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Peace and Democratic Society

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Amartya Sen

Part II. Civil Paths to Peace. Report of the Commonwealth Commission on Respect and Understanding

Index

Texte intégral

9/11 events 34, 123

Abu Ghraib prisoners 116

Achebe, Chinua 13

Afghanistan
dialogue 47
multilateralism 38, 111–13
poverty 20–1
rethinking 122
terrorism 49
women/consultation 84

Africa 73

Alderdice, John 27–8, 40

Alliance of Civilizations report, UN 97, 115–16

Al Qaeda 24

America 34, 50, 123

apartheid 19, 24–5

Appiah, Kwame Anthony 27–8, 40

arms exports 115

Audioslave music band 96

Australia 86–7, 94–5

Bangladesh 3–4, 20, 105–6

’belonging‛ 87–8

Big Power politics 108

Bombay (Mumbai) 19, 20, 68

Bonn Agreement 2001 112

Britain 50, 67–8, 126

Brixton race riots, Britain 126

Burundi 78

Calcutta (Kolkata) 17–20, 67–8

Calgacus (Scottish chief) 21–2

children
inequality 71
as soldiers 100
violence 48
see also young people

CHOGM see Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting

citizenship 87

Civil Paths to Peace report 2, 6, 24, 27–137
commission members 27–31
communication 93–7, 128–9
conclusions 123–31
conflict 75–80
education 99–106, 125, 129–30
executive summary 32–40
grievance 75–80, 125–6
historical aspects 75–80
humiliation 67–74, 125–6
inequality 67–74, 126
the international order 107–20
media 93–7, 128–9
multilateralism 107–20, 122–4, 131
nature/nurture of violence 59–66
political participation 81–92, 126–8
poverty 67–74
preface 133–5
presentation letter 136–7
the way forward 121–31
why respect/understanding matter 41–57
young people 99–106, 129–30

civil society 1–25
development 127
initiatives 2, 5
organizations 36, 79, 86–7
violence 1–25

Clarkson, Adrienne 27, 29, 40

’clash of civilisations‛ theory 10–12, 14, 34, 53–4, 134

colonialism 72–3

the Commission see Commonwealth Commission on Respect and Understanding

Commonwealth 44–7
countries in conflict 48
dialogue 45, 47
learning from the past 122–3
membership 118
networks 46
political participation 89–90
principles/values 46–7, 89–90
renewal 105
ways of working 45–6
why respect/understanding matter 44–7
see also Commonwealth

’Commonwealth approach? 33
dialogue and dignity 122
multilateral approaches 38
political participation 89
respect/understanding 33, 44

Commonwealth Commission on Respect and Understanding (the Commission) agreed emphases 33
’Commonwealth approach?33
executive summary 32–3
members 27–31
shared forums 33
violence and civil society 2, 6, 24
why commission established 121
written submissions to 147–8
see also Civil Paths to Peace

Commonwealth Foundation 64

Commonwealth Games 37–8, 102

Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) 32, 121, 133, 136

Commonwealth Secretary-General 38, 39, 110, 133, 135

Commonwealth Youth Games 102

Commonwealth Youth Programme 101, 105

communication 83–4, 93–7, 128–9

community-building 88

confidence-building 88–9, 90

conflict 34, 75–80
confidence-building 88–9
education 104–5
media exacerbation 93–4
media roles 96–7
Middle East 115–16
why respect/understanding matter 47–8
see also violence

consultation styles 83–4

see also dialogue

cooperation, regional 118–20

counter-terrorism 50–1

crime 5, 17–18, 68

Cronulla Beach, Australia 94–5

cultural contexts 46

cultural diversity 4

cultural influences 34, 56–7

cultural theories
government action 55–7
remedies to theories 55
root causes 53–7
violence 10–15, 19, 23

Declaration of Commonwealth Principles 45

Delhi 18, 20

Democracy
civil initiatives 2
Commonwealth 47
developed countries 117
political participation 90–2

dialogue
multilateralism 109, 123–4, 135
political participation 81, 88–90
religious groups 3–4
report conclusions 121–4
terrorists 52–3
why respect/understanding matter 45, 47, 52–3

dignity 121–3

disadvantage, socio-economic 68–9

discussion
by email 94
government by 2, 23, 81–2, 86, 91

disrespect 44, 59, 73–4, 133
see also respect

double standards 114–15

economic inequality 5

economic privation 15

education 35–8, 99–106
age extensions 103
content 104, 124–5
difference management 104–5
participation 103
private 105–6
reflection on conflict 104–5
report conclusions 129–30
respect/understanding 37, 103–6
social cohesion 104–5
world history 104
youth working together 56–7
see also young people

elections 90–1, 111, 117

email discussion groups 94

employment 99–100

empowerment 101–3

’engineered bloodshed/violence‛ 12, 130, 133

ethno-religious government 91–2

European Movement 25

executive summary 32–40
education 35–8
grievance 34–5
history 34–5
inequality 34–5
media 35–7
multilateral approaches 38
new thinking 34
participation 35–7
reach of civil paths 39–40
thoughts on conflict 34
young people 37–8

export of arms 115

extremism 34
9/11 events 34, 123
double standards 115
multilateralism 113, 115
religious 20–1
see also terrorism

faith-based approaches 50

faith-based organizations 88, 106, 127
see also religion

faith and identity 64–6

First World War 3, 14–15, 66

freedom fighters 52

G8 countries 115

Gandhi, Mahatma 14

gender equity 96
see also women

globalization 63, 114

Good Friday Agreement, Northern Ireland 77

Good Offices, Secretary-General 38, 110

Gordimer, Nadine 9, 13, 25

’government by discussion‛ 2, 23, 81–2, 86, 91

governments
CHOGM 32, 121, 133, 136
implementing respect 55–7
military training 56
police training 56

grievance 34–5, 75–80
historical aspects 75–6
injustice 113
narratives 76–7
Northern Ireland 67
regional 119–20
report conclusions 125–6

group violence 133–4
and civil society 1–6, 17
defeating terrorism 122
multilateralism 135
poverty 67
why respect/understanding matter 41
see also violence

Guantanamo prisoners 116

Haq, Mahbub ul 7

hate-related violence 51–2

HDI see Human Development Index heads of governments, CHOGM 32, 121, 133, 136

Heyzer, Noeleen 27, 29, 40

Hindu/Muslim riots 12–13, 19

historical aspects 34–5, 75–80, 104

HIV/AIDS 86–7, 101

homicide 5, 18, 133

Hossain, Kamal 27, 29, 40

Howard, Elaine Sihoatani 27, 29, 40

human development 6–9

Human Development Index (HDI) 7–8

human rights 43–4, 46

human security 5–10

humiliation 73–4, 125–6

Huntington, Samuel 34

Identity
civil paths commitment 124–5
faith 64–6
multiple identities 65–6
Muslim/Western 54
national 35–6, 39, 124, 127
politics 13–15, 62–3
richness of 39
see also solitarist identity

inclusion 81–2, 126–8

The Independent Commission on Africa 73

India 17–20, 79

inequality 34–5, 67–74
disparity couplings 70
economic 5
embedded 70–2
intervention rationales 69–70
lack of protest 71–2
perceptions of 71, 126
report conclusions 126
violence 5, 15–24, 67–71

injustice 113–14

institutional change 134–5

international institutions 116

international law 116

the international order 107–20
double standards 114–16
injustice 113–14
international institutions 116
respect/understanding 113–14, 117
uneven globalization benefits 114

internet 94–5

Iraq 49, 111, 116, 122

Ireland 21–2, 75
see also Northern Ireland

Irish Famine 22, 75

island states 101–2, 119

Israeli–Palestine conflict 115–16

Kolkata see Calcutta

Ladbury, Sarah 31

landlocked countries 119

law, international 116

leadership in civil society 127

left-wing politics 19–20, 68

Lewis Mumford Lecture 2007 17–19

Liberia 80

Loya Jirgas (Grand Assemblies), Afghanistan 84

Maathai, Wangari Muta 27, 29–30, 40

Mahfouz, Naguib 13

Mandela, Nelson 25, 33

media 35–7, 93–7
accountability 93
as important influence 93–4
innovative roles 96–7
new media 94–5
report conclusions 128–9

medical inequality 24

Middle East 22–3, 25, 115–16

MIFTAH see Promotion of Global Dialogue and Democracy

migration 74, 114

military initiatives
report conclusions 124–5, 130
terrorism 49
UN 88
unilateralism 113
violence 1–2, 6, 41–2

military training 56

Mill, John Stuart 2, 23

multiculturalism 35

multilateralism 38, 107–20
common interests 108
dialogue 109, 123–4, 135
late opportunities 111–13
regional neighbours 118–20
report conclusions 122–4, 131
respect/understanding 108, 113–14
unilateralism 108–10

multiple identities 65–6

Mumbai see Bombay

Muslims
Cronulla Beach 95
cultural theories 54
grievance narratives 76
humiliation 73–4
Israeli–Palestine conflict 115–16
multiple identities of 12-13, 54
Muslim-Hindu relations 12–13, 19, 20
psychological violence 60
role in civil society 50
radicalisation 116
schools 106
terrorism 50–1
women 84, 95

national identity 35–6, 39, 124, 127

nationalism 14–15

national security 6–7, 9

negotiation 62

Nettleford, Ralston Milton 27, 30, 40

networks 46

Nigeria 110

Northern Ireland
grievance 67, 75–6, 77
multilateralism 113
newspaper initiatives 96–7
poverty and violence 67

Oe, Kenzaburo 9

Ogata, Sadako 10

one-dimensional identity see solitarist identity

opposition parties 82, 91

O’Regan, Kate 84

Owen, Wilfred 14–15

Oz, Amos 13

Pacific Islands 101–2

Pakistan 49

Palestine
elections 117
humiliation 74
Israeli–Palestine conflict 115–16
media initiative 96
reconciliation 79
women 79, 96

Pan-Commonwealth Youth Caucus 101

Paris, France 2005 70

parliaments, youth 101–2

participation see political participation physical violence 59–61

police 48, 56

political carnage 15

political participation 35–7, 81–92
best practice 90–2
civil society 86–7
Commonwealth principles 89–90
confidence-building 88–9
consultation styles 83–4
dialogue and inclusion 81
how it is done 82–3
promoting democracy 90–2
report conclusions 126–8
sense of ’belonging? 87–8
women 36, 128
young people 85

politics
Big Powers 108
Calcutta 19–20, 68
identity 13–15, 62–3
left-wing 19–20, 68
violence 15–24, 59, 61

poverty 35, 67–74
economic connections 20–3
and peace 21–2
unethical argument 16–17
violence 15–24, 67–9

power-sharing government 91–2

private education 105–6

Promotion of Global Dialogue and Democracy (MIFTAH) 96

Proust 13, 25

proxy wars 115

psychological violence 59–61

race riots, Brixton 126

radicalisation of Muslims 116

radio broadcasts 94

rape 60

reconciliation 74, 77–80, 100–1, 126

regional cooperation 118–20

religion
dialogue 3–4
differences 3–4, 12–14, 20, 134
ethno-religious government 91–2
extremism 20–1
identity 3–4
’War on Terror? 50
see also faith...

representation issues 82–3

respect 41–57
agendas for peace 42
the Commission 2, 6, 24, 27–33, 121, 147–8
Commonwealth 44–7, 118
definitions 43–4
devaluing 117
education 37, 103–6
government implementation 55–7
international institutions 116
international law 116
intrinsic value 133
multilateralism 108, 113–14
multiple identities 65
for people/viewpoints 42
regional neighbours 118–20
violence 41–2, 47–8
’War on Terror? 49–53
why it matters 41–57
young people 99–101

’retaliatory‛ violence 130

rights see human rights robbery 59

Rwabyomere, Joan 27, 30, 40

Rwanda
multiple identities 66
radio hate broadcasts 94
violence 12, 13, 23
women and reconciliation 78

Saggar, Shamit 31

Sampaio, Jorge 4

Scarman Report 1982 125–6

schools 106

Secretary-General of the Commonwealth 38, 39, 110, 133, 135

secular religion 65

security 130
human 5–10
national 6–7, 9
terrorism 133

Security Council Resolution 1325, UN 78

Sen, Amartya 27, 40

Sierra Leone 110

single majority-simple plurality (SMSP) electoral system 91

singular identity see solitarist identity small states 120

SMSP see single majority-simple plurality electoral system

social cohesion 104–5

socio-economic disadvantage 68–9

solitarist identity
colonialism 72–3
faith/religion 3–4, 64–6
violence 3–4, 11–15, 61–6, 72
see also ’clash of civilisations? theory

South Africa
anti-apartheid movement 24–5
dialogue 47
grievance 126
multilateralism 109–10
TRC 80, 126
violence 19, 24–5

South Asia 60, 84

Soviet Union 21

sport 37–8, 56, 102–3

stigmatized groups 101

technology 48, 94–5

terrorism 34
9/11 events 34, 123
civil paths commitment 124
double standards 115
ethical thinking 24
multilateralism 113, 135
nature of violence 60
security measures 5, 133–4
terrorists 52–3
time to rethink 122
’War on Terror? 49–53
why respect/understanding matter 41, 48–53
see also group violence

Tevoedjre, Albert 73

text messaging 94–5

Tonga Youth Parliament 102

Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), South Africa 80, 126

Turnbull, Lucy 27, 30–1, 40

Tutu, Desmond 25

UN see United Nations

understanding 41–57
the Commission 2, 6, 24, 27–33, 121, 147–8
Commonwealth 44–7, 118
definitions 43–4
devaluing 117
education 37, 103–6
intrinsic value 133
multilateralism 108, 113–14
root causes 53–7
sport 102–3
violence 41–2, 47–8
’War on Terror? 49–53
why it matters 41–57
young people 99–101

unilateralism 108–10, 113

United Nations (UN)
Alliance of Civilizations report 97, 115–16
military initiatives 88
reach of civil paths 39
Security Council Resolution 13, 25, 78

value systems 63

violence
civil society 1–25
cultural theories 10–15, 19, 23
economic connections 20–3
economic inequality 5
’engineered? 12, 130, 133
faith and identity 64–6
human development 6–9
human security 5–10
humiliation 73–4
identity politics 13–15, 62–3
inequality 5, 15–24, 67–71
means of resistance 4–5
military initiatives 1–2, 6, 41–2
nationalism 14–15
national security 6–7, 9
nature/nurture aspects 59–66
new thinking 34
politics 15–24, 59, 61
poverty 15–24, 67–9
psychological 59–61
religious differences 3–4, 12–14, 20
’retaliatory? 130
solitarist identity 3–4, 11–15, 61–6, 72
theory integration 10, 23–4
triggers 72–3
why respect/understanding matter 41–2, 47–8
women 48, 60–1
see also conflict; group violence; terrorism

war 3, 14–15, 66, 115

’War on Terror? 49–53
counter-terrorism 50–1
dialogue 52–3
faith-based approaches 50
freedom fighters 52
hate-related violence 51–2
polarized society 51
tactical terrorism 52

weapons of war 48

Western hegemony 114

Western identity 54

Williams, Tennessee 22

women
Afghanistan 84
consultation 83–4
disrespect 44
Palestine 79, 96
political participation 36, 128
psychological violence 60–1
rape 60
reconciliation 77–80
South Asian 84
violence 48, 60–1

Woode, Georgina 83

world-views 62

Writing and Being (Gordimer) 13

written submissions to the Commission 147–8

young people 99–106
black young people 68
Commonwealth Youth Games 102
Commonwealth Youth Programme 101, 105
empowerment 101–2
migration 114
personality damage 79–80
political participation 85
psychological violence 61
reconciliation 79–80
report conclusions 129–30
respect/understanding 99–101
sport 102–3
working together 56–7

Youth Ambassadors for Positive Living 101

youth parliaments 101–2

see also education

Youth Ambassadors for Positive Living 101

youth parliaments 101–2

YouTube 129

Zimbabwe 38, 111, 118

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