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Studies in Rabbinic Hebrew

Shai Heijmans

5. Rabbinic entries in R. Judah Ibn-Tibbon’s translation of Duties of the Hearts1

Barak Avirbach

Texte intégral

1. Introduction

  • 1 This article is based on some of the findings presented in my PhD dissertation, supervised by Matth (...)
  • 2 Israel Zinberg, A History of Jewish Literature, vol. 1: The Arabic-Spanish Period (transl. Bernard (...)
  • 3 Zinberg, A History. It is possible that this is the main reason for the fact that we know so little (...)
  • 4 Yosef Qafiḥ, Torat Ḥovot ha-Levavot: The Origial Arabic Text with a New Hebrew Translation (in Hebr (...)
  • 5 Eliezer Schweid, Our Great Philosophers (in Hebrew; Tel-Aviv: Yediot Ahronot, 1999), p. 60. I am cu (...)

1Rabbi Bahye Ibn-Paquda wrote his Al-Hidāya ilā Farāʾiḍ al-Qulūb (‘Guide to the Duties of the Heart’) in Judaeo-Arabic at the end of the eleventh century.2 For centuries, it was the most widely known work of Jewish ethics in the Jewish world.3 This was due mainly to the early Hebrew translation of the book only seventy years after it had been written.4 Originally, there were two separate translations of the book. One was Judah Ibn-Tibbon’s translation, under the title Sefer Ḥovot ha-Levavot, which was more widely known and consequently is available today in many manuscripts and printed editions. The other was by Joseph Qimḥi. His translation was not as popular as Ibn-Tibbon’s, and perhaps that is why we have only a small remnant of it today.5

  • 6 Ira Robinson, “The Ibn Tibbon Family: A Dynasty of Translators in Medieval ‘Provence’”, in: Jay M. (...)
  • 7 Ibid., p. 200.
  • 8 Ibid., p. 201.

2Judah Ibn-Tibbon was born in Granada, probably in 1120.6 He was a physician, a translator, a merchant, and a book collector.7 Around 1150 he moved to southern France and became a prominent figure in the Jewish community of Lunel. Ibn-Tibbon was a fountain of knowledge; people consulted with him and he would lend books from his private library. Bahye Ibn-Paquda’s Ḥovot ha-Levavot was the first book Ibn-Tibbon translated. After that he translated Solomon Ibn-Gabirol’s Tikkun Middot ha-Nefesh (‘Improvement of Moral Qualities’) and Mivḥar Peninim (‘Choice of Pearls’), Yonah Ibn-Janaḥ’s Sefer ha-Shorashim (‘Book of Roots’) and Sefer ha-Riqmah (‘Book of the Multicoloured Flower Beds’), Judah Halevi’s Ha-Kuzari (‘The Kuzari’), and Saadia Gaon’s Sefer Emunot ve-Deot (‘Book of Beliefs and Opinions’).8

  • 9 See, for example, the opinions of Saadia Gaon in Ha-Egron (ed. Allony, p. 151), of Ibn-Janaḥ in Sef (...)
  • 10 Towards the end of the Translator’s Preface to the Ḥovot ha-Levavot, p. 5, in the Moscow edition (T (...)

Like many medieval authors and translators,9 Ibn-Tibbon complained that Hebrew was inadequate in comparison with other languages (especially Arabic); some called this deficiencyImage 10000000000000370000001C31E54A4A2670632A.jpgImage 100000000000003E000000241B90B8BEE192E2D7.jpg‘language insufficiency’.10 It was clear to these authors and translators that the Hebrew of previous ages had been sufficient for all the needs of the people at the time. Since the ancient texts (the Bible, rabbinic literature, and early liturgy) dealt with limited subjects, the Hebrew reflected in them was limited as well. As they knew Hebrew mostly from these sources, it was insufficient for composing original works and for translating works from different languages that dealt with different and wider issues that did not appear in earlier Hebrew writings.

  • 11 See his apologetic remark, ibid.

3None of the previous periods of Hebrew was sufficient on its own to be used as a source for structures and lexicon to create a whole translation. Therefore, Ibn-Tibbon decided to combine Biblical Hebrew, Rabbinic Hebrew, liturgy, and previous medieval Hebrew works — both syntactically and lexically.11 On different occasions, he derived new lexemes from roots and other lexical stems taken from classical literature, and occasionally he shifted the meanings of biblical and rabbinic lexemes. In the prefaces to two of his translations, Ibn-Tibbon reveals to the reader the changes he had to make in the lexicon, and he is apologetic for these actions.

4Considering the arguments and efforts of these authors and translators, one might expect that the lion’s share of the lexicon in their writings would consist of neologisms of different kinds (both morphological and semantic neologisms). The analysis of the nominal lexicon used by Ibn-Tibbon in his translation of Duties of the Hearts serves as a useful source of confirmation or refutation. I believe that the analysis presented below indeed refutes this assumption, or at least suggests a different perspective on this impression.

2. The nominal lexicon in Ibn-Tibbon’s translation of Duties of the Hearts

  • 12 For all entries see my PhD dissertation, Avirbach, “The Translation Method of R. Judah Ibn-Tibbon”.

5In Ibn-Tibbon’s translation of Duties of the Hearts, I have found 2,102 nominal entries (1,878 lexemes and 224 phrases).12 As is shown in Table 1, almost 50 percent of the entries are taken from the Bible, approximately 26 percent from rabbinic literature, a small portion from the liturgy, and around 8 percent from medieval writings composed prior to the era during which Ibn-Tibbon engaged in his translation work. Just under 15 percent are neologisms coined by Ibn-Tibbon.

Table 1: Breakdown of Ibn-Tibbon’s vocabulary

  • 13 New meanings for lexemes which occur in Classical Hebrew.
  • 14 New lexemes which were created by using existing morphological elements.
  • 15 Compound noun which did not occur in Classical Hebrew but were based on Classical Hebrew lexemes.

Period / Neological type





49.23 percent



0.33 percent

Rabbinic literature


26.57 percent



1.00 percent

Medieval writings


8.14 percent

Period / Neological type



Semantic neologisms13


5.57 percent

Morphologic neologisms14


3.76 percent

New phrases15


5.38 percent



100 percent

6Although not all entries were taken ‘as is’ from classical Hebrew writings, these findings shed a different light on the perception of medieval Hebrew as presented by authors and translators of that era. In other words, if Hebrew could not provide sufficient words and phrases to express deep ideas and nuances, neologisms should have constituted the main portion of the lexicon and classical Hebrew entries should have been in the minority. The fact that most of the vocabulary in Ibn-Tibbon’s translation was taken from classical Hebrew suggests that reservations and complaints regarding the state of Medieval Hebrew might be due less to the actual state of Hebrew and more to a perceived need to defend against claims of medieval authors and philosophers (e.g., Abraham Ibn-Ezra) critical of the way other authors tried to make changes in the Hebrew language.

  • 16 In this paper I will not discuss phrases of any kind.

7The following is a description of representative entries used by Ibn-Tibbon to translate Duties of the Hearts.16 The aim of this description is to present and examine the nature of the Rabbinic Hebrew lexicon in the nominal lexicon of Ibn-Tibbon. It will hopefully shed light on the rich semantic and morphological variety of Medieval Hebrew, both from the perspective of Rabbinic Hebrew and from the perspective of Hebrew morphological and semantic mechanisms.

  • 17 As it appears in Qafiḥ, Torat Ḥovot ha-Levavot. Words in angle brackets refer to portions of the Ar (...)
  • 18 Duties of the Heart, with English translation by Moses Hyamson (5 vols., New York: Bloch Publishing (...)

8In each example the Hebrew entry, as it appears in Ibn-Tibbon’s translation, will be followed by the Arabic equivalents in Ibn-Paquda’s original. For each equivalent I will cite one example, which will include the Arabic original,17 the Hebrew translation of Ibn-Tibbon, and the English translation of Hyamson.18 In a footnote I will present the treatise and the chapter the example is cited from. Overall, Duties of the Hearts consists of an introduction and ten treatises: (a) The unity of God; (b) Examination of creation; (c) The service of God; (d) Trust in God; (e) Wholehearted devotion; (f) Humility; (g) Repentance; (h) Spiritual accounting; (i) Abstinence; (j) The love of God.

3. Rabbinic entries in Ibn-Tibbon’s translation of Duties of the Hearts

9The rabbinic nominal entries can be divided into six categories:

  1. Biblical lexemes with rabbinic meanings

  2. Rabbinic lexemes with rabbinic meanings

  3. Rabbinic lexemes with both rabbinic and new meanings

  4. Rabbinic lexemes with new meanings

  5. Root and stem combination: rabbinic roots

  6. Linear word-formation: rabbinic stems

3.1 Biblical lexemes with rabbinic meanings

10In total, 33 lexemes from this category were found in Ibn-Tibbon’s translation. Although not all the examples presented here reflect new or unknown meanings, they certainly comprise the largest part of Rabbinic Hebrew in Ibn-Tibbon’s nominal lexicon.

(1)Image 100000000000003000000020C2E20008E2B02056.jpg

  • 19 For the biblical meaning see Francis Brown, Samuel R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, A Hebrew and E (...)

11The biblical meaning of this lexeme is ‘pinion (i.e., wing)’, while its rabbinic meaning is ‘limb, organ’.19 These original and later meanings reflect a simple metonymy, in which the original meaning represents a specific example and the later meaning a more simplified and general meaning that is based on the biblical meaning. This lexeme is used by Ibn-Tibbon to translate four different Arabic equivalents:

  • 20 The unity of God, chapter 10.

(a)Image 10000000000000640000002CE2ABBEBF735EFEB2.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000013E0000002290A4212A4281FEE4.jpgImage 100000000000003C0000001FFDCAB576C52568AD.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000178000000227C5A9A4C917AEA03.jpgImage 10000000000000380000001B1B14F3C77F7EBE5F.jpg; Hyamson: ‘because he seeks them by means of organs other than those with which they can be apprehended’.20

  • 21 The service of God, chapter 5.

(b)Image 10000000000000A400000028B54D220EDFDDB6D0.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000FE000000226677A56B606F6F93.jpgImage 10000000000000A60000001FE622269771D7438A.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000112000000226B13164F010B3C3C.jpgImage 100000000000009F0000001E8B83359ACCD1F483.jpg; Hyamson: ‘to the amputation of one of his limbs and to its loss’.21

  • 22 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

(c)Image 100000000000007C000000226C087D7712F7B1A2.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000012C0000001FBE7C18E4A37FDC2E.jpgImage 100000000000004F000000200765B5DF6A79AF29.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000015100000021F1F2783ECB3764EB.jpg; Hyamson: ‘in the perfection of its form and its specific (human) kind, in the shaping of his limbs’.22

  • 23 Introduction.

(d)Image 10000000000000A7000000266C2C49E464386AF6.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000FC0000002298ED55A314C20BDC.jpgImage 10000000000000CC000000201C6C37AC01757B6C.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000E50000001C6C9997F97F52762D.jpgImage 10000000000000F50000001CDB12D38EDFE99401.jpg; Hyamson: ‘but when he was alone, he would ejaculate: O for inward light’.23

  • 24 This is also the opinion expressed in Qafiḥ, Sefer ha-Kuzari, and in Hyamson.

As is clearly evident in these citations, equivalents (a) to (c) correspond to the rabbinic meanings. Apparently, equivalent (d) is the result of a mistake in the translation, probably made by Ibn-Tibbon himself, who mistakenly translated with this lexeme the wordImage 100000000000004A0000001C05B82DF5036BDC0F.jpgwhich in Hebrew meansImage 1000000000000043000000208D219FFDB20E811E.jpg‘friends’.24

(2)Image 10000000000000390000002204EDEDCCD84A8022.jpg

  • 25 Brown-Driver-Briggs, Lexicon, p. 338; Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, p. 1659.

12While the biblical meaning of this entry is ‘profaneness, pollution’, the rabbinic meaning is ‘fawning and praising in order to please someone’.25 As in the previous example, the rabbinic meaning, which is employed in the Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael, reflects a metonymy in comparison with the original biblical meaning: the rabbinic meaning represents the method of realising the concept that appears in the biblical meaning. In Ibn-Tibbon’s translation, there is one equivalent for this Hebrew entry:

  • 26 The service of God, chapter 3.

Image 100000000000006400000028FCFBAFC89CDE51F7.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000017300000022D25820B25E32053B.jpgImage 10000000000001540000002242C9FF1D75F6BA72.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000008D0000001E45C9475BAA571503.jpgImage 100000000000019600000024C69677E8A0851B7F.jpg; Hyamson: ‘it may, however, be hypocritical; the aim may be to obtain praise for it and honour among one’s fellow-men’.26

(3)Image 10000000000000260000001F9E3876E1E5F345DA.jpg

  • 27 Brown-Driver-Briggs, Lexicon, p. 476
  • 28 Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, pp. 2346–2347.

13The biblical meaning of this word is ‘bag, purse’,27 and its rabbinic meaning is ‘skin pocket in which glands are placed’.28 This entry has two Arabic equivalents in Ibn-Tibbon’s translation:

  • 29 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

(a)Image 10000000000000730000002AD4910292E6A6A929.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000013F00000022D1116AA958F8ACB2.jpgImage 10000000000000AF000000226108F517E5396929.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000001010000001E026526DA25818E18.jpgImage 10000000000000AC0000002294A265ECA376CCD1.jpg; Hyamson: ‘what belongs to the green gall goes to the gall-bladder’.29

  • 30 Ibid.

(b)Image 100000000000006E00000026EDAB3D11A3A8A925.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 1000000000000138000000240E8460837358937C.jpgImage 100000000000013E000000229F34B20639ECD55D.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000007500000024AEC57E638D469C01.jpgImage 10000000000001BE000000247C846BB1E470E2DB.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the liver for purifying the food; the tubes for removing superfluities; the bowels for retention’.30

14The semantic shift from the original biblical meaning to the rabbinic meaning is expressed by a metaphor based on the resemblance of shape and designation between the two.

(4)Image 100000000000002A00000024C290EC31A2BDA9B9.jpg

  • 31 Brown-Driver-Briggs, Lexicon, p. 996; Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, p. 6934.

15Biblical meaning: ‘returning, coming back’; rabbinic meaning: ‘penitent’.31 Mishnaic Hebrew reflects a meaning that is more metaphorical in comparison with the biblical meaning. This metaphorical shift represents the movement of meaning from the physical field to the spiritual-cognitive field. In Ibn-Tibbon’s translation, this entry has one Arabic equivalent:

  • 32 Repentance, opening.

Image 1000000000000082000000246047044D1AB5AC47.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000015E00000020DB04242D9ED30CDA.jpgImage 10000000000000BC000000249EF3BDC74554482D.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000012800000024D3B1B30C74C849D1.jpgImage 10000000000000D600000022CB365300D58D8700.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the reason being that every penitent, previously to sinning, has been righteous, while every righteous man has not necessarily been a penitent’.32

3.2 Rabbinic lexemes with rabbinic meanings

  • 33 On whether this is a case of guttural weakening or of Aramaic influence, see Shimon Sharvit, “The V (...)

16In total, there are approximately 450 entries in this category. I will present here two examples, each of which comprises two lexemes, and both of which reflect characteristic phenomena of Rabbinic Hebrew. The first example represents the double form of the verbal noun pattern of the Hifil stem:33

(5)Image 1000000000000044000000248BDC9194217B22FD.jpg

17This form of the verbal noun has three equivalents in Ibn-Tibbon’s translation:

  • 34 The service of God, chapter 4.

(a)Image 10000000000000800000002ADE76967CB502B407.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000012E00000024BA660B7D906ABA81.jpgImage 10000000000000F200000024A231E61373E38465.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000B10000001E4257692384578118.jpgImage 100000000000012000000022BA76D1CDD76A8412.jpgHyamson: ‘prohibitions in the category of duties of the heart are, for example, associating in the worship of God any other being with Him… secretly’.34

  • 35 The love of God, chapter 7.

(b)Image 100000000000008600000028CD718D7828374931.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000012400000021D0E04734B074E56C.jpgImage 100000000000005000000024494FF474B610FC40.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000015D000000227039A5E4D66E26E0.jpg; Hyamson: ‘of these, 365 are prohibitions’.35

  • 36 Examination of creation, chapter 6.

(c)Image 100000000000006A0000002A5D8D383BF9B05865.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 1000000000000140000000240F9C31CBCB09FB10.jpgImage 10000000000000980000001FFAD33DE45141D0B5.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000010A0000002411B4C5DB0152783E.jpgImage 100000000000007100000022A3FBE5F74B96EB5A.jpgHyamson: ‘the more will you respect his commandments and prohibitions’.36

(6)Image 1000000000000042000000247FC95406F72C9440.jpg

As opposed toImage 100000000000004400000022D2493830A7208B0C.jpg, this form of verbal noun has only two Arabic equivalents in Ibn-Tibbon’s translation, only one of which is shared with the previous verbal noun:

  • 37 Abstinence, chapter 5.

(a)Image 100000000000007100000022920760C4562D4A66.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000013300000021ED79D4C9367A2032.jpgImage 10000000000001A8000000221383C23750CB765B.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000023500000020278F6B962B8E168A.jpgImage 10000000000000500000001A1D8F73B205968242.jpg; Hyamson: ‘in the Scriptures, exhortations to limit speech occur so frequently and are so familiar that they are not unknown to anyone’.37

  • 38 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

(b)Image 10000000000000690000002A9322BD3236442AAE.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000013C000000230714E75E99F3F280.jpgImage 10000000000001AF00000022CE171A6DFBE777EE.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000230000000222E9D9C5C199F5C62.jpgImage 100000000000005400000022D4BA323AFE8D2520.jpg; Hyamson: ‘but if you are living in solitude, you are undoubtedly exonerated from the duty of exhorting them to do good and warning them to abstain from evil’.38

  • 39 For references see the Maagarim on-line database of the Academy of the Hebrew Language.

In the dictionaries of Even-Shoshan and Ben-Yehuda the lexemeImage 10000000000000440000002620B95C0DFCE1F984.jpgis claimed to be a neologism of Medieval Hebrew. As revealed by the Historical Dictionary Project of the Academy of the Hebrew Language, it is found already in the Babylonian Talmud, Shebuoth 47b (MS Vatican 140). This lexeme also appears in the liturgy of Yannai and Ha-Kalir, in different manuscripts and in Genizah segments.39 However, it is doubtful whether Ibn-Tibbon was familiar with these specific writings and witnesses, and it is possible, even probable, that he created this neologism on his own.

18The following examples (7 and 8) reflect another phenomenon that is characteristic of Rabbinic Hebrew; the assimilation of III-alef roots to III-yod roots. In Ibn-Tibbon’s translation of Duties of the Hearts, both forms are found:

(7)Image 100000000000003700000023D3CF4AB595679147.jpg

  • 40 Trust in God, opening.

(a)Image 100000000000009100000028006505FBB056B1BE.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 1000000000000114000000218AD01BA678DB8E1B.jpgImage 10000000000001A6000000222FC6C80B8F211162.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000230000000208999BB597A810D12.jpgImage 10000000000000300000001CC84541B07E79AF26.jpg; Hyamson: ‘but he who trusts in the Lord will gain the esteem of his fellow-men, when his trust will become generally known’.40

  • 41 Spiritual accounting, chapter 6.

(b)Image 10000000000000A500000027D1DF6EA3FBB0F5BF.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000F800000023403E0D380F3003BA.jpgImage 100000000000015A0000002437F602F8BF11F3A0.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000540000001FF8DFDBC66F24EF3A.jpgImage 100000000000019B000000214749932CDA881E61.jpg; Hyamson: ‘of God’s good plan, of His government and the fulfilment of His decrees for His creatures’.41

Equivalent (c) has a plural meaning, and is translated only by the Hebrew plural formImage 100000000000003B00000022170841F606D4E097.jpg:

  • 42 The service of God, chapter 4.

(c)Image 100000000000007400000026630058F5D54CEF34.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000013E000000223E9E784F67538B8D.jpgImage 1000000000000120000000218A1C536AC46A6945.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000008800000020EA25A99348C6B189.jpgImage 10000000000001C400000021465EB0B0A026475D.jpg; Hyamson: ‘that God only wished to point out to His creatures a way by which they would improve their condition in this world’.42

(8)Image 10000000000000460000002121DD949896102A39.jpg

  • 43 The service of God, chapter 3.

(a)Image 100000000000008600000028F5ED40549D8DC560.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000012200000022469677FC98A364DA.jpgImage 10000000000001AE00000026094D578AC957D686.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000022E000000212D971436AFA51470.jpgImage 100000000000009400000022009BBE04C61488B9.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the demonstration through the senses was an addition to the intellectual stimulus which human beings naturally possess’.43

  • 44 Examination of creation, opening.

(b)Image 10000000000000920000002826A7E71D8A6C2474.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000011C00000022EF020CE6D13EF24F.jpgImage 10000000000000B800000020EFD9D6810472875C.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000E80000001E39623258389880FA.jpgImage 10000000000000BB000000229FAD88B1C3A9C683.jpg; Hyamson: ‘concerning God’s work and its various products which He created for their improvement’.44

  • 45 The love of God, chapter 3.

(c)Image 100000000000009E000000265050F953A132158F.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000010600000024388D0A5B37F26E68.jpgImage 100000000000016E00000022D53DECA31E160313.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000440000001F584571CF6BE678FC.jpgImage 100000000000022D000000209783066D0CA8A900.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the second is observation of the world wherein one sees some of the wonders of God exhibited in His creatures’.45

As in example (7), equivalent (d) has a plural meaning, and is translated only by the Hebrew plural formImage 1000000000000048000000248CEFD061B41BED88.jpg:

  • 46 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

(d)Image 1000000000000074000000279D808443C3055A53.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000013E0000002206D718910454EC34.jpgImage 10000000000000B4000000243C97C31574B32E6D.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000FC000000222C9BD6443B752BA8.jpgImage 10000000000000EC000000212D2C253ECB66EABB.jpgHyamson: ‘ [a person should] investigate everything in the universe from the smallest creatures to the largest’.46

19Regarding the Arabic equivalents of these two lexemes, it is interesting to note that as opposed to the case in Rabbinic Hebrew, in Ibn-Tibbon’s translation they do not function as free variants.

3.3 Rabbinic lexemes with both rabbinic and new meanings

20All the entries presented in my glossary are marked etymologically according to the earliest relevant meaning used by Ibn-Tibbon in his translation, and not necessarily according to the first time the lexeme (or phrase) is documented in Hebrew literature. Therefore, I focus here only on the rabbinic entries whose usage and meaning Ibn-Tibbon widened.

(9)Image 100000000000002A0000001FA2DBBDE5D0801580.jpg

  • 47 The unity of God, chapter 7.

(a)Image 1000000000000067000000244EF2268D8966E7F4.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000014A000000209731D656C793871E.jpgImage 100000000000016C00000024DA30EED3ADDC7947.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000003E000000219B9ADF1B68038AE3.jpgImage 100000000000022B000000233B8EBD239A94A2FE.jpgHyamson: ‘the limbs of the human body, or the parts of other things that are put together… for their efficiency and completeness’.47

  • 48 Examination of creation, chapter 3.

(b)Image 1000000000000080000000265A17C71A04E51DAC.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000011D00000020A08AEE4B8BFD7E56.jpgImage 100000000000018200000022F8FD09F0EE239994.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000036000000212037A0CF5A97F008.jpgImage 100000000000022A000000206A1060D9A1F271C7.jpgHyamson: ‘so intimately mixed and fused, that each of them sustains the other, like body and soul in living creatures’.48

  • 49 The love of God, chapter 1. For the words inside the angle brackets see note 16 above.

(c)Image 100000000000007C000000284B15F163D190C8D5.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000013C00000023674107FC06A23C25.jpgImage 10000000000001AC0000002483F565460B2C617E.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000023200000022AF663EBE98B39C1C.jpgImage 100000000000001F000000202C87BB4B7347155C.jpg; Hyamson: ‘As the Creator, blessed be He, bound the soul to this gross, physical body, through which he was pleased to test it’.49

  • 50 The service of God, chapter 3.

(d)Image 10000000000000C000000029FF0E13DC9DD3C871.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000DE00000024C87558ACE8701847.jpgImage 10000000000000F20000002265D686900AB137CA.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000B200000024BEC356C8160819FC.jpgImage 10000000000000CC000000228C3F2043CFB734E0.jpgHyamson: ‘after physical lust has been overcome and the intellect has obtained the victory over it’.50

  • 51 The unity of God, chapter 6.

(e)Image 100000000000008900000024170C200E991E9634.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000010F00000024290EB12E9DF5A1F6.jpgImage 100000000000010100000022CA6197C65A04A880.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000AF0000001ED66EAA6D0549DDBA.jpgImage 100000000000015600000020F6043850F71E4163.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the stars in their array like lamps, all objects accumulated in it like treasures’.51

Equivalents (a) to (c) reflect the rabbinic meanings of the lexemeImage 10000000000000240000002429F047B36968B849.jpg. It appears that equivalent (d) was formed only due to a contextual translation (translation of an Arabic noun and an Arabic adjective into a Hebrew construct). Nevertheless, the general rabbinic meaning is appropriate here, too. Equivalent (e), which is a semantic neologism of Ibn-Tibbon’s, was created by using a metaphor that is based on the resemblance to the original meaning of the lexeme. It is interesting to see in this quotation the attraction of the Hebrew feminine suffix of the adjectiveImage 100000000000004800000022DDF5ACE493AF2EBF.jpgin comparison with the form of the Hebrew lexemeImage 100000000000003E0000001C83F9C1DC97B74A2A.jpg

(10)Image 1000000000000046000000245F58B7F6EA207B5C.jpg

  • 52 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

(a)Image 10000000000000D20000002B12D600F2874FD988.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000C00000002210D62EAB4FD8BEC2.jpgImage 1000000000000211000000229B46F291D9A44192.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000194000000203C4FAE553F7541C8.jpgImage 10000000000000F70000001FFC99042068AC6A92.jpgHyamson: ‘wherein he is given freedom to use his limbs and accorded liberty to direct his thoughts to good or evil inclinations’.52

  • 53 The unity of God, chapter 8.

(b)Image 100000000000008600000024A612E03F2E8D32AC.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000010B0000002233EBD398178A2DE5.jpgImage 10000000000000F700000023D827A5AA8CABE624.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000092000000231BD2B603D1C189E5.jpgImage 100000000000013A0000002153117B87924C00B1.jpgHyamson: ‘every one of the things that we have just mentioned is called One conventionally.53

In the Talmud (i.e., in Rabbinic Hebrew), the lexemeImage 100000000000004B000000200B1A7F5E44C568B3.jpghas two meanings:54 (1) moving, transferring someone or something to another place, and (2) removal, distancing. Metaphorically, in equivalent (b), Ibn-Tibbon is using this lexeme with the meaning of ‘metaphor’ or a shift — namely, a semantic change from one semantic field to another.

(11)Image 10000000000000440000002980FF9C6FF7911B6C.jpg

In Biblical Hebrew, the lexemeImage 100000000000004500000028CAA48C359568BA26.jpgoccurs only in the plural, both in the construct state or with a possessive pronoun. In the absolute state, this lexeme occurs only in the Babylonian Talmud. Ibn-Tibbon used this word frequently, with its rabbinic meanings: see equivalents (a), (b), (d), (e), and (f), and with two new meanings, as in equivalents (c) ‘nature’ and (g) ‘result’:

  • 54 Introduction.

(a)Image 100000000000009A000000293145AB42F32FE624.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000F300000020640EB55B4F2B31FF.jpgImage 10000000000001E20000002288751F1A86EF0B5F.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000001BE000000245A02FE0895A8C821.jpgImage 10000000000000DC000000226CDF185452C8F59A.jpg; Hyamson: ‘then he will make use of the third part — the historical portions of the Scriptures, in order that he may know the various types of men and their histories’.54

  • 55 The service of God, chapter 1.

(b)Image 100000000000008A000000248AC823849BE10789.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000FA000000235227698DD541CF6B.jpgImage 1000000000000214000000220E4F1DD0662D796E.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000001980000001EBB0A1C0D666295D6.jpgImage 1000000000000108000000204E578B3A361ADD31.jpg; Hyamson: ‘one of them is inherent in the mind, implanted in the human faculty of cognition, innate from the beginning of his existence’.55

  • 56 The unity of God, chapter 6.

(c)Image 100000000000009300000026ECE883BEDF8DC7B9.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000FE00000020642524D73FA9C9FE.jpgImage 10000000000001300000002293A0F661FA8C659C.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000640000001E4C9FAA26F16DD9FE.jpgImage 1000000000000214000000229A0CD6D5A6A42D7A.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the synthesis, however, wrought by Nature, is complete and endures for an indefinite period’.56

  • 57 Introduction.

(d)Image 100000000000007F0000002686949819920825FF.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000001170000002239D03A30EEC0F250.jpgImage 10000000000001E500000022BF034F1FA028326D.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000001C100000023028B8D48B2272043.jpgImage 10000000000000E40000002251F5FB4FAF499998.jpg; Hyamson: ‘wisdom is innate in a man’s being, in his nature and faculties of perception, like water that is hidden in the bowels of the earth’.57

  • 58 The service of God, chapter 4.

(e)Image 10000000000000740000002A6AC925028672A3CB.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 1000000000000128000000206E3FE2D11CC71AAD.jpgImage 100000000000021C00000022E0522FF71FE8B519.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000196000000227486F4883FC896CC.jpgImage 10000000000001240000001FD543D5B2F35F1AC2.jpg; Hyamson: ‘they spend their days in the study of singular deductions from the legal principles and of what is strange and difficult in the final decisions’.58

  • 59 Abstinence, chapter 2.

(f)Image 10000000000000A000000028BACC1FDADA6C1CCD.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000F200000020D1DF62D75CAFB3AC.jpgImage 1000000000000120000000221E7F6706F95C2D74.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000007A00000022CC3E86BC84222241.jpgImage 10000000000001390000002029F5A054BF73AFF6.jpg; Hyamson: ‘troubling their hearts, each one worried by the result of his arrogance and brooding on his vicissitudes’.59

  • 60 Spiritual accounting, chapter 4.

(g)Image 1000000000000092000000259E5CD6076DD410C9.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000F100000020EB0D9B4439B02DE5.jpgImage 10000000000000D4000000272D890B4DDC900744.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000B70000002277C72CA3BC1E0DCF.jpgImage 10000000000000AC000000204220EFD1CAE46EB6.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the benefit of spiritual accounting here discussed, consists in the results’.60

3.4 Rabbinic lexemes with new meanings

  • 61 For further discussion and examples, see Avirbach, “The translation method of R. Judah Ibn-Tibbon”, (...)

21As is common in many developing languages, semantic shifts are an elementary method for enriching an existing vocabulary and for bringing back into use lexemes that were once part of the lexicon. Like many others before him, Ibn-Tibbon used metaphors and metonymies for this purpose. On rare occasions, he used ellipsis, folk etymology, and loan shifts. All these rare cases involve biblical lexemes or other medieval neologisms, and therefore I will not present them here.61 Here are some examples of the metonymies and metaphors Ibn-Tibbon used in the case of rabbinic lexemes.

(12)Image 100000000000002A0000002169E9C479001350E2.jpg

  • 62 Humility, chapter 6.

Image 100000000000008C00000029AB8C831E45FF286F.jpgIbn-Paquda:Image 1000000000000104000000231E167D65C292045C.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000FC00000021A3155AB457D6BCC8.jpg; Hyamson: ‘in regard to forgiveness of evil speech and depreciation’.62

  • 63 Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, pp. 811.

The lexemeImage 100000000000002C0000001F6F692B9D212952B5.jpgappears in the Palestinian Talmud with the meaning of ‘shame, disgrace, defamation’.63 Ibn-Tibbon used here the meaning of the process instead of its result, and the metonymy ‘to shame, to defame’ was created.

(13)Image 100000000000003C00000024C7157D60B0DB84D5.jpg

  • 64 Introduction.

Image 10000000000000820000002C89A6FD328F45D20F.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000015600000024F6B3DD11812C0AFE.jpgImage 100000000000021C00000022D93F2BF7284B8633.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000202000000241BD3688B20C6BAA6.jpgImage 100000000000024B00000024452725A5A5BB046E.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the noblest of the gifts which God bestowed on His human creatures, next to having created them with mature faculties of perception and comprehension’.64

  • 65 E.g., Gen. 8.15.

The rootImage 100000000000003A000000207F9C3765D87BCACF.jpgoccurs in Piel in Biblical Hebrew.65 The participleImage 100000000000003A000000249D814DC1DFE012F0.jpgoccurs as a noun in Rabbinic Hebrew. However, only in the translation of Ibn-Tibbon does this lexeme start to convey the meaning of a ‘human being’, as opposed to animals, which cannot talk. The metonymy here represents the main characteristic of the object, just as in the case of the biblical lexemeImage 100000000000003200000024E4905AEE71E377AD.jpg‘crawl’ (cf.Image 100000000000005C00000024570F3D825CFE6BAE.jpg‘snakes’), and in the case ofImage 1000000000000038000000220F530D2C003B75DE.jpg‘inanimate’, another neologism of Ibn-Tibbon.

(14)Image 100000000000003C00000024E04DA409F3D2F20D.jpg

  • 66 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

Image 10000000000000800000002C085819B40213F810.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000015A00000020DD8AD7E4BFD634F2.jpgImage 10000000000000B40000002259DB44720CAFA763.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000012200000020B38C09D95AAC71B9.jpgImage 10000000000000D8000000226FA2F1756215779D.jpgHyamson: ‘even food would not be perfectly digested by any living creature’.66

  • 67 Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, pp. 640.
  • 68 E.g., Avraham Even-Shoshan, Milon Even-Shoshan (6 vols.; Tel-Aviv: Hamilon Heḥadash, 2003), Yaakov (...)

In the Mishnah, the verbal nounImage 100000000000003A000000243E1AD645DA2024A6.jpgmeans ‘preparing food for eating by heating with fire’, and, in the Talmud, the meaning was expanded to ‘ripening, becoming good for eating’.67 In Ibn-Tibbon’s translation, another metaphor is used, and hence the meaning ‘digestion’ was added in order to reflect the meaning of the Arabic equivalentImage 10000000000000360000001E5914A8DF4FA7E2DE.jpgIt is important to note that this lexeme with such a meaning was rare in Ibn-Tibbon’s translation and that this meaning is omitted in various modern Hebrew diachronic dictionaries.68

(15)Image 1000000000000041000000247D261312C4B55D06.jpg

  • 69 The unity of God, chapter 9.

(a)Image 10000000000000AF00000028A3D7290A73809B0E.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000E600000024E7C0FDEE5AC6D0D8.jpgImage 10000000000000F4000000234ACD6AF725D55E9C.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000B100000022968570331B03205B.jpgImage 100000000000012100000021A9B25140E4F1387D.jpg; Hyamson: ‘and its parts unite. The basic principle of Synthesis in Unity’.69

  • 70 The unity of God, chapter 2.

(b)Image 1000000000000076000000280C7EF9EDCFCF5758.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000012400000022F3A98702FD44C682.jpgImage 10000000000000CE0000002214D7B5D009EF9539.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000CC00000023ABDB6DE209FD3CE6.jpgImage 1000000000000142000000240A7ECB48AB5719EA.jpg; Hyamson: ‘so, too, if a man accepts the doctrine of the Unity on the grounds of tradition only, he can never be sure that he will not come to associate the worship of the One God with the worship of another being’.70

  • 71 Repentance, chapter 9.

(c)Image 10000000000000BC0000002860ECDC337C4E49A6.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000CC00000023DEFB692534CF2807.jpgImage 100000000000021C000000265223CB86A2588BB6.jpgImage 100000000000014E00000024FB08CCE8896EDB62.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000470000001C40FDDD637EA2EE40.jpgImage 100000000000021700000020A760B00EBD055838.jpgImage 10000000000000B2000000205C3985BCD486C5F8.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the repentance should refer to the particular sinful act, and also to the class to which the act belongs; the heart should cooperate in its devotion to God’.71

  • 72 Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, pp. 7493–7494.

22The rabbinic meaning that Ibn-Tibbon relied on in order to achieve the metaphor that is reflected in the equivalents (a) to (c) is ‘to participate, joining someone to work together on something’.72 This meaning is used in Rabbinic Hebrew in the Palestinian Talmud. The metaphor created by Ibn-Tibbon is the result of the resemblance between ‘shared work’ and ‘polytheism’, as some idols were alleged to work together to fulfil all of the people’s needs.

3.5 Root and stem combination: Rabbinic roots

23The root and stem combination as applied to rabbinic roots is reflected in several verbal nouns of three different verbal stems. Here I will present briefly the verbal nouns that were created by Ibn-Tibbon from rabbinic roots, divided according to their verbal stems. It is obvious that Ibn-Tibbon created these lexemes under direct influence of Arabic, either due to root resemblance (as in example 16) or due to the use of the Hebrew root as an equivalent of one or more Arabic roots.

24Hifil: six separate verbal nouns of this stem were innovated by Ibn-Tibbon in his translation, using both the haqṭala and the heqṭel patterns (examples 16–21). Some of these lexemes are common in the translation and some are relatively rare.

(16)Image 100000000000004B000000225BC10C26F6169466.jpg

  • 73 The love of God, chapter 7.

Image 10000000000000900000002EE684858AF25D8216.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000014700000024201A622625D7F13E.jpgImage 100000000000004800000022F64DB1ECC62C5C05.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000018400000024E29AA98584E97663.jpgImage 100000000000003C0000001AAD1A2DCCF5F3A201.jpg; Hyamson: ‘beware of excess and exaggeration, of aught that does not proceed gradually lest you perish’.73

(17)Image 10000000000000440000002656B03613F7CF88A7.jpg

  • 74 Abstinence, chapter 1.

(a)Image 10000000000000B00000002A5008415F6FC625F6.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000C3000000212817752B3676A971.jpgImage 10000000000001DA00000020CAE2433747111413.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000001BE00000020DEE07B60F3F97B2E.jpgImage 10000000000000870000001C7850B2CA48FFE43B.jpg; Hyamson: ‘general abstinence is that which is practiced to improve our physical condition and keep our secular affairs in order’.74

  • 75 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

(b)Image 10000000000000820000002CC9DCB18AE19110CC.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000011600000021B2DB6D3E22F16FB3.jpgImage 100000000000012E0000001F67E9609A6C019B76.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000710000002138BB12CB8FD183DF.jpgImage 10000000000001A8000000200E984E83344F0644.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the value of these faculties in the care of our bodies and ordering of our activities is known to all’.75

(18)Image 100000000000004E00000022A9A7095243C85AF8.jpg

  • 76 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

Image 100000000000007200000028C662007C3314E0CB.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000015C00000026734054F9A8837C6A.jpgImage 100000000000009A000000221CCC150E20EE3A59.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000144000000267463C799F7233491.jpgImage 100000000000003C0000001D24AE82D4D61DF3A3.jpgHyamson: ‘so, too, in accordance with the Creator’s protection of him and providing for him in all his affairs’.76

(19)Image 100000000000004A00000023A255A38429B9A05A.jpg

  • 77 The love of God, chapter 7.

Image 10000000000000840000002DBFF535B3B9048E2B.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000014C0000002623995B5719191876.jpgImage 100000000000004C00000024A26FF2BF44C9AC6E.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000018A000000245458CC41599AB6B2.jpgImage 100000000000003C0000001FFCF96AA6F8C057B7.jpg; Hyamson: ‘beware of excess and exaggeration, of aught that does not proceed gradually lest you perish’.77

(20)Image 100000000000003F0000002640109750C1EF39C9.jpg

  • 78 Repentance, chapter 7.

Image 100000000000009D00000028C19C8A004CC12C0A.jpgIbn-Paquda:Image 10000000000001320000002493351C117EA6DC2D.jpgImage 1000000000000147000000242A9D84DF2789AF9A.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000087000000225361DB408B1EFAB9.jpgImage 100000000000018C000000237988B8652954D7FE.jpg; Hyamson: ‘to these should be added complaisance in sinning; this means continuance in transgression’.78

(21)Image 100000000000003E00000029300335EEFDA26AF9.jpg

  • 79 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

Image 100000000000007000000028FFDD60B44CD3E418.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000016400000024CFDF23B2833C4B70.jpgImage 10000000000000C00000002067CDDACC0848CE07.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 1000000000000117000000208B869282307A654B.jpgImage 10000000000000F800000024FE324DD2A4520FDF.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the brain is the seat of the spiritual faculties, the well-spring of sensation and the root from which the nerves begin’.79

The rootsImage 10000000000000F0000000246FE1563151D30AF2.jpgandImage 100000000000003A0000001E03DBE1353F9DC0B2.jpgare documented in Rabbinic Hebrew in the Hifil stem, but not as verbal nouns. Like these roots,Image 100000000000003500000021120FF1B88F6C07B0.jpgalso occurs as a verb in Rabbinic Hebrew, but the meaning used by Ibn-Tibbon reflects a semantic shift in comparison with its original rabbinic meaning.

Piel: only one verbal noun is created by Ibn-Tibbon in the qiṭṭūl pattern (example 22). As with the previous examples, the rootImage 100000000000003600000021E9833E3E0071DFD4.jpgexists in the Piel stem in Rabbinic Hebrew, but not as a verbal noun.

(22)Image 100000000000003A00000026DD8D9B2AC28D01D0.jpg

  • 80 Trust in God, chapter 3.

Image 10000000000000B50000002A10A3F80A60476E11.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000011F00000022DD204ADACD6E8F58.jpgImage 100000000000025A00000024120B4B64C60BE3F2.jpgImage 10000000000000440000002322CAA4650C65666B.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000018200000021E6204762BBEE494A.jpgImage 10000000000001A4000000249F9E30F5F738EB88.jpg; Hyamson: ‘like … weaving, writing, warehousing; hiring gardeners, workmen and agricultural labourers’.80

25Hitpael: six verbal nouns in hitqaṭṭǝlūt pattern are neologisms of Ibn-Tibbon (examples 23–28):

(23)Image 100000000000005500000024E9C69F80457BB927.jpg

  • 81 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

(a)Image 100000000000009E00000032DB43649CD836BB69.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000EC000000227892469EA4B84523.jpgImage 1000000000000053000000285E97B3D07365675B.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000014600000024D814BBCD0D98534E.jpgImage 1000000000000042000000250D3DBFA9C068B9F7.jpg; Hyamson: ‘… is scarcer and harder to obtain’.81

  • 82 Repentance, chapter 5.

(b)Image 100000000000008E00000031B583255ABE4114C1.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000010000000026A2860D0257BF602D.jpgImage 1000000000000138000000237B8889477EF55258.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000004800000024938AD6F4D019B244.jpgImage 10000000000001A20000002274EE1A2CCE9331DA.jpg; Hyamson: ‘abandonment of transgressions while one has the capacity and opportunity to commit them’.82

(24)Image 10000000000000620000002280F89859B547D3B8.jpg

  • 83 Trust in God, chapter 4.

Image 10000000000000910000002AEAD908044595688A.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000001340000002299935723FEB433F0.jpgImage 10000000000000EE000000233DD605F4C090DA7E.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000EF00000022B5123C73025EE50B.jpgImage 10000000000000EC000000220FD1B5E60A273E15.jpg; Hyamson: ‘he should also consider that… he is freed from the heavy burden of maintaining relatives and fulfilling obligations to them’.83

(25)Image 10000000000000DE0000002AE8B359A3447BD652.jpg

26These two forms occur in different manuscripts containing Ibn-Tibbon’s translation of Duties of the Hearts as free variations.

  • 84 Introduction.

(a)Image 10000000000000BB0000002A05DBC9826F9BBFAB.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000CB000000200E2B933BC1AF480A.jpgImage 10000000000001900000002435D4EC2FD17D4DDC.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000021500000024FB8C789B62EFBA08.jpg; Hyamson: ‘their endeavour was first to ascertain and establish general principles, and make clear what is permitted and what is forbidden’.84

  • 85 Trust in God, chapter 5.

(b)Image 100000000000009000000031AF55067067D6D5CF.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000010A000000217D2831D3892A3230.jpgImage 100000000000008A0000002644211AC8ECF4AE85.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000010600000023309C03292B34AFB8.jpgImage 100000000000011200000026300CC51BE3E9469A.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the fear that death may suddenly overtake him increases his effort and zeal’.85

  • 86 Examination of creation, chapter 3.

(c)Image 100000000000005E000000266A5E3F86B821E319.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000013200000026FEFCEDDD97EEA6D4.jpgImage 100000000000009B000000216E53B5C9D8BD9C91.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000001040000001F9E74DD366D13647D.jpgImage 10000000000000AE00000024C38A9710D3241E23.jpg; Hyamson: ‘he worked an hour… industriously and zealously’.86

  • 87 The service of God, chapter 5.

(d)Image 100000000000007200000024C2CB4EEB0324E74A.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000012000000021F0DCA2E82F7F5706.jpgImage 10000000000000DC00000021A537329C5C9BDB19.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000C400000022CD42AB693254D528.jpgImage 100000000000016E00000026C03CD57F07CCB9E9.jpg; Hyamson: ‘you will not fulfil your wishes, however long you strive for them’.87

  • 88 The service of God, chapter 7.

(e)Image 100000000000007200000027628EEE4E8F29D542.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000011600000024C4C5F6F3386A3926.jpgImage 10000000000000A400000020B7F19058EA8AE6A4.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000F400000021F4B73C0B76BEDC80.jpgImage 10000000000000E200000022209E47D0E11B1BEF.jpg; Hyamson: ‘it should not enter his mind that he can secure its continuance by his striving’.88

  • 89 Trust in God, chapter 5.

(f)Image 10000000000000770000003001C253A749E4FCF5.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000001190000001DEB9498E577397DE8.jpgImage 10000000000000D100000023FD91FE3BEB8149CD.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000C800000022D318E9D9186A8EAD.jpgImage 10000000000001A70000002380A23ACB9D32DA0B.jpgHyamson: ‘If they bring him a profit, he lauds them, and praises his own diligence in using and choosing them’.89

(26)Image 10000000000000640000002808BC0911A4B34F8E.jpg

  • 90 Trust in God, chapter 4.

Image 10000000000000B90000002E7CAED5DD9754F3D8.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000010300000026FF5C42CDB14D6915.jpgImage 100000000000018400000022E355EF6FB2FAECBD.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000005800000024375BC1422F566077.jpgImage 10000000000001E800000024B6432C113CD95031.jpgHyamson: ‘that cannot be discharged, save with the cooperation of another person in mutual relationship, one of them active, the other passive’.90

(27)Image 100000000000006000000022F93CAD1BABBCF715.jpg

  • 91 Wholehearted devotion, chapter 5.

Image 10000000000000B20000002B3B0722AACAE1AF2C.jpgIbn-Paquda:Image 10000000000001240000002449BEC794C43B2172.jpgImage 10000000000000AC00000026D3924DCA95D8F72A.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000012C0000001F8577F982EF8971E5.jpgImage 1000000000000106000000229DA46CBF24BFC354.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the least increase of your power over him regard as important, so that it may be to you a step to a greater victory’.91

(28)Image 1000000000000050000000246B8045F726281461.jpg

  • 92 The service of God, chapter 5.

Image 100000000000007C0000002BC5B03F3490806032.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 1000000000000156000000266F9F32AE67B066F4.jpgImage 10000000000001A4000000247C7FAF1372C8A1EC.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000003400000026265E4B80141E2B2E.jpgImage 10000000000002500000002235A41286101FDEE0.jpg; Hyamson: ‘the forces that uphold the latter evil disposition are superfluity of speech, excessive social intercourse’.92

The roots andImage 100000000000009D0000001F0CBE2C92A4E48278.jpgall exist in the Hitpael stem in Rabbinic Hebrew, but do not occur as verbal nouns. The rootsImage 100000000000002C00000022B297DAF3A2F903BF.jpgandImage 1000000000000038000000225331FACBB975FDCB.jpgalso exist in Rabbinic Hebrew, but the relevant meanings of these roots are semantic neologisms coined by Ibn-Tibbon.

3.6 Linear word-formation: Rabbinic stems

27Five of Ibn-Tibbon’s neologisms in this translation were created by deriving new lexemes from rabbinic stems. Four of them (examples 29–32) are adjectives that were derived with the suffix - ī, while one of them (example 33) is an abstract noun that was created with the suffix -ūt.

  • 93 See e.g., Noah Shapira, “The Development of the Terminology of Chemistry in Hebrew” (in Hebrew), Le (...)

28The suffix : this suffix, yāʾ an-nisba, was originally used in Semitic languages for expressing relationships (mostly with regard to tribes, families, and places), and it appears in Hebrew already in Biblical Hebrew. In Medieval Hebrew, mostly due to the influence of Arabic, and Ibn-Tibbon’s contribution, the use of this suffix widened, creating a wide variety of semantic meanings.93

(29)Image 100000000000003800000027657F6D5647BF77B9.jpg

  • 94 Qafiḥ, Torat Ḥovat ha-Levavot, p. 108.

The lexemeImage 100000000000002C00000024D797AEFB7218157E.jpgin rabbinic Hebrew means mainly ‘air, space, gap, weather’. With the suffix , Ibn-Tibbon created a lexeme that means ‘a resemblance to air’. Judging from the Arabic original, it is reasonable to assume that Ibn-Paquda meant here ‘a resemblance to fire’ and this lexeme was in fact created due to a mistake on the part of Ibn-Tibbon.94

  • 95 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

Image 100000000000009200000030E12C140BCB067BCC.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 100000000000013F00000024E5BE37EF2C81EB36.jpgImage 100000000000016700000023E05AFE1EDC1BC48E.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000006700000022FB545BEAA389529E.jpgImage 10000000000001B9000000222FD4043AB690117E.jpg; Hyamson: ‘to this human body God has joined a spiritual and ethereal entity akin to the spirituality of the higher beings’.95

Examples 30 and 31 represent two lexemes that were formed by using the same rabbinic stem (see example 9) and two different realisations of the suffix . Apparently the realisation -anī in ּ ג ּ ינפו was created under direct Arabic influence of the lexemeImage 100000000000006400000033977220553801F12D.jpg. However, it is not clear why two separate and different forms were created by Ibn-Tibbon.

(30)Image 100000000000002C00000022EF24D537F9993BE4.jpg

  • 96 Repentance, chapter 10.

(a)Image 10000000000000C400000031FFF95968F0864065.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000C9000000207E18E0752014D956.jpgImage 100000000000021E0000002161F722FF7A7EF2DD.jpgImage 100000000000002E0000001BB2EB5791E6079668.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000001590000001CA29C91DB79868FF2.jpgImage 100000000000012800000024CEFBF8D0BCE70052.jpg; Hyamson: ‘occupying themselves in these concerns, with their physical senses, only when it is necessary and urgent, because they regard this world cheaply’.96

  • 97 The service of God, chapter 5.

(b)Image 10000000000000A50000003258124B58B8EC22A9.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000DD0000002058D617C8D8F30E82.jpgImage 100000000000022000000024F33F46636D14ACDE.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000019C000000217B70D50A1C1E6EAC.jpgImage 1000000000000124000000224C2E57ED93301746.jpg; Hyamson: ‘one of them is love of physical pleasures — eating, drinking, excessive gratification of the sexual impulse and other bodily needs’.97

(31)Image 100000000000003700000022BD2DCD236E062467.jpg

  • 98 Abstinence, chapter 2.

Image 10000000000000BC00000030EA449C056B6AF4DC.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000001100000002435ABF68024C9AF93.jpgImage 100000000000010B0000001FCB6B6BE08217BD32.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000C200000020ADDFE95C921A50D3.jpgImage 100000000000015100000021557D19544D25821C.jpgHyamson: ‘another said that abstinence means denying oneself all relaxation and physical pleasure’.98

  • 99 Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, pp. 3096–3097.

According to Ben-Yehuda,99 the nounImage 10000000000000320000002695C8FB60AE0CE6BE.jpgis the verbal noun of the verbImage 100000000000003200000021DA6309185A6DFDEF.jpg‘to count’ in the Qal stem. The rabbinic meanings ofImage 10000000000000300000002982B94DB902AA587A.jpgare ‘number’ (a synonym for the Hebrew wordImage 10000000000000480000002828AD677EED6F62C0.jpgand ‘counting’ (a synonym to the Hebrew wordImage 100000000000004100000022D659E5F4D247FB19.jpg. Only in medieval Hebrew does the lexemeImage 10000000000000300000001FD8EC9B339E9FA136.jpgacquire the meaning of a group of ten men. In his creation of the wordImage 100000000000003300000026E352ED80FFCC8D84.jpgIbn-Tibbon uses the original rabbinic meaning.

It is interesting to note that in Ibn-Tibbon’s translation method, which is at times literal and at times contextual, the adjectiveImage 1000000000000035000000244760D5BC209100A8.jpgin the following examples correlates alternatively with the Arabic maṣdar — equivalent (a) — and with an Arabic adjective — equivalent (b):

(32)Image 100000000000003A000000219B1DBE3C72373DEB.jpg

  • 100 For this meaning of the root(...)
  • 101 Repentance, chapter 9.

(a)Image 100000000000007100000024812FE31EA026B565.jpg:100 Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000FC0000002165A27CE46922C90F.jpgImage 100000000000021A00000023095B30C2590EFAF1.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000019E000000248501D98EDC58FD20.jpgImage 10000000000000F70000001DF08AE0C3DFD8C8B8.jpg; Hyamson: ‘they approached subjects belonging to abstract thought, mathematics and applied sciences; they rent the curtain that kept them from seeing ways that are hidden’.101

  • 102 The unity of God, chapter 7.

(b)Image 100000000000008C000000273B7743EA87CB82D6.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 1000000000000114000000214D899ABD3D508927.jpgImage 100000000000011E0000002061602F9D07FE103A.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000006E0000001C14AD726C58645791.jpgImage 100000000000016F000000245B32925B10AB6FB8.jpg; Hyamson: ‘that unity preceded it, just as the numeral one precedes the remaining numbers’.102

  • 103 See, e.g., Hans Bauer and Pontus Leander, Historische Grammatik der hebräischen Sprache (Halle: Nie (...)

The suffix -ūt: this suffix, which expresses abstract ideas, has its origin in III-waw nouns to which the feminine suffix -t was added, e.g.,Image 100000000000007600000020E1BC620FA5104AAE.jpg. Its use was later expanded to non-III-waw roots, consequently forming part of new nominal patterns, e.g., qǝṭilūt, qaṭlūt, hiqqaṭǝlūt, and hitqaṭṭǝlūt — probably due to Aramaic influence, where this suffix is used to form the verbal noun.103

(33)Image 10000000000000500000002376D038B25E302209.jpg

This lexeme was created by the suffixation ofImage 100000000000002A00000021A29CD6FA5186DADD.jpgto the lexemeImage 100000000000003900000022AB3A3871F1A4E9B5.jpgAll four equivalents below have the meanings ‘unimportance’ and ‘vice’:

  • 104 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

(a)Image 10000000000000B000000024A192BC42E28CB601.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000E00000001FF66F95C58AA8E5BC.jpgImage 1000000000000217000000243C067056238C45EE.jpgIbn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000019600000023D85CA5CFB3C160CB.jpgImage 10000000000001560000001D34C43B829AF748DC.jpg; Hyamson: ‘if you use so much diligence and effort to further the well-being of your body, despite its pettiness and unworthiness’.104

  • 105 Ibid.

(b)Image 10000000000000940000002B451F17A506BCBBEF.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000FB00000023D6E06657578E7F66.jpgImage 100000000000009000000020690F59AD1FD9FDC8.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000011200000022A62446CCF98C8E66.jpgImage 100000000000005F0000001BFE6D64DA4CB7F9E0.jpg; Hyamson: ‘do you realize how faulty and mean your behaviour in this regard has been?’.105

  • 106 Ibid.

(c)Image 100000000000007600000029A88F4E7C0BFCAEFA.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 1000000000000128000000252033938E81A6EDE0.jpgImage 100000000000019A00000026E48856C167B94344.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 100000000000022200000024593739E2D12BC254.jpgImage 1000000000000056000000265131C7201C3B9F83.jpg; Hyamson: ‘O my God, neither my ignorance of my insignificance, nor my little knowledge of Thy greatness’.106

  • 107 Wholehearted devotion, chapter 5.

(d)Image 100000000000009E000000264A034752BDE5DA72.jpg: Ibn-Paquda:Image 10000000000000FD00000024E1717B595C2F704B.jpgImage 10000000000000F800000025388B81753465FED2.jpg; Ibn-Tibbon:Image 10000000000000AC00000021A928F8DDEE6C144E.jpgImage 10000000000001A80000002275308BABAE97E79F.jpg; Hyamson: ‘since this is so, it would be a manifest degradation and a despicable error to trouble my soul with this world and set my thought upon it’.107

4. Conclusion

29From the examples presented above, it is obvious that rabbinic Hebrew was a significant part of the nominal lexicon used by Judah Ibn-Tibbon to translate Duties of the Hearts, whether he included rabbinic lexemes that were used with no morphological or semantic changes, biblical lexemes with semantic shifts that occurred in rabbinic Hebrew, rabbinic lexemes that were given new meanings by Ibn-Tibbon, or morphological neologisms that were created by Ibn-Tibbon himself.

30As previously noted, this small demonstration serves to indicate the state of the lexicon in Ibn-Tibbon’s translations. Aside from several semantic shifts, which are relatively rare in all periods of Hebrew (i.e., ellipsis and folk etymology), it seems that Ibn-Tibbon used a systematic method for expanding the lexicon according to his needs and the Arabic original. The demonstration here presents this method and its basic components. Nevertheless, we should take into consideration the fact that this method was not employed exclusively with Rabbinic Hebrew by Ibn-Tibbon, for he used the same approach and principles when enriching the lexicon with lexemes from all periods of Hebrew. It seems that methodologically, Ibn-Tibbon was familiar with semantic processes and with the grammatical characteristics of Hebrew and Arabic and that he unquestionably knew how to use them in order to enrich the Hebrew lexicon.

31As can be seen in the above examples, the same Hebrew lexeme is frequently used to translate several Arabic equivalents. This obviously reflects the condition of medieval Hebrew, and especially the richness of, and variety in, the Arabic lexicon, in comparison with the insufficiency of Hebrew. Although this is the case with most of the Hebrew entries, one should take into consideration that, at times, the opposite occurred, when the same Arabic lexeme had several Hebrew equivalents. Frequently Ibn-Tibbon created neologisms by adding suffixes to an existing Hebrew lexeme (a lexeme from an earlier stage of Hebrew or a neologism of his own). This suggests a moderately automatic way for creating neologisms and enriching the Hebrew lexicon. Similarly, for Ibn-Tibbon the creation of verbal nouns and nouns from existing Hebrew roots has become a productive method for new lexemes.

32Semantically, the lexicon of Rabbinic Hebrew in this translation is varied. An analysis of all the rabbinic entries suggests that the semantic fields from which they were taken were rich and broad, and they correlate with all the subjects Ibn-Paquda deals with in his book: Halakhah (Jewish law), nature, proficiency, economics, time, the human body, faith, knowledge, society, and culture.

In light of all that has been stated above, I have some reservations regarding the declarations of Jewish authors and translators about the state of Hebrew in their era. Although classical Hebrew did not provide all the vocabulary needed in medieval times, it did provide the linguistic and lexical bases on which the lexicon could be evolved. Therefore, as I mentioned above, I believe that these statements regarding the ‘insufficiency of Hebrew’ reflect the approach of these authors and translators to the purity of HebrewImage 100000000000008200000024D2EA2773AA7896E6.jpg, and not only to the state of the language: Classical Hebrew supplied all their lexical and morphological needs, and enabled them to create neologisms. Because they needed the neologisms to translate and compose different works, they had to ‘violate’ the principle of preserving Hebrew as an ancient and holy language.


1 This article is based on some of the findings presented in my PhD dissertation, supervised by Matthew Morgenstern and Tamar Zewi: Barak Avirbach, “The Translation Method of R. Judah Ibn-Tibbon: Issues of Version and Lexicon in His Translation of ‘The Duties of the Hearts’ by R. Bahye Ibn-Paquda” (Haifa University, 2015). These findings were also presented at the 2016 International Workshop on Rabbinic Hebrew, University of Cambridge.

2 Israel Zinberg, A History of Jewish Literature, vol. 1: The Arabic-Spanish Period (transl. Bernard Levin; Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve University, 1972), p. 117; Yehuda Isenberg, “Reason and Emotion in ‘Duties of the Heart’” (in Hebrew), Daat 7 (1981), pp. 5–35; Georges Vajda, “Baḥya (Bahye) Ben Joseph Ibn Paquda”, in: Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik (eds.), Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed.; Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007), vol. 3, pp. 66–67.

3 Zinberg, A History. It is possible that this is the main reason for the fact that we know so little about Ibn-Paquda himself: the focus was on his writings, while the author was forgotten.

4 Yosef Qafiḥ, Torat Ḥovot ha-Levavot: The Origial Arabic Text with a New Hebrew Translation (in Hebrew and Judaeo-Arabic; Jerusalem: Akiva Yosef, 1973), p. 8.

5 Eliezer Schweid, Our Great Philosophers (in Hebrew; Tel-Aviv: Yediot Ahronot, 1999), p. 60. I am currently working on a new publication of this remnant, which has already been published in three different editions by Adolph Jellinek (Leipzig, 1846), David Sluzki (Moscow, 1871), and Avraham Tsifroni (Jerusalem, 1928). I am comparing these editions of the text with the original manuscript (Leipzig UBL B.H. 39), in order to focus on some major inaccuracies in the printed editions.

6 Ira Robinson, “The Ibn Tibbon Family: A Dynasty of Translators in Medieval ‘Provence’”, in: Jay M. Harris (ed.), Beʾerot Yitshak: Studies in Memory of Isadore Twersky (Cambridge: Center for Jewish Studies, Harvard University, 2005), pp. 193–224, at p. 199.

7 Ibid., p. 200.

8 Ibid., p. 201.

9 See, for example, the opinions of Saadia Gaon in Ha-Egron (ed. Allony, p. 151), of Ibn-Janaḥ in Sefer ha-Riqmah (ed. Vilenski, p. 11), and of Judah Halevi in Ha-Kuzari, for which see Yosef Qafiḥ (ed.), Sefer ha-kuzari (Kiryat Ono: Makhon Mishnat ha-Rambam, 1977), pp. 80–82.

10 Towards the end of the Translator’s Preface to the Ḥovot ha-Levavot, p. 5, in the Moscow edition (Torat Ḥovot ha-Levavot, Moscow: Goldman, 1875).

11 See his apologetic remark, ibid.

12 For all entries see my PhD dissertation, Avirbach, “The Translation Method of R. Judah Ibn-Tibbon”.

13 New meanings for lexemes which occur in Classical Hebrew.

14 New lexemes which were created by using existing morphological elements.

15 Compound noun which did not occur in Classical Hebrew but were based on Classical Hebrew lexemes.

16 In this paper I will not discuss phrases of any kind.

17 As it appears in Qafiḥ, Torat Ḥovot ha-Levavot. Words in angle brackets refer to portions of the Arabic original which were not translated by Ibn-Tibbon.

18 Duties of the Heart, with English translation by Moses Hyamson (5 vols., New York: Bloch Publishing 1925–1945; repr. Jerusalem: Kiryah Neʾemanah, 1965). Hereafter: Hyamson.

19 For the biblical meaning see Francis Brown, Samuel R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906), p. 7; for the rabbinic meaning see Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit ha-Yeshana ve-ha-Ḥadasha (Berlin: Langenscheidt, 1908–1959), pp. 7–8.

20 The unity of God, chapter 10.

21 The service of God, chapter 5.

22 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

23 Introduction.

24 This is also the opinion expressed in Qafiḥ, Sefer ha-Kuzari, and in Hyamson.

25 Brown-Driver-Briggs, Lexicon, p. 338; Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, p. 1659.

26 The service of God, chapter 3.

27 Brown-Driver-Briggs, Lexicon, p. 476

28 Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, pp. 2346–2347.

29 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

30 Ibid.

31 Brown-Driver-Briggs, Lexicon, p. 996; Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, p. 6934.

32 Repentance, opening.

33 On whether this is a case of guttural weakening or of Aramaic influence, see Shimon Sharvit, “The Verbal Noun PatternImage 100000000000003B0000001E5D2CE97D41CBF9A7.jpgin Tannaitic Hebrew”, in: Aharon Maman, Steven E. Fassberg, and Yochanan Breuer (eds.), Shaʿarei Lashon: Studies in Hebrew, Aramaic and Jewish Languages Presented to Moshe Bar-Asher, vol. 2: Rabbinic Hebrew and Aramaic (in Hebrew; Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 2007), pp. 301–322, at p. 304; Uri Mor, Judean Hebrew: The Language of the Hebrew Documents from Judea Between the First and the Second Revolts (Jerusalem: The Academy of Hebrew Language, 2015), p. 91 n. 53, and the references there.

34 The service of God, chapter 4.

35 The love of God, chapter 7.

36 Examination of creation, chapter 6.

37 Abstinence, chapter 5.

38 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

39 For references see the Maagarim on-line database of the Academy of the Hebrew Language.

40 Trust in God, opening.

41 Spiritual accounting, chapter 6.

42 The service of God, chapter 4.

43 The service of God, chapter 3.

44 Examination of creation, opening.

45 The love of God, chapter 3.

46 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

47 The unity of God, chapter 7.

48 Examination of creation, chapter 3.

49 The love of God, chapter 1. For the words inside the angle brackets see note 16 above.

50 The service of God, chapter 3.

51 The unity of God, chapter 6.

52 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

53 The unity of God, chapter 8.

54 Introduction.

55 The service of God, chapter 1.

56 The unity of God, chapter 6.

57 Introduction.

58 The service of God, chapter 4.

59 Abstinence, chapter 2.

60 Spiritual accounting, chapter 4.

61 For further discussion and examples, see Avirbach, “The translation method of R. Judah Ibn-Tibbon”, pp. 358–359.

62 Humility, chapter 6.

63 Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, pp. 811.

64 Introduction.

65 E.g., Gen. 8.15.

66 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

67 Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, pp. 640.

68 E.g., Avraham Even-Shoshan, Milon Even-Shoshan (6 vols.; Tel-Aviv: Hamilon Heḥadash, 2003), Yaakov Knaani, Otsar ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit (18 vols.; Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv: Masada, 1960–1989); Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit.

69 The unity of God, chapter 9.

70 The unity of God, chapter 2.

71 Repentance, chapter 9.

72 Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, pp. 7493–7494.

73 The love of God, chapter 7.

74 Abstinence, chapter 1.

75 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

76 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

77 The love of God, chapter 7.

78 Repentance, chapter 7.

79 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

80 Trust in God, chapter 3.

81 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

82 Repentance, chapter 5.

83 Trust in God, chapter 4.

84 Introduction.

85 Trust in God, chapter 5.

86 Examination of creation, chapter 3.

87 The service of God, chapter 5.

88 The service of God, chapter 7.

89 Trust in God, chapter 5.

90 Trust in God, chapter 4.

91 Wholehearted devotion, chapter 5.

92 The service of God, chapter 5.

93 See e.g., Noah Shapira, “The Development of the Terminology of Chemistry in Hebrew” (in Hebrew), Leshonenu 24 (1960), pp. 95–105.

94 Qafiḥ, Torat Ḥovat ha-Levavot, p. 108.

95 Examination of creation, chapter 5.

96 Repentance, chapter 10.

97 The service of God, chapter 5.

98 Abstinence, chapter 2.

99 Ben-Yehuda, Milon ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, pp. 3096–3097.

100 For this meaning of the rootImage 100000000000002B000000202FF87E216ECAEFED.jpg, cf. Joshua Blau, A Dictionary of Mediaeval Judaeo-Arabic Texts (Jerusalem: The Academy of the Hebrew Language and The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities), p. 421.

101 Repentance, chapter 9.

102 The unity of God, chapter 7.

103 See, e.g., Hans Bauer and Pontus Leander, Historische Grammatik der hebräischen Sprache (Halle: Niemeyer, 1922), pp. 505–506; Emil Kautzsch (ed.), Gesenius’ Hebrew Grammar (2nd English edition, trans. by Arthur E. Cowley; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), p. 241 (§86k); Raphael Nir, Word-formation in modern Hebrew (in Hebrew; Tel-Aviv: The Open University Press, 1993), pp. 75–76. Cf. also Zeʾev Ben-Ḥayyim’s note at the end of Aharon Reuveni’s “Letter to the Editor”, Leshonenu 16 (1949), pp. 223–224.

104 Spiritual accounting, chapter 3.

105 Ibid.

106 Ibid.

107 Wholehearted devotion, chapter 5.


Is a lecturer at the Department of Hebrew Language and at the MEd program, Oranim Academic College of Education, Tivon (Israel). His main research interest is Medieval Hebrew and Judaeo-Arabic, especially aspects of its lexicon, morphology, syntax, philology, translation studies and mutual influence. In his doctoral dissertation he presented a philological survey of the witnesses to Ibn-Tibbon’s translation of Ibn-Paquda’s Duties of the Hearts, and composed a Hebrew–Arabic glossary of the entire nominal lexicon in this translation.


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