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Altering Eye

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Robert Phillip Kolker

Annotated Bibliography

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Althusser, Louis. For Marx. Trans. Ben Brewster. New York: Vintage Books, 1970.

Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. Trans. Ben Brewster. New York and London: Monthly Review Press, 1971. Althusser’s work forms the ground for recent ideological studies in film.

Andrew, Dudley. Andre Bazin. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Although not strong on Bazin’s theories, Andrew’s evocation of postwar French cultural life and Bazin’s part in it is important.

Aranda, Francisco. Luis Buñuel: A Critical Biography. Trans, and ed. David Robinson. New York: Da Capo Press, 1976.

Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966.

Armes, Roy. Patterns of Realism. South Brunswick, N.J., and New York: A. S. Barnes, 1971. A survey of the neorealist movement.

The Ambiguous Image. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1976. An introductory study to the modernist movement in film.

A Critical History of the British Cinema. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. An avalanche of titles with some social-economic analysis.

Astruc, Alexandre. ”The Birth of a New Avant-Garde: La Caméra-Stylo.The New Wave. Ed. Peter Graham. Garden City, N.Y.: Double-day, 1968. With Bazin, a major influence on the French filmmakers. Graham’s collection, long out of print, contains many important documents of the movement.

Auty, Martyn. ”A Fassbinder Suicide.” Sight and Sound, 49 (Autumn, 1980). On In a Year of Thirteen Moons.

Barthes, Roland. Writing Degree Zero & Elements of Semiology. Trans. Annette Lavers and Colin Smith. Boston: Beacon Press, 1970.

Critical Essays. Trans. Richard Howard. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press, 1972.

— Mythologies. Trans. Annette Lavers. New York: Hill and Wang, 1972.

— S/Z. Trans. Richard Miller. New York: Hill and Wang, 1974.

— Sade, Fourier, Loyola. Trans. Richard Miller. New York: Hill and Wang, 1976.

— Image, Music, Text. Trans, and ed. Stephen Heath. New York: Hill and Wang, 1977. Barthes is to literary theory what Godard is to film: he goes back to zero and rebuilds our perceptions bit by bit.

Bazin, André. What Is Cinema? Trans. Hugh Gray (2 vols.) Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1968, 1971. A selection of essays that formed the thinking of the new French filmmakers.

Jean Renoir. Ed. François Truffaut. Trans. W. W. Halsey II and William H. Simon. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973.

Benjamin, Walter. ”The Author as Producer.” Reflections. Trans. Edmund Jephcott. Ed. Peter Demetz. New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978. Presented in 1934, an early appreciation of Brecht’s theories.

― ”The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” Illuminations. Trans. Harry Zohn. Ed. Hannah Arendt. New York: Harcourt Brace & World, 1968. Written in 1935, the classic essay on film as mass art, and a definition of fascist and socialist aesthetics.

Björkman, Stig, Torsten Manns, and Jonas Sima. Bergman on Bergman. Trans. Paul Britten Austin. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1973.

Blaine, Allan, Valentin Almendarez, and William Lafferty, eds., Film Reader 4. Evanston, Ill: Northwestern University Film Division, 1979. A major collection of essays on point of view and historiography that incorporate recent theoretical approaches.

Braudy, Leo. The World in a Frame. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1976.

Brecht, Bertolt. ”Against Georg Lukács.” Trans. Stuart Hood. New Left Review, 84 (March-April, 1974). A major aesthetic-political statement in response to theories of traditional realism.

— Brecht on Theatre. Trans. John Willett. New York: Hill and Wang, 1979.

— Selected Poems. Trans. H. R. Hays. New York: Grove Press, 1959.

Bresson, Robert. ”Bressonisms.” Sight and Sound, 46 (Winter, 1976/77).

Notes on Cinematography. Trans. Jonathan Griffin. New York: Urizen Books, 1977.

Browne, Nick. ”The Spectator-in-the-Text: The Rhetoric of Stagecoach.” Film Quarterly, 29 (Winter, 1975-76). A major discussion of how point of view is structured in film.

Buache, Freddy. The Cinema of Luis Buñuel. Trans. Peter Graham. London and New York: Tantivy Press and A. S. Barnes, 1973.

Buñuel, Luis. Tristana. Trans. Nicholas Fry. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1971.

The Exterminating Angel, Nazarin, Los Olvidados. Trans. Nicholas Fry. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972. Filmscript. Burch, Noël. Theory of Film Practice. Trans. Helen R. Lane. New York and Washington, D.C.: Praeger Publishers, 1973.

To the Distant Observer: Form and Meaning in the Japanese Cinema. Ed. Annette Michelson. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1979. A foremost theorist of modernist cinema. This book is something of a model for this study.

Burton, Julianne. ”The Hour of the Embers: On the Current Situation of Latin American Cinema.” Film Quarterly, 30 (Fall, 1976).

― ”Revolutionary Cuban Cinema, First Part: Introduction.” Jump Cut, 19 (December, 1978).

Bygrave, Mike, and Joan Goodman. ”Meet Me in Las Vegas.” American Film, 7 (October, 1981). On Francis Ford Coppola’s bungling his role as great producer-director.

Cahiers du cinéma. ”John Ford’s Young Mr. Lincoln.” Movies and Methods. Ed Bill Nichols. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976. Written in 1970, this collective text combines ideological, psychoanalytical, and formal analysis into what has become a model for film criticism.

Collet, Jean. Jean-Luc Godard. Trans. Ciba Vaughan. New York: Crown Publishers, 1970.

Collins, Richard, and Vincent Porter. ”West German Television.” Sight and Sound, 49 (Summer, 1980).

Comolli, Jean-Luc, and Jean Narboni. ”Cinema/Ideology/Criticism.” Movies and Methods. Ed. Bill Nichols. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976. Originally an editorial in Cahiers du Cinéma, 1969, this is a major statement of the direction of post-1968 French criticism.

Conrad, Randall. ” ’I Am Not a Producer!’ Working with Buñuel: A Conversation with Serge Silberman.” Film Quarterly, 33 (Fall, 1979).

Covino, Michael. ”Wim Wenders: A Worldwide Homesickness.” Film Quarterly, 31 (Winter, 1977-78).

Coward, Rosalind, and John Ellis. Language and Materialism: Developments in Semiology and the Theory o f the Subject. London and Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1977. An invaluable survey of recent theory.

Dawson, Jan. ”The Sacred Terror: Shadows of Terrorism in the New German Cinema.” Sight and Sound, 48 (Autumn, 1979).

― ”A Labyrinth of Subsidies.” Sight and Sound, 50 (Winter, 1980/81). On the economics of the new German film.

Dayan, Daniel. ”The Tutor-Code of Classical Cinema.” Movies and Methods. Ed. Bill Nichols. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976. Originally appearing in Film Quarterly, based on the theories of Lacan and others, this is a groundbreaking essay on the way the spectator is situated in the visual field.

Dempsey, Michael. ”Despair Abounding: The Recent Films of Robert Bresson.” Film Quarterly, 34 (Fall, 1980).

Derrida, Jacques. Of Grammatology. Trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976. A major work by the theorist who helped introduce the concept of ”deconstruction” into critical practice.

De Sica, Vittorio. Miracle in Milan. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1969. Filmscript.

Durgnat, Raymond. Jean Renoir. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974.

Dyer, Richard. ”Reading Fassbinder’s Sexual Politics.” Fassbinder. Ed. Tony Rayns. Rev. ed. London: The British Film Institute, 1980.

Eco, Umberto. A Theory o f Semiotics. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1976. Important ideas about ”digital” versus ”analogue” perception.

Eisenstein, Sergei. ”Film Form” and ”The Film Sense.” Trans. Jay Leyda. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1949.

Eisner, Lotte. The Haunted Screen. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1973. The basic work on German Expressionism and Kammerspiel.

Elsaesser, Thomas. ”The Postwar German Cinema” and ”Murder, Merger, Suicide: The Politics of Despair.” in Fassbinder. Ed. Tony Rayns. Rev. ed. London: The British Film Institute, 1980. The article on Despair is an excellent application of recent theory.

Enzensberger, Hans Magnus. ”Civil Liberties and Repression in Germany Today.” Trans. Sophie Wilkins. October, no. 9 (Summer, 1979).

Farber, Manny. Negative Space. New York: Praeger, 1971.

Fischer, Lucy. ” ’Beyond Freedom and Dignity’: An Analysis of Jacques Tati’s Playtime. Sight and Sound, 45 (Autumn, 1976).

― ”The Image of Woman as Image: The Optical Politics of Dames.” Film Quarterly, 30 (Fall, 1976). With Laura Mulvey’s essay, an important examination of the way women are ”seen” in film.

Franklin, J. C. ”The Films of Fassbinder: Form and Formula.” Quarterly Review of Film Studies, 5 (Spring, 1980).

Frye, Northrop. Anatomy o f Criticism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957.

Fables o f Identity. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1963. Frye’s literary theory and criticism predate and foreshadow the French structuralists.

Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York and Evanston: Harper and Row, 1968. Somewhat sentimental but lucid account of the period that saw the birth of modernism.

Gledhill, Christine. ”Recent Developments in Feminist Criticism.” Quarterly Review of Film Studies, 3 (Fall, 1978). A summary of major critical trends, including a good account of the work of Jacques Lacan. The entire volume is devoted to aspects of feminist film criticism.

Godard, Jean-Luc. Godard on Godard. Ed. Jean Narboni and Tom Milne. Trans. Tom Milne. New York: The Viking Press, 1972. Critical essays and interviews by Godard, 1950-67.

Masculine-Féminin. Ed. Pierre Billard and Robert Hughes. New York: Grove Press, 1969.

— Pierrot le fou. Trans. Peter Whitehead. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1969.

— ”Weekend” and ”Wind from the East.” Trans. Marianne Sinclair and Danielle Adkinson. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

— Three Films: A Woman Is a Woman; A Married Woman; Two or Three Things That I Know About Her. Trans. Jan Dawson, Susan Bennett, Marianne Alexandre. New York: Harper and Row, 1975.

Gombrich, E. H. Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969. Major investigation of ”realism” and convention.

Greenburg, Alan. Heart of Glass. Munich: Skellig, 1976. A fan’s notes on the production of Herzog’s film, with scenario.

Greenspun, Roger. ”Phantom of Liberty: Thoughts on Fassbinder’s Fist-Right of Freedom. Film Comment, 11 (November-December, 1975).

Harvey, Sylvia. May ’68 and Film Culture. London: The British Film Institute, 1980. Analysis of radical changes in film theory that resulted from a major societal upheaval.

Hauser, Arnold. The Social History of Art. Trans. Stanley Godman. (4 vols.) New York: Vintage Books, n.d.

Henderson, Brian. ”Apocalypse Now.” Sight and Sound, 49 (Winter 1979/ 80). On Coppola’s visual debt to Herzog.

A Critique of Film Theory. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1980. The essays ”The Long Take” and ”Toward a Non-Bourgeois Camera Style” are pivotal in contemporary cinema criticism.

Hess, John. ”La Politique des Auteurs. ”Jump Cut, 1 and 2 (May-June, July-August, 1974). Major analysis of the political implications of the auteur theory with emphasis on Truffaut.

Hillier, Jim. ”Masculin-féminin.” The Films o f Jean-Luc Godard. Ed. Ian Cameron. New York: Praeger, 1969.

Horton, Andrew S., and Joan Magretta, eds. Modern European Filmmakers and the Art of Adaptation. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1981. Some interesting essays on films and their literary sources.

Houston, Penelope. The Contemporary Cinema. Middlesex, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1963. One of the first books celebrating the new film.

Hughes, John, and Brooks Riley. ”A New Realism.” Film Comment, 11 (November-December, 1975). One of a number of pieces on Fassbinder in this issue.

Jaehne, Karen. ”Hungarian Rhapsody.” Film Quarterly, 34 (Fall, 1980). Discussion of a recent film by Miklós Jancsó.

Jameson, Fredric. Marxism and Form. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971. A study of the methods of dialectical criticism. ― The Prison-House of Language: A Critical Account of Structuralism and Russian Formalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1972. An excellent introduction to semiotics.

Johnson, Randal. ”Brazilian Cinema Today.” Film Quarterly, 31 (Summer, 1978).

Kavanagh, Thomas M. ”Imperialism and the Revolutionary Cinema: Glauber Rocha’s Antonio-das-Mortes.” Journal o f Modern Literature, 3 (April, 1973). On Rocha’s use of native Brazilian mythology and history.

Kelly, William. ”Allegro Barbaro.” Film Quarterly, 34 (Fall, 1980). Discussion of a recent film by Miklós Jancsó.

Kolker, Robert Phillip. ”Ken Russell’s BioPics.” Film Comment,9 (May-June, 1973).

— ”Angle and Reality: Godard and Gorin in America.” Sight and Sound, 42 (Summer, 1973).

— ”The Open Texts of Nicolas Roeg.” Sight and Sound, 46 (Spring, 1977).

— A Cinema of Loneliness: Penn, Stone, Kubrick, Coppola, Scorsese, Altman. New York: Oxford University Press, 3rd ed., 2000.

Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History o f the German Film. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971.

Theory o f Film: The Redemption o f Physical Reality. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965. On the way to being wrong, Kracauer illuminates some interesting points in the theory and history of film.

Leprohon, Pierre. The Italian Cinema. Trans. Roger Greaves and Oliver Stallybrass. New York and Washington, D.C.: Praeger Publishers, 1972. A thorough history.

Liehm, Antonín J. Closely Watched Films: The Czechoslovak Experience. White Plains, N.Y.: International Arts and Sciences Press, Inc., 1974.

Lukács, Georg. Studies in European Realism. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1964. A complex work in the socialist realist tradition, and the dialectic to the theories of Brecht.

MacBean, James Roy. Film and Revolution. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1975. Essays on political cinema.

MacCabe, Colin. ”Realism and the Cinema: Notes on Some Brechtian Theses.” Screen, 15 (Summer, 1974). This issue of Screen contains many essays on Brecht and cinema.

Godard: Images, Sounds, Politics. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press, 1980. Especially important for material on Godard’s work in video and for television during the seventies.

Magisos, Melanie. ”Not Reconciled: The Destruction of Narrative Pleasure.” Wide Angle, 3/4 (1980). The issue is devoted to the new German cinema.

Mayne, Judith. ”Fassbinder and Spectatorship.” New German Critique, 12 (Fall, 1977).

Marcuse, Herbert. Eros and Civilization. New York: Vintage Books, 1955. An early and influential attempt to conjoin Marx and Freud.

Mayer, Peter. ”Mr. Klein and the Other.” Film Quarterly, 34 (Winter, 1980-81). A reading of the film from the perspective of Lacanian psychology.

Mellen, Joan. Women and Their Sexuality in the New Film. New York: Horizon Press, 1973. Among the best of the books of feminist criticism.

The Waves at Genji’s Door: Japan through its Cinema. New York: Doubleday, 1976. The culture and politics of Japanese cinema.

― ed. The World of Luis Buñuel: Essays in Criticism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Wide-ranging collection.

Metz, Christian. Film Language. Trans. Michael Taylor. New York: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Language and Cinema. Trans. Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok. The Hague: Mouton, 1974.

The Imaginary Signifier. Trans. Celia Britton, Annwyl Williams, Ben Brewster, Alfred Guzzetti. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982. Metz is abstruse, sometimes almost unreadable. He is also indispensable for an understanding of contemporary film practice and criticism.

Moeller, Hans-Bernhard. ”New German Cinema and its Precarious Subsidy and Finance System.” Quarterly Review o f Film Studies, 5 (Spring, 1980).

Monaco, James. ”Mother’s Day Will Be a Little Late This Year.” The New York Times (Dec. 2, 1973), D 13. On The Mother and the Whore.

― ”The Costa-Gavras Syndrome.” Cineaste, 7 (1976).

The New Wave: Truffaut, Godard, Chabrol, Rohmer, Rivette. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. Perhaps the definitive study. My commentary on the movement depends a great deal on this book.

Alain Resnais. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. A genial study.

Mraz, John. ”Lucia: Visual Style and Historical Portrayal.” Jump Cut, 19 (December, 1978). This and nos. 18 and 22 of Jump Cut contain a history and analysis of Cuban cinema. Mulvey, Laura. ”Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema.” Screen, 16 (Autumn, 1975). A central essay on the sexist structure of classic cinema.

Nichols, Bill. Ideology and the Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981. A major study of the ways we read the world through the image.

Nogueira, Rui. ”Eric Rohmer: Choice and Chance.” Sight and Sound, 40 (Summer, 1971).

Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey. Visconti. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1968. A critical-structuralist study.

Oilman, Bertell. Alienation. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Studies in the Dialectical Method.

Orr, Christopher. ”Closure and Containment: Marylee Hadley in Written on the Wind.” Wide Angle. 4/2 (1980). This issue contains a number of useful articles on American film melodrama.

Overbey, David. ”From Murnau to Munich: New German Cinema.” Sight and Sound, 43 (Spring, 1974).

— ”Cet obscur objet du désir.” Sight and Sound, 47 (Winter, 1977-78). Ed. and trans.

— Springtime in Italy: A Reader on Neo-Realism. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1978.

”The Other Bertolucci.” Sight and Sound, 48 (Autumn, 1979). An interview with Bernardo’s brother.

Petrie, Graham. History Must Answer to Man: The Contemporary Hungarian Cinema. Budapest: Corvino Kiadó, 1978.

Rhode, Eric. A History o f the Cinema from its Origins to 1970. New York: Hill and Wang, 1976. Rhode gives some critical perspective to historical commonplaces and sees the connections between neorealism and the New Wave.

Robbe-Grillet, Alain. Last Year at Marienbad. Trans. Richard Howard. New York: Grove Press, 1962. The original shooting script.

Rosenbaum, Jonathan. ”Interruption as Style: Buñuel’s Le charme discret de la bourgeoisie.” Sight and Sound, 42 (Winter, 1972/73).

”Jacques Tati’s Democracy.” Film Comment,9 (May-June, 1973). On Playtime.

”Work and Play in the House of Fiction.” Sight and Sound, 43 (Autumn, 1974).On Rivette.

ed. Rivette: Texts and Interviews. London: The British Film Institute, 1977.

Rossellini, Roberto. The War Trilogy: ”Open City,” ”Paisan,” ”Germany, Year Zero.” Ed. Stefano Roncoroni. Trans. Judith Green. New York: Grossman Publishers, 1973. Texts of the films.

Roud, Richard. Jean-Marie Straub. New York: The Viking Press, 1972.

Sadoul, Georges. Dictionary of Films. Trans, and ed. Peter Morris. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1972. A thorough reference work.

Sandford, John. The New German Cinema. Totowa, N.J.: Barnes and Noble Books, 1980. An excellent survey.

Screen Reader I: Cinema/Ideology/Politics. London: Society for Education in Film and Television, 1977. Collection of articles from the journal that was the main conduit of ideas from French to Anglo-American film criticism.

Simon, John. Ingmar Bergman Directs. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972.

Sklar, Robert. Movie-Made America. New York: Vintage Books, 1975. An important, somewhat revisionist, history.

Stam, Robert. ”Censorship in Brazil,” Jump Cut, 21 (November, 1979). This and no. 22 of Jump Cut contain a history and analysis of Brazilian cinema.

Thiher, Alan. The Cinematic Muse: Critical Studies in the History o f French Cinema. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 1979. The movements from ”realism” to post-modernism.

Thomas, Paul. ”Fassbinder: The Poetry of the Inarticulate,” Film Quarterly, 30 (Winter, 1976-77).

Thomson, David. A Biographical Dictionary o f Film. New York: William Morrow, 1976. Short, insightful essays on filmmakers and players.

Truffaut, François. ”A Certain Tendency in the French Cinema.” Movies and Methods. Ed. Bill Nichols. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976. Originally appeared in Cahiers du cinéma (January, 1954); a major statement against the ”Tradition of Quality” and psychological realism.

Van Wert, William F. ”The Cinema of Marguerite Duras: Sound and Voice in a Closed Room,” Film Quarterly, 33 (Fall, 1979).

― ”Hallowing the Ordinary, Embezzling the Everyday: Werner Herzog’s Documentary Practice.” Quarterly Review o f Film Studies, 5 (Spring, 1980).

Vogel, Amos. Film as a Subversive Art. New York: Random House, 1974. An annotated catalogue of political cinema.

― ”Herzog in Berlin.” Film Comment, 13 (September-October, 1977).

Walker, Alexander. Hollywood U.K. New York: Stein and Day, 1974. The sixties revival in British film.

Walsh, Martin. The Brechtian Aspect of Radical Cinema. Ed. Keith M. Griffiths. London: The British Film Institute, 1981.

Weinberg, Herman G., The Complete ”Greed.” New York: E. P. Dutton, 1973. A reconstruction of Stroheim’s original film.

Willett, John. Art and Politics in the Weimar Period: The New Sobriety, 1917-1933. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978. A rich survey of the richest cultural period in modern Europe.

Williams, Christopher, ed. Realism and the Cinema: A Reader. London and Henley: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980. Texts and commentary on the major ideas and controversies.

Wolfe, Charles. ”Resurrecting Greed.” Sight and Sound, 44 (Summer, 1975). Pointing out the expressionist and symbolic aspects of Von Stroheim’s work, Wolfe counters Bazin’s realist appraisal.

Wollen, Peter. Signs and Meaning in the Cinema. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1972. Still the classic work on auteur criticism and film modernism.

Wood, Robin, ”Narrative Pleasure: Two Films of Jacques Rivette,” Film Quarterly, 35 (Fall, 1981). On L’Amour fou and Céline et Julie vont en bateau.

Young, Vernon. Cinema Borealis: lngmar Bergman and the Swedish Ethos. New York: David Lewis, 1971. Has the virtue of not taking its subject too seriously.

Zipes, Jack. ”The Political Dimensions of The Lost Honor o f Katharina Blum.” New German Critique, 12 (Fall, 1977).

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