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OpenEdition Books

Frontier Encounters

 | 
Franck Billé
, 
Grégory Delaplace
, 
Caroline Humphrey

Index

Texte intégral

Index

Administration 12, 14, 36, 40, 41, 43, 84, 96–99, 116, 120, 125, 127, 166, 170, 186, 197, 204, 229

administrative divisions 29, 44, 50, 53, 65, 188–91, 197, 243

Afghanistan 19

Aga (see Buryat) 139, 147, 162, 192

Aggression (Japanese) 185

Aimag 40, 127, 138, 156, 190, 191, 237, 243

Altai Mountain 10, 200, 202, 203, 205

Altai Republic 66, 236, 237

Altan-Bulag 238–39

Amur River 62, 67, 68, 87, 89, 97, 99, 101, 103, 104, 107–10

Anderson, Benedict 11, 199, 201

Anthrax 186

Anxiety 15, 20, 21, 30, 140

Architecture 30, 120, 257, 266 (see also Urbanism)

Argun River 165

Arkhangelsk 185

Army
Chinese 38, 42, 45, 127, 200, 204
Japanese 190
Kwantung 146, 190
Russian (Imperial) 87
Soviet 171, 172, 190

Arts-Sur’ 237, 239

Ataman Semenov 151, 167, 168, 171, 173, 178

Barrier, cultural 183, 192

natural 37

psychological 10, 46–50, 152

Baruun Shenehen 191

Baruun Somon 157, 185

Bassin, Mark 57, 58, 59, 69

Bayan-Ölgii 237 Bears 10, 202, 203, 206

Belarus 30, 212

Bingtuan (see “Shengchan jianshe bingtuan”) Biography, life story 114–17, 140, 146, 151, 156, 159, 167, 170, 175, 177, 179

Birobidzhan 104

Blagoveshchensk 87

Boli 伯力(see Khabarovsk) 27

Bolshevik 193, 228
anti-Bolshevik movement 151
language 174
Revolution 6

Border
affective 51
“border civilisation” 60–61
border-crossing infrastructure 8, 30, 78, 193, 235–43
borderlands 1, 2, 6–7, 16, 21, 24, 26, 27, 30, 36, 37, 165, 167, 168, 170, 171, 172, 174, 175, 180, 205
community 151, 162, 166, 167, 172, 176–81, 183, 184, 187, 188, 192, 194
control, procedures 2, 3, 8, 9, 13, 14, 40, 41, 84, 131, 166, 168, 183, 193, 209, 236, 237, 240, 241
crossing 3, 5, 7, 8, 12, 13, 16, 28, 30, 51, 64, 69, 111, 112, 116, 131, 135, 148, 149, 150, 154, 157, 158, 162, 184, 203, 205, 235–41
disputes 15, 19, 20, 31, 193
equipment 8–9, 171, 236, 237, 240, 242
guards 10, 30, 41, 61, 64, 65, 69, 103–05, 108, 131, 162, 167, 175, 191, 208
internal 39–47, 50–53, 62
inter-Mongolian 40–43
patrols (see Border guards)
subversion 14–17, 99–110, 148–53

Borshoo 237, 239

Bribes 102, 105, 106 (Fig. 2), 131, 132, 203

Buddhism 48, 153, 220, 230 (see also Temple)

Buildings 8, 28, 118, 120, 121, 146, 208, 213, 218, 222, 226, 228, 232, 233, 236, 242 (see also Infrastructure)

Buriad (see Buryat)

Buryat
Aga 139, 147, 162, 192
Agin 139, 153, 154, 155, 157, 159, 161, 162, 186
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 138, 195, 196, 197, 212, 216, 225, 236–38

Barguzin 186
Khorin 186
Selenge 186
Shenehen 11, 140, 143, 144, 146, 149, 152–54, 159, 183–98

Bus 127, 208, 222

Business 9, 26, 78, 102–04, 205

Businessmen 123, 125, 127, 135, 203
(see also Entrepreneurs, Traders)

Capital (flows), 76, 85, 199

Caterpillar fungus 冬蟲夏草
(Dongchong xiacao), 202

Catfish 101
Central Asia 14, 19, 58, 172, 173, 184, 220
Ceremony (see Ritual)
Chanjuud 113, 114, 118, 123, 127, 135Check points 8, 9, 193, 199, 204, 208, 236–43

China (People’s Republic of China) 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 19–23, 26–30, 33–53, 55–57, 59, 61–63, 65, 67, 69, 72–75, 77, 78, 80–82, 84–87, 89, 91, 93, 94, 97, 98, 101–05, 107–14, 121, 123–25, 130, 132, 134, 135, 138, 140, 147, 153, 157–59, 161–63, 165, 167, 168, 171–73, 175, 181, 183–85, 187, 189–96, 198, 200–04, 206, 207, 209, 211, 229, 231, 233, 245 (Map. 1)
territorial claims 19, 20, 23, 27, 82, 184, 186, 207, 229

Chinatowns 84
language 15, 19–32, 34–36, 48, 111, 114, 115, 138, 194
people 10, 11, 15, 16, 34, 35, 37–40, 42–51, 53, 71–87, 89, 94–110, 116, 117, 123–29, 157, 159, 170, 172, 186, 191, 196, 202, 203, 207, 213, 215, 218, 219, 228–33

Chinese Central Television (CCTV) 中央电视台, 195

Chinese Eastern Railways (CER) 188, 189, 191

Chinggis Khan (Chingis Khan) 28, 32, 37

Chingis Khan’s Northern Wall 28, 32

Chita 64, 155–57, 161, 162, 168, 180, 189

City 9–11, 28, 33, 34, 63, 87, 92, 111–14, 116–18, 120–35, 155, 168, 202–04, 208, 211–33, 245 (Map 1)

Civil War

Chinese, 52

Russian 6, 16, 64, 87, 148, 149, 171, 173–75, 179–81, 183, 185, 191

Civilisation 7, 16, 37, 55–64, 67, 75, 79, 86, 165 (see also “Border civilisation”)

Clichés (see “Stereotypes”)

Coastal waters 31

Collectivisation 185

Colonialism; colony 50, 51, 79, 94, 98, 105, 161, 166, 168, 169, 178, 200, 212, 213, 226, 227, 230, 233

Colonisation 138, 161, 169, 185

Commodity 13, 78, 100, 106, 112, 113, 118, 123, 192, 213, 230–31

Common pool resources 16, 89–93

Cossacks 6, 9, 11, 16, 61, 64–69, 78, 151, 167–81, 185 (see also Guran)

Cossacks, territorial claims 68, 69

Criminality 21, 82, 94, 96, 97, 105, 175, 176, 193

Chinese, 85

Cultural Revolution 文化大革命 (see Revolution)

Culture 1, 2, 6, 7, 20, 26–31, 43, 47–52, 55, 56, 58, 60–66, 71–74, 77, 79, 84, 87, 129, 135, 140, 141, 143, 148, 152, 161, 163, 165, 166, 169–81, 183–88, 194–97, 199, 205, 208, 221

subcultures, 179

Currency (see Money)

Customs 43, 93, 94, 97, 99, 103, 105, 107, 235–37, 240

Customs authorities 97, 241

Boundaries agreements 20

physical 28, 32, 53, 201, 248 (Map 4)

political 20, 21, 25, 27, 29, 30, 31, 42, 50, 51, 52, 56, 62, 90, 99, 137, 140, 150, 183, 184, 185, 199, 201, 209, 248 (Map 4)

social 30, 39, 47, 49, 51, 53, 141, 169, 191, 199, 205

spiritual 24, 69

Bribes 102, 105, 106 (Fig. 2), 131, 132, 203

Buddhism 48, 153, 220, 230 (see also Temple)

Buildings 8, 28, 118, 120, 121, 146, 208, 213, 218, 222, 226, 228, 232, 233, 236, 242 (see also Infrastructure)

Buriad (see Buryat) Buryat

Aga 139, 147, 162, 192

Agin 139, 153, 154, 155, 157, 159, 161, 162, 186

Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 138, 195, 196, 197, 212, 216, 225, 236–38 Barguzin 186

Khorin 186

Selenge 186

Shenehen 11, 140, 143, 144, 146, 149, 152–54, 159, 183–98

Bus 127, 208, 222

Business 9, 26, 78, 102–04, 205

Businessmen 123, 125, 127, 135, 203 (see also Entrepreneurs, Traders)

Capital (flows), 76, 85, 199

Caterpillar fungus 冬蟲夏草 (Dongchong xiacao), 202

Catfish 101

Central Asia 14, 19, 58, 172, 173, 184, 220

Ceremony (see Ritual)

Chanjuud 113, 114, 118, 123, 127, 135

Check points 8, 9, 193, 199, 204, 208, 236–43

China (People’s Republic of China) 1, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 15, 16, 19–23, 26–30, 33–53, 55–57, 59, 61–63, 65, 67, 69, 72–75, 77, 78, 80–82, 84–87, 89, 91, 93, 94, 97, 98, 101–05, 107–14, 121, 123–25, 130, 132, 134, 135, 138, 140, 147, 153, 157–59, 161–63, 165, 167, 168, 171–73, 175, 181, 183–85, 187, 189–96, 198, 200–04, 206, 207, 209, 211, 229, 231, 233, 245 (Map. 1)

territorial claims 19, 20, 23, 27, 82, 184, 186, 207, 229

Chinatowns 84 language 15, 19–32, 34–36, 48, 111, 114, 115, 138, 194

people 10, 11, 15, 16, 34, 35, 37–40, 42–51, 53, 71–87, 89, 94–110, 116, 117, 123–29, 157, 159, 170, 172, 186, 191, 196, 202, 203, 207, 213, 215, 218, 219, 228–33

Chinese Central Television (CCTV) 中央电视台, 195

Chinese Eastern Railways (CER) 188, 189, 191

Chinggis Khan (Chingis Khan) 28, 32, 37

Chingis Khan’s Northern Wall 28, 32

Chita 64, 155–57, 161, 162, 168, 180, 189

City 9–11, 28, 33, 34, 63, 87, 92, 111–14, 116–18, 120–35, 155, 168, 202–04, 208, 211–33, 245 (Map 1)

Civil War
Chinese, 52
Russian 6, 16, 64, 87, 148, 149, 171, 173–75, 179–81, 183, 185, 191
Civilisation 7, 16, 37, 55–64, 67, 75, 79, 86, 165 (see also “Border civilisation”) Clichés (see “Stereotypes”)

Coastal waters 31

Collectivisation 185

Colonialism; colony 50, 51, 79, 94, 98, 105, 161, 166, 168, 169, 178, 200, 212, 213, 226, 227, 230, 233

Colonisation 138, 161, 169, 185

Commodity 13, 78, 100, 106, 112, 113, 118, 123, 192, 213, 230–31

Common pool resources 16, 89–93

Cossacks 6, 9, 11, 16, 61, 64–69, 78, 151, 167–81, 185 (see also Guran)

Cossacks, territorial claims 68, 69

Criminality 21, 82, 94, 96, 97, 105, 175, 176, 193

Chinese, 85

Cultural Revolution 文化大革命 (see Revolution)

Culture 1, 2, 6, 7, 20, 26–31, 43, 47–52, 55, 56, 58, 60–66, 71–74, 77, 79, 84, 87, 129, 135, 140, 141, 143, 148, 152, 161, 163, 165, 166, 169–81, 183–88, 194–97, 199, 205, 208, 221
subcultures, 179

Currency (see Money)

Customs 43, 93, 94, 97, 99, 103, 105, 107, 235–37, 240

Customs authorities 97, 241

Customs clearance 123, 193

Customs duties 66

Customs inspection 193

Customs offices 120, 236, 239

Customs officials 65

Customs posts 30, 127, 241

Dagurs, 67, 69, 186

Dahurs (see Dagurs) Darhad, 220

Daurs (see Dagurs)

Davis, Sue 64, 65

Debt 125, 131–32, 229

Delimitation agreements 19

Demarcation 9, 19, 20, 23, 26, 28, 31, 36, 51, 53, 108, 184, 193, 248 (Map 4)

Demographic imbalance, 20, 30
shifts, 20

Demographics, 21, 22, 62, 73, 186

Deng Xiaoping 邓小平 192

Diaspora 72, 73, 137-163, 194, 196

Discrimination (ethnic) 14, 156, 168, 172, 178, 180

Distrust 49

Domination 114, 165, 169, 171, 176, 179, 200, 228, 229

Dongchong xiacao 冬蟲夏草 (see‘caterpillar fungus’)

Donnan, Hastings 2, 6, 8, 11, 21, 26, 37

Dornod 211, 216, 230, 238

Duara, Prasenjit 44, 201

Dugin, Aleksandr 58, 59, 66

East Turkestan Republic (Chinese Turkestan) 165, 200

Education 62, 74, 120, 133, 188, 192, 197, 207

Electricity supply 8, 122, 123, 236, 240

Empires 6, 9, 11, 33-53, 55-70, 73, 77, 99, 162, 169, 184, 185, 228, 229

Encroachment (Chinese) 21, 23, 47

Encroachment (Cossack) 69

Encroachment (Russian) 161

Entrepreneurial attitudes 21

Entrepreneurs (Chinese) 31, 84, 106, 109, 125, 203, 230

Entrepreneurship 81, 104

Erdentsav 238

Ereen 9, 135

Erlian 二连 (see Ereen)

Erlian-Zamyn Üüd Free Trade Zone 11, 112, 114, 115, 126, 134

Ethics (see morality)

Ethnicity 2, 6, 9, 11, 25-27, 35, 39, 40, 42­53, 55, 56, 62, 65, 66, 72, 87, 107, 109, 124, 126, 137, 138, 148, 155, 156, 158, 160-162, 166, 168-176, 178, 186-88, 190, 194-97, 199, 201, 205, 214, 216
(see also Relations)

Eurasia 57-69

Eurasianism 57-69

Evenki 16, 55, 67, 170, 176, 185, 186, 191

Evenks 65, 66

Ewenki (see Evenki)

Exile 6, 16, 143-153, 170, 172, 214

Expansion (Asian) 75

Expansion (Chinese) 11, 15, 22, 80, 82,

86 Expansion (demographic) 81, 83, 165, 82, 83

Expansion (Russian) 58, 60, 165

Expansion (territorial) 20, 26, 36

Expansion (urban) 114, 117, 118 (Fig. 4)

Exports 13, 77, 80, 99, 102-08, 113, 231, 239

Famines 47, 85, 168, 172, 200

Farmers 67, 90

Farms 101, 155, 157, 189, 192, 201, 204

Fei Xiaotong 费孝通 46

Fences 8, 37, 145, 199, 205-207, 209

Fish (conservation) 95, 97, 102, 104

Fish (products) 102, 103, 105

Fish (species) 31, 96, 98, 99-103

Fish (stocks) 89, 90, 97, 98, 100, 103, 108, 109

Fishermen 16, 90, 94, 95, 96, 100, 101, 103, 104, 107-10

Fishing (equipment) 96, 98, 105

Fishing (exports) 199, 102-105, 107, 108

Fishing (illegal/extralegal) 89-91, 96, 98-103, 105, 106

Fishing (informal) 90-95, 97, 99-107

Fishing industry 95, 96, 101, 104

Fishing practices/activities 89-110

Fishing regulations 93-97, 99, 100

Fishing resources 89-101, 103, 106, 107, 110

Fishing rights 16, 31, 93, 96, 102, 106 (Fig. 2)

Flags 45, 201, 207

Foreign 9, 24, 27, 63, 76, 77, 79, 86, 87, 96, 125, 143, 145, 152, 162, 173, 193, 195, 196, 204, 211-233, 239, 242, 243
(see also Stranger)

Fortifications 28, 146

Foucault, Michel 13, 14, 31

Foxes 202

Free-trade zones 99, 111-15, 131, 134-35

Freight 118, 120, 123, 135, 186, 237

Frontier (see borderlands) FSB (Russian Federal Security Service) 9, 64, 65, 93, 94, 97-99, 103-05, 107

Fu Manchu, Dr 74

Fumintai 福明泰 188

Funeral practices 68, 143

Gansu Province 甘肅 43, 46, 205

Garmayev, Urzhin 190

Gellner, Ernest 43, 199

Gender 111-35, 178

Gene pool 194, 195

Genghis Khan (see Chinggis Khan) Georgia 212

Ger (see yurt)

Germans (Russian Germans) 194

Ghost 9, 49, 127, 211-14, 230, 233

Gift 148, 149, 230-32

Glasnost’ (see transparency)

Globalization 2, 199

Gobi desert 121, 123

Gold 77, 91, 147, 230, 231

Goldfish 108

GPU (Gosudarstvennoye Politicheskoye Upravlenie) secret police 149, 151

Great Leap Forward 大跃进 200

Great Wall 长城 29, 39, 45, 46

Guanxi 关系 208

Gumilev, Lev 58, 61, 63

Guomindang 国民党 200

Guran 6, 11, 66, 169, 170

Hailar 海拉尔 151, 153, 188, 189, 192

Haishenwei 海參崴 (see also Vladivostok), 27

Halh (see Khalkha)

Han (non-Han) 49, 52, 190, 205

Han Chinese 27, 35, 39, 40, 43-47, 53, 123, 124, 126, 200, 202, 205

Han Dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE) 38

Han heartland 26

Harbin 哈尔滨 28, 167, 171

Hardin, G. 90, 93

Höhhot 呼和浩特 159

Homeland 16, 49, 77, 125, 137-63, 166, 181, 188, 192, 194, 198, 216, 225

Hometown (see Homeland)

Hong Kong 香港 205

Huaqiao <img> 22

Hulun Buir 呼伦贝尔 138, 139, 140, 151, 157, 186, 188, 190, 191, 195

Hunters 10, 202, 203, 205, 206

Identity 1, 2, 6, 7, 9, 35, 40, 42, 44, 46, 47, 55, 66, 140, 159, 161, 163, 166, 169, 170, 172, 174, 187, 194, 200, 205

Identity cards 208

Ideology 16, 36, 37, 56, 57, 62, 64, 74, 76, 80, 83, 156, 158, 168, 190, 194, 195, 209, 221, 232

Ili 伊犁

River Basin 200, 203

River Valley 200, 202

Illegality (see Law)

Imagination 10, 11, 19-32, 37, 38, 46, 53, 56, 60, 67, 69, 83, 86, 99, 138, 148, 151, 162, 169, 177, 199-201, 205-07, 209, 214, 220, 221, 226

Imports 13, 80, 91, 106, 123, 192, 193, 231, 239

Indigenous minorities 30, 55, 66, 67, 77, 99, 102, 105, 106 (Fig. 2), 139, 166-71, 175, 176, 179, 181

Industrial goods (see commodity)

Infrastructure (border-crossing) 8, 30, 78, 193, 235-43

Infrastructure (social/urban) 112, 117, 120, 123, 209, 212, 213, 215, 222, 223, 232 Infrastructure (transport) 118

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 内蒙古自治区 29, 34, 35, 40, 42, 44-46, 49, 50, 52, 123-25, 129, 132, 138, 139, 152, 153, 157-59, 163, 180, 187-90, 195-98

Inner Mongolia TV 内蒙古电视台 (NMTV), 195

Internet 28, 93, 94, 120, 161, 180, 212, 225-27

Iwashita, Akihiro 71

Japan; Japanese 6, 34, 44, 45, 46, 50, 71, 84, 85, 87, 126
militarism 6, 74, 75, 84, 146, 167, 172, 175, 185, 189, 190, 191

Jews 104, 194

Jimunai 吉木乃 10, 202–05, 208

Jin Dynasty (1115–1234) 28, 47

Jolooch 113, 114

Jurisdiction (see Law)

Kanas Lake Nature Reserve 喀纳斯湖 201

Karun 40, 41, 47, 50, 200

Kashgar 喀什 208

Kazakhstan 10, 19, 31, 68, 150, 168, 172, 186, 192, 200, 201, 204, 205, 207, 212 Khabarovsk 27, 98, 101, 108

Khalkha (Khalkh) 38, 39, 40, 48, 137, 156, 159, 225, 230

Khamnigans 186 Khandagaity 237, 239

Khankh 238–39

Khorgos 霍尔果斯 203

Khoshun 188, 189, 190

Khövsgöl 238

Kindergarten (see School)

Kinship 16, 124, 125–26, 137–63, 177, 186, 191, 214

KMT (see Guomindang)

Kolkhoz 156, 157

Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) 14, 19, 105
workforce 77

Kuomintang (see Guomindang)

Kyakhta 238–39

Kyrgyzstan 19, 31, 89, 192

Labour camps 189

Lama (see Buddhism)

Land disputes 68, 145

Latour, Bruno 3–4, 15

Lattimore, Owen 26, 29

Law 7–10, 12–14, 16, 20, 21, 37, 64, 65, 77, 79, 80, 82, 83, 89–110, 107, 111, 124, 130–31, 141, 148, 150, 158, 165–66, 169, 173, 175, 186, 189, 201, 203, 205–08, 225, 240, 241 (see also

Fishing, Market, Migration, Mining, Settlement, Trade)

Legality (see Law)

Legend 75, 146, 147, 168, 173–77, 179–81, 220

Lena River 169

Life story (see Biography) 114–17, 140, 146, 151, 156, 159, 167, 170, 175, 177, 179

Loss
of life 46, 190, 224
of revenues 90 (see also Poverty)
of territory 22, 78, 84, 143, 161, 165

Manchukuo 满洲国 146, 189, 190,

Manchuria 5, 24, 36, 47, 49, 58, 61, 167, 170, 176, 180, 189, 190, 192, 228

Manchus 10, 34, 36, 38–52, 55, 67–69, 186, 190, 228, 229, 232,

Mandarin (fish) 99, 100, 101

Mankurt 195

Manzhouli 满洲里 9, 28, 157, 245 (Map 1)

Mao Zedong 毛泽东 45

Maps 11, 26, 36, 62, 112, 116–17, 118, 123, 129, 162, 199–202, 206, 207, 212, 215, 225

Maritime Region (see Primorskii Krai)

Market economy 57, 79–81, 91, 100, 106, 109, 193, 201
illegal 208, 222
market city 112, 113

Markets 26, 117, 120, 125, 193, 222 (see also Shops)
open 87, 118, 121

Marriage 6, 83, 84, 123, 149, 169, 171, 187, 188, 192, 195, 202

Marriage (intermarriage) 6, 83, 84, 123, 169, 171, 202

Memory 41, 47, 49, 72, 112, 137–63, 166, 173, 174, 178–80, 184, 188, 214, 220–28, 230–31, 233

Mengguguo 蒙古国 29

Merse 墨尔色 188, 189

Migrant
phobia 72–74, 76, 87 (see also Stereotypes)

Migrants 12, 14, 22, 72, 82, 123, 124, 125, 128, 158, 166, 170, 171, 172, 197
Buryat 16, 143, 145, 147, 148, 155, 157, 161, 162, 187, 195
Chinese 20, 22, 47, 71–87, 117, 124, 205
Cossack 168, 170, 171, 172, 179, 180
illegal 83, 84, 85
Korean 73

Mongolian 113, 116, 117, 124, 125
Russian 170, 171, 181, 189
temporary-permanent 113, 117, 123, 125, 131, 135
workers (Chinese) 20, 22, 47, 71–87

Migration 13, 72, 77, 80, 138, 139, 142, 148, 168 (see also Law, Refugee)
Buryat 139, 147, 161, 183–98, 246
Chinese 13, 82, 83, 85, 116
creeping 84 cross-border 71, 183–98 (see also Border crossing)
economic 87, 163
forced 7, 11
illegal 7, 21, 64, 65, 80
policies 14, 72
pre-revolutionary 22
routes 139, 246 (Map 2), 247 (Map 3)
Russian 72, 178
seasonal/pendulum 73, 80, 125, 141, 147 (see also Nomadism) Military (see Army)

Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) 27, 29, 37, 38, 44

Mining 31, 78, 211, 215, 218, 233
diamonds 91
gold 91
illegal 77, 91
licences 220
towns 211–13, 215–28, 233
uranium 211–13, 215, 224, 232

Mistrust (see “Distrust”) Modernity 9, 26, 30, 36, 37, 42–44, 51, 74, 113, 120, 162, 165, 166, 179, 181, 190, 202, 206, 207, 220–24, 227, 232, 242

Modernisation 171, 174, 177, 188, 192, 194, 239, 243

Mondy 237–39

Money 78, 106, 112, 123, 125, 127, 128, 131, 133, 147, 201–04, 231

Moneychangers 123, 125

Mongolian People’s Revolutionary
Party 188, 189

Mongolian tribes 28, 40, 42, 48

Mongols
Barga 186–88
Horchin 40, 124, 132, 186
Morality 38, 49, 51, 66, 67, 82, 91, 104, 154, 155, 181, 195, 231

Mosques, 208

Mountain(s) 10, 33, 34, 39, 64, 75, 145, 146, 149, 168, 200, 202, 203, 204, 206, 236

Multiculturalism 48, 196

Mungen Shuluun 191

Murav’yev, General 57, 58

Muslims 40, 43, 200

Muzart Tagh 204, 207

Myanmar 19

Naimaachin 113–18, 123, 127, 135

Nation 7–11, 13–16, 20–23, 26–31, 33–38, 41, 42, 44, 46, 47, 50, 51, 53, 55–57, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 68, 71, 75, 80–83, 86, 90, 92, 93, 97, 98, 105, 106, 110, 135, 137, 140, 142, 143, 147, 148, 150, 152, 155, 159, 161–63, 165, 166, 169, 171–79, 181, 183–86, 190, 193–95, 199–202, 205–07, 209, 212, 219, 236, 237, 240–42

National airspace 31

Nationalism 6, 16, 27, 36, 39, 40, 42–48, 50–53, 58, 62, 63, 70, 75, 196, 200–02, 206, 207, 209, 210, 214, 229
Buryat 196
Chinese 27, 36, 39, 44, 45, 50, 52, 53, 75
discourse 16, 210
Kazakh 206, 207
Mongolian 39, 42, 45, 48, 50, 229
Russian 58,
violence 6, 229

Naushki 237–39

Neimenggu 内蒙古, 29

Neo-Eurasianism (see “Eurasianism”) Nepal 19

No-man’s land 8, 28

Nomad
encampment, 142, 144, 145, 148, 163, 184, 185
nomadic empires, 37
nomadic invasions, 37

Nomadism 113, 141, 147, 148, 152, 169, 184, 232 (n. 10)

Nomads 39, 41, 46, 53, 123, 137, 144, 168, 170, 184
semi-nomads 36, 39

North, Douglass C. 90, 91

Nostalgia 67, 142, 183, 192, 224–26

Nutag 49, 138, 141–47, 150, 153, 156–59, 161–63

Nutag (see also Homeland)

Oboo (cairn) 24, 40, 41, 50, 141, 145, 146

Oirad 40

Onon River 150, 151, 159

Opium War (1839–1842) 36

Outer Mongolia 27, 40, 42

Ovoo (see Oboo)

Pakistan 19

Panmongolism 46, 76, 191, 194

Passport 13, 125, 127, 131, 172, 207

Pastoralism 192, 194, 195, 198

Patrols 9, 16, 40, 41, 65, 148–50, 199, 203–06, 212 (see also Border guards)

“Peaceful Rise” 和平崛起 20

Phobia 72–76, 80, 82, 86, 87, 108

Poachers 7, 107, 109
Chinese 25, 77, 89, 98, 107, 108
informal networks 16, 104
Russian 98

Pollution 48, 92, 96, 103

Population 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16, 34, 35, 39, 46, 50, 55, 56, 63, 64, 65, 69, 75, 77–87, 99, 101, 103, 107, 109, 168, 169, 177, 189, 190, 207, 211–32

Postsocialism 6, 81, 137, 179, 224

Poverty 92, 114, 134, 231 (see also Loss of revenues)

Power 6, 11, 13, 22, 30, 36, 37, 41, 43, 44, 51, 56, 57, 59, 61, 63, 67, 75, 87, 109, 110, 113, 114, 133, 142, 144, 145, 171, 177, 180, 181, 183, 184, 186, 187, 213, 220

Power stations 90, 122, 123, 236

Primorskii Krai 22, 27

Propaganda 76, 170–75, 178, 179, 181, 201, 207, 228, 229, 232

Prostitution 111–35

Purges 189, 200, 220

Purity 9, 16, 34, 59, 67, 72, 157, 178, 180

Putin, Vladimir 63

Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) 5, 9, 10, 20, 35–36, 38–51, 53, 165, 184, 186, 200, 228, 229

Racial discourse; race; racism 6, 10, 72–75, 82–86, 167, 169, 170, 173, 180

Railways 8, 78, 111, 115, 117, 120, 121, 126, 127, 186, 188, 212, 215, 219, 236–38 (see also Chinese Eastern

Railway) Reclamation (of land), 201

Refugees 14, 47, 72, 85, 139, 145, 172, 186, 188, 194

Relations
border 19
cross-border 9, 71, 127, 211, 214, 233
gender 114
interethnic 11, 59, 63, 71–89, 155, 174, 214, 215, 229, 232, 233 (see also Ethnicity)
international 20, 36, 63, 71, 155, 157, 165, 185, 186, 189, 211, 235, 239, 243
power 114
sexual 129, 131
social 125, 139, 142, 150, 156, 158, 171, 177, 183, 188, 194, 196, 198
trade 125, 135, 229, 231, 235

Religion 48, 51, 67, 68, 79, 91, 168, 172, 178–80, 220

Renminbi (RMB) 人民币 (see Money)

Repatriation 6, 11, 158, 177, 192, 195, 213

Resettlements 72, 168, 195, 197

Resolution (of disputes) 19, 26, 241

Resources
common pool 16,
natural 31, 65, 81, 85, 89–98

Returnees 6, 194, 195, 197

Revolution

Bolshevik 6
Cultural Revolution 文化大革命 6, 28, 49, 52, 172, 189, 191, 192
Mongolian People’s 188
Rinchino Elbegdorj 188

Ritual 9, 16, 47, 67, 123, 137–63, 173–77, 180, 195, 207, 208, 214, 230, 231 (see also Funeral practices)

Road networks 8, 64, 78, 111, 113, 121, 123, 193, 203, 204, 208, 218, 236–42

Rosgranitsa (Russian Federal Agency for the Development of the State Border) 237, 240, 242

Ruins 8, 34, 211–33

Rumours 20, 221, 213, 219, 224, 229, 230

Russia, Tsarist 56, 166, 168, 169, 175, 200

Russian
language 15, 19–31, 63, 138, 204, 215
people 38, 49, 50, 56, 57, 59, 61, 64–69, 72, 75, 77–80, 83, 86, 89–110, 144, 156, 157, 161, 162, 167, 169–81, 185, 186, 192, 197, 211–14, 218–21, 224–33
Federation 56, 65, 90, 93, 95, 96, 211, 235–37, 240–42
Orthodoxy 28, 58, 66–68, 80, 169, 172
-Japanese War 87

Sahlins, Peter 26, 56

Sakhalin Island 23, 105

Salmon 16, 101, 102, 104, 109
Chum 101
Humpback 105, 109

Satellite image 8, 9, 28, 115, 119

Sayan Mountain Range 236

School 76, 113, 120, 172, 178, 192, 195, 212, 216, 222, 223, 225, 226

Sea of Okhotsk 27

Security 14, 63, 65, 69, 77, 97, 109, 185, 204, 208, 209

Segregation 39–50, 178

Selenge
Aimag 238
Buryats 186
River 236

Semenov, Ataman 151, 167, 168, 171, 173, 178

Semenovtsy 173, 175, 177, 179, 180

Settlement by Buryats 139, 145, 146, 159, 194, 195, 197
by Chinese 50, 79, 84
by Cossacks 64
by illegal migrants 83
by Russians 77, 212, 215
of claims (see Resolution)

Sex industry (see Prostitution)

Shamanism 16, 148, 149, 151, 170, 230, 231

Shanghai 上海, 205

Shanghai Five 192

Shara-Sur 237, 239

Shenehen (see Buryat Shenehen, Baruun Shenehen, Shenehen Zuun)

Shenehen Zuun 191

Shengchan jianshe bingtuan 生产建设兵团 200, 201, 204

Shops 117, 118, 120, 125, 129, 178, 193, 208, 212, 213, 216, 229
sex shops 129

Shuangchengzi 双城子 (see also Ussuriisk) 27

Siberia 21, 27, 40, 61, 79, 83, 86, 87, 138, 158, 162, 166, 168, 169, 170, 173, 174, 185, 192, 198, 228, 236
Eastern 138, 151, 158, 162, 166
Outer 165

Southern 40, 169, 185
taiga 1, 5, 57

Simmel, Georg 11, 12, 49, 72

Sinicisation 26, 76, 77

Sino-Soviet

Border Agreement 19, 193
split 28, 46, 63, 83, 184, 200, 229

Smuggling 7, 64, 77, 91, 94, 97–99, 102, 103, 193

Solovyovsk 237–38

Somon 155, 157, 185, 190, 191

Song Dynasty (960–1279) 38, 47

Songs 64, 67, 69, 150, 151, 157, 162, 229

Sovereignty 14, 40, 51, 71, 75, 81, 97, 191, 201, 212

Soviet
government 22, 28, 45, 46, 183, 185, 215, 220
regime 6, 66
army (see Army)
period 64, 73, 83, 87, 99, 100, 154, 180
prisons 149–51, 153, 172, 189, 190
secret police 146
society 171, 174, 177–79
specialists 167, 178, 179
troops 172, 184, 189, 190
Union 5, 19, 30, 37, 56, 57, 58, 68, 137, 143, 146, 152, 154, 156, 157, 165–67, 171, 172, 174, 176, 177, 179–81, 188–91, 193, 201, 209, 212, 215, 216, 225, 226, 232
-Chinese relations 185, 189
-Mongolian friendship 154, 155

Sovietisation 172, 179,

Spirits 16, 141, 144–46, 148, 149, 196, 231

State (see Nation)

Steppe Dumas 185 Stereotypes 10, 11, 72, 73, 85, 92, 174, 175, 178, 229 (see also Race, see also

Rumours)

Stranger 37, 49, 72, 85, 214 (see also Foreign)

Sturgeon 101, 104, 108 (see also Fish)

Sühbaatar 238–39

Symbols 37, 38, 45, 61, 69, 70, 74, 75, 76, 80, 133, 134, 142, 143, 144, 146, 150, 155, 168, 171, 176, 177, 180, 181, 201, 209, 212, 213
symbolic power 37, 38, 201
transactions 144
enemies 74 168

Taiwan 台湾 27

Tajikistan 19, 89, 192

Tang Dynasty (618–907)38

Tariffs 192

Tashanta 237, 239

Tatar tribes 28

Tax (collections) 131, 185, 228

Taxi drivers 120, 125, 126, 130, 204, 205, 208

Telecommunications 236, 242

Television 62, 81, 92, 123, 166, 195, 201, 207

Temple 146, 160, 192, 208, 220

Territorial claims 20, 23, 27, 68, 69, 82, 84, 184, 186, 198, 207, 229

Territorialisation 26

Tes 237, 239

Tian Shan 天山 200

Tibet 西藏 207

Tibetan monks 48 (see also Lama)

Tibetans 40, 43

Timber 91, 121

Tögrög (see Money)

Torture 77, 189

Tourism 30, 35, 113, 114, 134, 135, 202, 205, 243

Trade cross-border 9, 11, 16, 19, 64, 68, 159, 192, 193, 201, 207, 231
illegal and extralegal 65, 102, 202, 203, 219, 221
informal 7, 104, 111, 213, 219, 221
international 7, 45, 69, 201, 231, 239, 242, 243
retail 78, 80, 113, 118, 125, 135, 230–32, 243
suitcase; itinerant; shuttle 111, 113, 114, 118, 127, 192
wholesale 113, 117, 118, 120, 121, 123, 129, 135, 218, 243
turnover 239

Traders
Chinese 16, 31, 77, 125, 213, 230–32
Mongolian 111, 116 (Fig. 3), 118, 123, 125, 126, 135

Traffic
cargo, goods 235, 239, 240, 241
passengers 235, 237, 238, 241

Trafficking 98, 101, 102, 106

Tragedy of Accessibility (see “Tragedy of the Commons”) “Tragedy of the Commons” 89, 90, 93, 110

Train (see Railways)

Transbaikalia 66, 167–81

Transparency (policy of transparency), 211

Transport air 31, 236
chain 193, 235, 239
public 222
road 125–27, 156, 193, 240, 241, 243
water 222, 236

Trespassing 10, 41, 52, 53

Truck 113, 125, 219

Tsagaan-Nuur 237, 239

Tsagaan-Tolgoi 237, 239

Tsarist Russia (see Russia)

Tsydypov, Tsyden-Eshe 188

Turpan 吐鲁番 203

Tuva 27, 202, 205, 236, 237

Uda River 27 Ukraine 29, 30, 212, 242,

Ulaanbaatar 115, 127, 135, 159, 180, 213, 223, 230

Ulan-Ude 65, 159, 160, 225

Ulkhun 238

Unemployment 109, 193, 198

Ungern-Sternberg, Baron 87, 167

Urbanism 112, 116–23, 177 (see also Architecture)

Urga (Ulaanbaatar) 188

Urumqi 乌鲁木齐 203, 204, 208

USSR (see Soviet Union)

Ussuriisk 27, 64

Uzbekistan 212

Verkhny Ulkhun 238

Veterinary control 102, 105, 241

Violence 6, 33, 37, 42, 46, 50, 74, 77, 108, 134, 173, 227

Visa regime 13, 14, 104, 113, 125, 192

Vladivostok 27, 102, 103

Wall (see Fence, Great Wall) War

Chinese Civil War, 52

Opium War (1839–1842), 36

Russian Civil War 6, 16, 64, 87, 148, 149, 171, 173–75, 179–81, 183, 185, 191

Russian-Japanese 87

World War I 85, 185

World War II 69, 139, 151, 178, 185, 190, 215

Water
resources 89–110, 142
supply 8, 236, 240

Website (see Internet)

Wedding 159

Willow Palisade 10, 32, 33–36, 39, 45–47, 50, 53

Wilson, Thomas M. 2, 6, 8, 11, 21, 26, 37

Wolves 145, 202

X-ray inspection systems 242

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region 新疆维吾尔自治区, 24, 30, 53, 129, 199, 200, 202, 203, 205–08

Yakub Beg 200

“Yellow Peril” 11, 73–78, 81–87

Yunnan Province 云南, 205

Yurt, 114, 115, 131–34, 142, 144, 145

Zabaikalsk 28, 139, 236, 237, 238

Zavkhan 237

zheltoschyok (Elopichthys bambusa), 100, 101

Zhunghar Mongols 200

Acheter