8 1/2, 62, 63

Eisenstein, Sergei, 2, 4, 15, 20-24, 26, 31, 32, 39, 50; on closeup, 21; on cross-cutting, 21-22; influence of, 24-25; influence on Bertolucci, in 1900, 81-82; on realism, 22; use of montage, 15, 20-22, 24-25, 29, 34, 91, 107, 227, 246

Eisner, Lotte, 187; on expressionism, 23

Elektreia, 232n.

End of August at the Hotel Ozone, 233

Enigma of Kaspar Hauser, The. See Every Man for Himself and God Against All

Environment: in The American Friend, 169-70; Antonioni’s use of, 100-04; in British film, 66; conflict with, in Voyage in Italy, 99-100; for Fellini, 60-61; in Herzog’s films, 187-88; in neorealism, 31; in Rohmer’s Moral Tales, 135-36; urban, for Bresson, 158-59; in Wender’s films, 168-70

Epstein, Jean, 2, 93

Espinosa, Julio Garcia, 205

Europa 51, 96

European cinema, 1-2, 5, 14, 75, 85, 98, 166, 265; avant-garde in, 2; economic base, 1-3; economic censorship, 198; political nature, ix, 8. See also Eastern European cinema

Eustache, Jean, 265-69

Even Dwarfs Started Small, 188-89

Every Man for Himself (Godard). See Suave qui peut (La vie)

Every Man for Himself and God Against All, 7, 191-95

Expressionism, 4, 15, 22-26, 31, 120, 171n.; autobiographical, Fellini’s use of, 64; effect on American style, 24-25; exemplars, 23; Fassbinder’s use of, 180; in Herzog’s films, 192; influence of, 25; in New German Cinema, 166, 170-71; and popular culture, 93-94

Exterminating Angel, The, 68, 281

Eyes Do Not Want to Close at All Times, or Perhaps One Day Rome Will Permit Herself to Choose in her Turn. See Othon

Face to Face, 120

Farenheit 451, xiv

Fascism, 23, 31-32, 47, 49, 50, 75, 79-80; in Bertolucci’s films, 251-57, 264; effect on filmmaking, 15-16; Fassbinder’s films on, 177n., 240, 244-45, 249, 252-54; in Herzog’s films, 187; and modernism, 92; in Mr. Klein, 275; in 1900, 79-80; in Pigsty, 267-68; and sexuality, 164, 238, 252-53

Fassbinder, Rainer Werner, ix, xiv, 7, 25, 135, 139, 156, 165, 166-67, 170, 171-86, 187, 239-40, 243-50, 261; anti-teater, 174; films on fascism, 177n., 244-45, 249-50, 252; left-wing melancholy, 250; on love and repression, 261; repertory company, 172-73; use of expressionism, 180; use of melodrama, 175, 180-81, 185-86, 249-50

Fata Morgana, 188-91, 194

Faust (Murnau), 23

Faustrecht der Freiheit, 182, 184, 239-40

Fear Eats the Soul (Ali), 184, 178, 184-86

Fellini, Federico, 12, 14, 15, 17, 58, 60-65, 95, 172, 199, 214

Fengler, Michael, 174

Film, development of, history, 4, 15-16

Film criticism. See Criticism

Film noir, 4, 24-25, 61, 65, 93, 100, 102, 253; influence on Bergman, 120; influence on New Wave, 126-27; influence on Wim Wenders, 168, 170, 171

Finney, Albert, 66

Flaherty, Robert, 11

Florey, Robert, 68

Fonda, Jane, 139, 198, 241

Fonda, Peter, 167

Fontane, Theodor, 177

Foolish Wives, 26, 28

Force of Evil, 65

Ford, John, 123, 126, 217

400 Blows, The, 122, 126, 266

Four Nights of a Dreamer, 158-60

Fox, James, 271, 272

Franju, Georges, 246

French cinema, postwar, 95. See also New Wave

Freund, Karl, 93

Fuller, Samuel, 170-71

Funny Games, xiv

Gábor, Pál, 233-36

Galileo, 270

Gance, Abel, 2, 93

Ganz, Bruno, 168, 169

Garfield, John, 17

Garnett, Tay, 17

German cinema, 165-66, 195, 246, 269-70; expressionism in, 25, 93; Filmverlag der Autoren, 166; government support, 2, 166. See also New German Cinema

Germany, Year Zero, 12, 13, 46-47, 61, 83, 96, 99

Getino, Octavio, 217-18

Giral, Sergio, 204-06

Girotti, Massimo, 17, 258n.

Goalie’s Anxiety at the Penalty Kick, The, 167

Go-Between, The, 271, 273-74

Godard, Jean-Luc, ix, x, xii, xix, 2, 5, 6, 7-9, 14, 30, 33, 38, 45, 64, 73, 92, 95, 109, 121, 127-32, 139-52, 155-57, 158, 160, 163, 165, 170-71, 199, 200-02, 223, 226, 240-43, 244, 250, 252, 254, 258, 263, 265, 270, 283, 284; on Breathless, 127; Fassbinder’s homage to, 172; influence, 139, 205, 220, 225-26, 233, 237; on New Wave, 122, 126, 127-28

Godfather II, 254n.

Gods of the Plague, 172

Goebbels, Joseph, 92

Gómez, Sara, 205

Gone with the Wind, 82, 251

González Iñárritu, Alejandro, xv

Gorin, Jean-Pierre, 1, 139, 201, 269

Gospel According to Saint Matthew, The, 55-56

Goya, Chantal, 242

Gramsci, Antonio, 278

Grand Illusion, The, 28, 29

Granger, Farley, 58

Greed, 26-27

Grierson, John, 39-40

Griffith, D. W., 2, 4, 15, 19-22, 26, 29, 67, 193, 215-16; Biograph period, 19, 21; style, Eisenstein’s criticism of, 20-22

Guerra, Ruy, 68, 226n.

Guevara, Alfredo, on Cuban cinema, 210

Gutiérrez Alea, Tomás, 205-08

Hammett, 171

Handke, Peter, 119n.

Haneke, Michael, xii-xv

Hangmen Also Die, 145

Harris, Richard, 66

Hawks, Howard, 123, 126

Hayden, Sterling, 79

Heart of Glass, 187, 191, 192-93, 194-95

Hermann, Irm, 178-79

Herzog, Werner, ix, xiv, 7, 16, 25, 165, 166-67, 170, 186-95, 253-54, 269

Highsmith, Patricia, Strangers on a Train, 168n. Hiroshima, Mon Amour, 118

History: for Bergman, 239; for Jancsó, 227-28; Marxist view of, 231-32; in Mr. Klein, 276-78; subject of Not Reconciled, 152-53 History Lessons, 152, 201-02

Hitchcock, Alfred, 28, 98n., 113-14, 122, 123-24, 126, 131, 132, 134, 135, 168n., 263

Homosexuality, 163, 238-40, 253, 257; Fassbinder’s perspective on, 176-77, 182-84

Hopper, Dennis, 167, 168, 169

Hour of the Furnaces, The, 217-18

Hour of the Wolf, 119-20

Hudson, Rock, 176-77, 184

Huillet, Danièle, 139, 152-55, 157, 165, 168, 173, 194

Hungarian cinema, 6, 83, 95, 227-37

Il bidone, 58

Il grido, 58, 96, 99-104, 109, 110

Il porcile. See Pigsty

Il posto, 75

Il prato, 83

Image, function: for Godard, 200-01, for neorealist, 54-55

Image fact, 34, 40, 75

Imitation of Life, 175

Im Lauf der Zeit. See Kings of the Road

In a Year of Thirteen Moons, 240, 243-50, 284 In the Mood for Love, xv

Indian cinema, 2; neorealism in, 67

Innocence Unprotected, 238

Intimate Lighting, 233

Intolerance, 21-22

Italian cinema, 22, 164, 167, 251, 270;
American actors in, 58-59, 100;
government restriction of, 57-58. See also Neorealism

Ivan the Terrible, 23

Ivens, Joris, 93

I vitelloni, 12, 60-62

Jackson, Glenda, 163, 275

Jancsó, Miklós, 6, 83, 139, 227-32, 233-34; editing style, 227 view of history,

228

Japanese cinema, 2, 7, 106, 119n., 241

Je t’aime, je t’aime, 161, 273

Joan of Arc, 147

John, Gottfried, 173

Johnny Belinda, 62

Johnny Eager, 127

Jonah Who Will be 25 in the Year 2000, 268-69

Jules and Jim, 124

Juliet of the Spirits, 64

Just Before Nightfall, 132

Just Like Home, 233

Kadár, Jan, 233

Kammerspiel, 25-26, 31

Kar-wai, Won, xv

Karina, Anna, 145, 148, 150-51 Katzelmacher, 172-73 Kazan, Elia, 65

Kiarostami, Abbas, xi-xii Kings of the Road (Im Lauf der Zeit), xix, 167, 171n.

Kinski, Klaus, 187, 191

Kitchen Sink chool, 65-66

Kluge, Alexander, 165, 187

Kovács, András, 232-33

Kracauer, Siegfried, Theory of Film, 64

Kreimeier, Klaus, xi

Kriemhild’s Revenge, 23 Kubrick, Stanley, xv

Kuhle Wampe, 145

Kuleshov, Lev, 15, 238

La boulangère de Monceau,

135n.

La carrière de Suzanne, 135n.

La chinoise, 148, 266

La collectionneuse, 135n., 136

La dolce vita, 63, 214

Lady from Shanghai, 127

La femme infidèle, 134

L’age d’or, 68-69, 156

La guerre est finie, 115-16, 273 L’amore, 58

L’amour fou, 130, 133-34

Lamprecht, Günter, 173

Lancaster, Burt, 58, 79, 82

Lancelot du lac, 158

Lang, Fritz, 23, 93, 126, 145, 171n.,

Lange, Jessica, 17

Langlois, Henri, 121

La notte, 99

La rupture, 132-35

Las Hurdes, 68

Last Metro, The, 124

La strada, 12, 58, 60-62

Last Supper, The, 206-08

Last Tango in Paris, 73, 240, 252, 254n., 257-64, 284

Last Year at Marienbad, 112-15, 116, 117, 118, 129, 142-43, 145, 152

L’Atalante, 260

La terra trema, 12, 17, 39, 47, 50-54, 56, 59, 74, 82

Latin American cinema, xvii, 3, 4, 8, 85, 95, 117, 139, 156, 185, 202-03, 204, 210, 217-26, 270; political nature, 3, 219-26

Lattuada, Alberto, 60

Laughton, Charles, 270

L’Avventura, 99

Léaud, Jean-Pierre, 148, 242, 266, 267-68

Le beau Serge, 126

Le crime de M. Lange, 28

L’eclisse, 99, 104-07, 109, 110, 115, 159

Leda (A double tour), 126, 132

Lee Jones, Tommy, xv

Left Handed Woman, The, 119n.

Le gai savoir, 200-01, 266

Léger, Fernand, 2 Legra, Adela, 212

Leopard, The, 58, 82

Le sang des bêtes, 246

Les biches, 132

Les bonnes femmes, 126, 131

Les carabiniers, 14, 175, 200

Les cousins, 126, 131

Letter to Jane, 139

Lewis, Jerry, 123; European admiration of, 244

L’Herbier, Marcel, 93

Lion Has Seven Heads, The. See Der Leone Have Sept Cabezas

Lisztomania, 164

Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner, The, 65, 66-67

Long take, 107-111; in Jancsó’s films, 227, 232-33; in Nathalie Granger, 118-19; Welles’s use of, 110-11; Look Back in Anger, 65

Loren, Sophia, 59

Losey, Joseph, 226n., 270-78

Los Olvidados, 68- 73, 156

Louÿs, Pierre, The Woman and the Puppet, 283

Lucía, 210-17, 239

Lumière brothers, 15, 148

Luna, 262n., 264-65

Magnani, Anna, 13

Magnificent Ambersons, The, 110

Magnificent Obsession, 175

Mahler, 163

Makavejev, Dusan, 237-38

Malone, Dorothy, 175-76

A Man Escaped, 158

Man of Iron, 237n.

Man of Marble, 236-37n.

Man Who Fell to Earth, The, 161

Marquise of O., The, 138

Marriage of Maria Braun, The, 7, 172-73, 178

Married Woman, A, 157, 200, 240, 252

Martin, Dean, 244

Marxism, 98, 151, 198, 200-203, 226; Brechtian, 141-42; in Cuban cinema, 203; influence on neorealism, 31 perception of history, 231-32

Masculin-féminin, xix, 240-43, 245, 263, 266

Masina, Giulietta, 62

Méliès, Georges, 15, 148

Mellen, Joan, The Waves at Genji’s Door (on Japanese cinema), 7

Melodrama, xi, 3, 4, 18-19, 32, 42, 43, 46, 48, 52, 54, 58, 250; in Bertolucci’s films, 253; in Chabrol’s films, 132-33, 135; in eighties cinema, 199; Fassbinder’s use of, 175-78, 180-82, 249-50; Fellini’s use of, 63; modernist questioning of, 139; psychological realism in, 45; and sexuality, 239; Sirkean, 175-77

Melville, Jean-Pierre, 120-21, 157

Memories of Underdevelopment, 206

Menzel, Jiří, 233

Mercer, David, 116

Merchant of the Four Seasons, 177

Merry Widow, The, 26

Mészáros, Márta, 233

Metropolis, 23

Metty, Russell, 175

Metz, Christian, 5, 148; on image, 64

Meyer, Carl, xi

Michi, Maria, 258n.

Middle class: in Belle de jour, 156; in current cinema, 200; in The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie, 278; in European cinema of sixties, 96, 98; in Losey’s films, 274-75

Mildred Pierce, 127

Mira, Brigitte, 185

Miracle in Milan, 12, 56-57

Mise-en-scène, xi, xiii, 30, 59, 84, 93, 99, 107, 128, 135, 138, 145, 147, 157, 158, 180, 187, 188, 193, 234, 245, 250, 253-54, 269; definition, 12-13; in expressionism, 22-23, 25; in neorealism, 12, 40-41

Missing, 199n.

Mizoguchi, Kenji, 241

Modernism, 93-94, 112, 118, 140, 142, 162, 173-74, 210; artistic elitism, 91-93; characteristics, 93; decline, in seventies, 5; New German Cinema’s response to, 174; rise of, 89-90; themes of, 160-61

Molina, Angela, 282

Monaco, James, on The Mother and the Whore, 267

Montage, 20-24, 27, 29, 34, 37, 81, 90, 115, 220, 223, 227, 251-52, 253; in Antonio Das Mortes, 220; Antonioni’s use of, in L’eclisse, 104-07, 109-10, 159; Godard on, 127; in In a Year of Thirteen Moons, 246; in The Last Supper, 207-08; in A Married Woman, 200; parallel, Griffith’s use of, 15, 20-22; Russian development of, 15, 91

Montand, Yves, 219

Montenegro, 238n.

Moral Tales, 135-38

Moravia, Alberto, 59

Moreau, Jeanne, 118

Morlion, Felix A., 32-34

Moschin, Gastone, 254n.

Moses and Aaron, 152, 155

Mother and the Whore, The, 265-68

Mouchette, 158 Mr. Klein, 275-78 Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 24

Mulvey, Laura, on role of women in film, 282-83 Muriel, 115

Murnau, F. W., 16, 23, 25, 93, 170, 192

Music Lovers, The, 162-63

Mussolini, Benito, significance, in La Terra Trema, 54

My Blueberry Nights, xv

My Life to Live (Vivre sa vie), 145-51, 175, 177, 240

My Night at Maud’s, 135-37

Nada, 282 Naked City, The, 65

Naked Night, The (Sawdust and Tinsel), 120

Narrative film, 19-20, 40; modernist trends, xvii-xviii, 116-17

Nathalie Granger, 118-19

Nazarin, 279

Nazism, 253; in Not Reconciled, 152-53

Němec, Jan, 233

Neorealism, xvii, 73-87, 199; and Dardenne brothers, xi; anti-

melodramatic direction, 54; Antonioni’s extension of, 99-103; in

British cinema, 66; Buñuel’s use of, 69-72; characteristics, 12-13, 31-32, 47; definition, 12; development, 16-17, 31-33, 121; documentary usage, 38-39; Eisenstein’s influence on, 22; exemplars, 12; experimentation arising from, 89-95; expressionist influence on, 25-26; in Godard’s work, 147-48; image in, 64; influence of, xi, 65; influence of Renoir on, 30-31; Italian, 4, 12-15; non-professional cast, 50, 82; political nature, 8; theory, 14, 17; visual elements, 12-13; von Stroheim’s influence on, 26-27;

New German Cinema, ix, xvii, 166, 269; expressionism in, 170, 171n.

New Wave, xiv, xvii, 2, 6, 11, 14, 15, 25, 58, 65, 93, 117, 119, 121-39, 265; characteristic style, 127; development, 121-22; exemplars, 121; influence of American film, 170-71; influence of film noir, 126; parody, in Last Tango in Paris, 258; relationship to neorealism, 14

Nicholson, Jack, 17, 106

Night and Fog, 275

Nights of Cabiria, 12, 60-61 1900, 73, 75, 79-83, 264

Nosferatu (Herzog, 1978), 16, 25, 170, 191, 192

Nosferatu (Murnau, 1922), 16, 23, 25, 170, 192

Notorious, 98n., 127

Not Reconciled, 152-53

Nouveau roman, 117-18

Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey, on revolutionary intent of La Terra Trema, 51, 55

Nuñez, Eslinda, 212

October, 24, 81

Olmi, Ermanno, 2, 73-79, 83

One from the Heart, 254n.

One Way or Another, 205

Ophuls, Marcel, 275

Orchestra Rehearsal, 65

Os Fuzis, 68

Ossessione, 12, 17-18, 30, 58-59, 99, 100, 258n.

Other Francisco, The, 204-05, 206, 207-08

Othon, 152, 155

Out One, 130

Overbey, David, 12

Ozu, Yasujiro, 106, 119n., 270

Pabst, G. W., 145

Padre padrone, 2, 73, 75, 76, 83-86

Paisan, 12, 40-47, 48, 60, 258n.

Palance, Jack, 92 Pan’s Labyrinth, xv-xvi

Papp, Veronika, 236

Parain, Brice, 149

Paris Belongs to Us, 126-27, 130

Pasolini, Pier Paolo, 55-56, 139, 164, 202, 267-68, 270

Passenger, The, 106-07

Passer, Ivan, 233 Passion, 140

Passion, A (The Passion of Anna), 119-20

Pásztor, Erzsi, 236

Pather Panchali, 67

Peasantry: in Antonio Das Mortes, 222-23; in Italian film of late seventies, 73-75, 79, 81-83, 87; in Jancso’s films, 228-29, in Kiarostami’s The Wind Will Carry Us, xii

Pempeit, Lilo, 247

Penn, Arthur, 226n.

Perception: analogue, 107-08, 111; digital, 111, 116

Perceval, 2, 138

Persona, 120, 182-83, 271 Peru, 217

Phantom of Liberty, The, 278

Pianiste, La, xii

Pickpocket, x, 158, 160n.

Pickup on South Street, 127

Pierrot le fou, 157, 170-71, 175, 240-41

Pigsty (II porcile), 164, 267-68 Pinter, Harold, 271, 273

Piscator, Erwin, 144

Plato, The Republic, cave myth, reflected in The Conformist, 254-55, 257

Playtime, 110-11

Polish cinema, 6, 95, 227, 237n.

Pollack, Sidney, 226n.

Polonsky, Abraham, 65

Pontecorvo, Gillo, 208-10, 282

Porter, Edwin S., 15

Postman Always Rings Twice, The, 17 Potemkin, 21, 24, 81

Propaganda, 197-98, 203, 254 Providence, 89, 116 Pudovkin, V. I., 15

Queimada! See Burn!

Que viva Mexico, 27

Querelle, xiv

Quinn, Anthony, 58

Raab, Kurt, 174 Rafelson, Bob, 17

Rain and Shine, 233, 234

Ramparts of Clay, 190, 191

Ray, Nicholas, 169

Ray, Satyajit, 67

Realism, 9, 11, 31, 39, 65, 140-43, 268; definition, in American criticism, 197; for Eisenstein, 22; of Los Olvidados, 72; magical, xv; in modernist cinema, 116, 140-41; for neorealists, 54-55, 78; in Padre padrone, 76, 83-85; profilmic, 148; psychological, 45, 66, 95, 172

Red and the White, The, 227 Red Desert, 102-04

Redgrave, Michael, 273

Red Psalm, 83, 227-32

Reich, Wilhelm, The Mass Psychology of Fascism, 237-38. See also W.R.: The Mystery of the Organism

Reisz, Karel, 65

Renier, Jérémie, xi

Renoir, Jean, 2, 11, 15, 17, 28-31, 93, 100, 121, 123, 148; influence on neorealism, 30-31, 131; style, 29-31; use of long take, 107

Report on the Party and the Guests, 233

Resnais, Alain, 45, 66, 89, 111-18, 120, 142, 153, 156, 161, 199-200, 226n., 250, 253, 273, 275

Revuelta, Raquel, 212

Rey, Fernando, 279-81, 284

Rhode, Eric, on children in neorealist films, 48-49

Richardson, Tony, 65

Rise to Power of Louis XIV, The, 59-60

Rivette, Jacques, 5, 121, 126-27, 130-32, 133-34, 265

Robbe-Grillet, Alain, 90, 112-118, 142

Robinson Crusoe, 156

Rocha, Glauber, ix, 68, 202-03, 219-25, 226n.

Roeg, Nicolas, 161-62, 171

Rohmer, Eric, 2, 5, 121, 127, 134-39, 265-66

Roma, 64

Romantic Englishwoman, The, 274-75

Rome, Open City, 12-15, 17, 38-39, 46-47, 60, 116, 252-53, 258n.

Room at the Top, 65

Rossellini, Roberto, 2, 12, 16, 31-32, 38, 46, 54, 55-56, 59-60, 61, 83, 96-99, 121, 252-53; editing style, 34; Paisan, 40-45; religiosity, 56; scandals surrounding, 58; use of children, 48-49; war films, 13, 46-47, 49

Rouch, Jean, 121

Roundup, The, 227, 229 Rules of the Game, The, 28, 29-30

Russell, Ken, 161, 162-164, 175, 177, 211, 215, 226n.

Russia, modernism in, 90-91

Russian cinema, 2, 15, 39, 93, 238

Ruttmann, Walter, 2, 93

S., Bruno. See Bruno S.

Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom, 164

Sanda, Dominique, 79, 255

Sanders, George, 96

San Francisco, 24

Sanjinés, Jorge, 218

Satan’s Brew, 177n.

Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, 65-66

Satyricon, 65 Sauve qui peut (La vie), 7, 38, 140, 186, 194, 240-41

Savage Messiah, 163 Scarface, 127

Schirsner, Anton, 173

Schlöndorff, Volker, 165, 187, 269

Schmidt, Jan, 233

Schneider, Maria, 258

Schygulla, Hanna, 162, 173, 176, 177, 179, 180

Scola, Ettore, 86

Scorsese, Martin, 139, 254n.

Screen, 5

Seberg, Jean, 130, 131

Sembène, Ousmane, 219

Senso, 58-59, 215

Serpent’s Egg, The, 120, 239

Servant, The, 271-73, 274, 276-77

Seventh Continent, The, xii

Sexuality: in Bergman’s work, 238-39; for Buñuel, 284-85; destructive, in Written on the Wind, 174-75; and fascism, 164, 253; for Fassbinder, 243-44; in Godard’s films, 240-43; in A Married Woman, 200; and melodrama, 239; in The Mother and the Whore, 265-66; and politics, in Makavejev’s films, 237; and repression, in Last Tango in Paris, 257-64; Shame, 118

Shoeshine, 12

Shoot the Piano Player, 126, 130

Shop on Main Street, The, 233

Siegfried, 23

Sign of Leo, The, 127, 135n.

Silence, The, 119

Simon, Michel, 28

Simon o f the Desert, 281

Sirk, Douglas, 175-77

Socialism, perspective: in cinema, 198-99; in The Red Psalms, 231-32

Socialist realism, 39, 91, 199, 205-06 Solanas, Fernando, 217

Solaris, 199

Solás, Humberto, 210-17

Solinas, Franco, 275-76 Sorrow and the Pity, The, 275

Spanish cinema, 282

Spectator. See Viewer

Spellbound, 98n.

Spengler, Volker, 244, 246, 248

Spider’s Stratagem, The, 2, 73, 241, 251-52, 264

Spielberg, Steven, ix

Stagefright, 113

State o f Siege, 219, 282

Stewart, James, 24

Stolen Kisses, 266

Stoppard, Tom, 275

Storaro, Vittorio, 254n.

Straub, Jean-Marie, 139, 152-55, 164, 168; Fassbinder’s rejection of, 173-74

Strike, 81, 246

Stroheim, Eric von, 4, 11, 26-29

Stromboli, 96

Stroszek, 193, 194

Stud Farm, The, 233

Subtitles, xvii, 7-8

Sutherland, Donald, 58, 79, 80

Sweet Movie, 238n.

Tanner, Alain, 268-69

Tarkovsky, Andrei, 199

Tarr, Bela, 232n.

Tati, Jacques, 111, 122

Taviani, Paolo and Vittorio, 2, 75, 83-86

Taxi Driver, 254n.

Television, relationship to cinema, 2-3

Tent of Miracles, 226

Teorema, 164

Terra em Transe, 220

Terrorism: in European cinema, 281-86; in The Third Generation, 177n., 282

That Obscure Object of Desire, 281-86

Third Generation, The, 177n., 250, 282

This Sporting Life, 65-66

Threepenny Opera, The, 49, 145

Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada, The, xv

Thriller. See Film noir Tin Drum, The, 165

Tisse, Edward, 22-23

Titles, foreign versus American, 6

Toni, 30-31

Touch of Evil, 175 Tout va bien, 1, 156, 241, 269

Tradition of Quality, New Wave’s rejection of, 122-23, 124

Trans-Europe Express, 117

Tree of Wooden Clogs, The, 2, 73-79, 83

Trial, The, 252-53

Trintignant, Jean-Louis, 117, 136-37, 253, 256, 263

Trissenaar, Elisabeth, 173

Tristana, 28-81

Truffaut, François, ix, xiv, 5, 30, 64, 121, 122, 125, 129, 131-35, 157, 158, 160, 165, 168, 191, 193-94, 199, 233, 258, 266; on Tradition of Quality, 124

Turner, Lana, 17

Two or Three Things I Know about Her, 201

Two Women, 59

Uhlen, Gisela, 173

Umberto D., 12, 47, 55, 83

Un chien andalou, 68, 156, 285-86 Under Capricorn, 98n.

Une femme douce, 158-59

Van Wert, William F., on Nathalie Granger, 118

Variety Lights, 60

Vertigo, 113

Vertov, Dziga, 2, 32, 39, 91, 152, 201-02, 225

Vidas Secas (Barren Lives), 67-68

Vierny, Sacha, 156

Vietnamese war, in Pierrot le fou, 241

Viewer: role of, xvii, 16-17; in Antonioni’s films, 102-03; in Brechtian cinema, 143, 146; for Bresson, 157; for Buñuel, 282-84; for expressionist cinema, 23-24; for Fassbinder, 172-73, 180-81, 244, 269;for Herzog, 194; for Kiarostami, xii; for Losey, 274; for modernists, 5-6, 116, 119, 152-53, 194; for neorealists, 45-47; in New Wave cinema, 130-31; in political films, 226-27; for Renoir, 29-30; in Rocha’s films, 221-22; for Russell, 164; for Straub and Huillet, 152, 155, 173; for Taviani brothers, 85-86; in Voyage in Italy, 98

Vigo, Jean, 260

Violette, 132

Viridiana, 279-81

Visconti, Luchino, 12, 14, 16, 17, 30, 39, 48, 50-55, 58-60, 66, 79, 82, 99, 121, 215, 252-53, 264

Vitti, Monica, 104-05, 110

Vladimir and Rosa, 201

Vogel, Amos, on Herzog, 195

von Sternberg, Joseph, 28

Vorkapich, Slavko, 24

Voyage in Italy, 58; point-of-view structure, 96-99

Wajda, Andrzej, 6, 95, 236-37n.

Walsh, Raoul, 123

Warhol, Andy, 177

Watkins, Peter, 2, 164

Wedding March, The, 26

Weekend, 33, 157, 243, 265-66

Weimar Germany: film in, 15, 25;

Expressionist movement, 90

Welles, Orson, 11, 24-25, 27, 32, 93, 110, 122, 175, 253-54; influence of, 217

Wenders, Wim, ix, xix, 25, 119n., 139, 165, 166-71, 187

Western genre, used in Antonio Das Mortes, 224

West German cinema, 8, 15, 25, 139, 165-67; rise of, 95

White telephone school, 16, 33

Why Does Herr R. Run Amok?, 174

Wiene, Robert, 23

Wild Child, The, 193-94

Wild Strawberries, 120

Williams, Tennessee, 58

Wind from the East, 201, 202

Wind Will Carry Us, The, xi-xii

Wiseman, Thomas, 275

Woman Is a Woman, A, 175

Woman’s picture, 145-46

Women, 233

Women: in American film, 3-4; in Buñuel’s films, 280, 282-84; Chabrol’s view of, 134; in Jancsó’s films, 228-29; oppression, in Lucía, 214-15; role of, 282-84

Working class, 26; in British film, 65-67; in Fassbinder’s films, 172-73; in neorealist cinema, 17, 30-1, 32, 47, 199 World of Apu, The, 67

World War II: cinematic response to, ix, 92; effect on filmmaking, 15-16, 31-32

Woyzeck, 127 W.R.: Mysteries o f the Organism, 237-38 Written on the Wind, 175-76 Wrong Move, The, 167

Wyler, William, 11

Wyman, Jane, 62, 176-77, 184

Yesterday Girl, 165

Young Törless, 165

Yugoslavian cinema, 95, 237-38

Z, 198

Zabriskie Point, xiv, 106

Zavattini, Cesare, 17, 46, 59; on neorealism, 18, 20, 32-33, 47, 49, 55-56

Zero-degree style, 20, 34, 123, 129, 140-41, 178, 195 Zoom lens, 60

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