Version classiqueVersion mobile

Simplified Signs: A Manual Sign-Communication System for Special. Volume 1

John D. Bonvillian
Nicole Kissane Lee
Tracy T. Dooley
et al.


Texte intégral

1 AAC — abbreviation for augmentative and alternative communication.

2 Abstract concepts — mental representations that cannot be directly experienced through the senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste); for example, honor, loyalty, and imagination. Abstract concepts typically are more difficult to express iconically in a sign-communication system than physical objects or overt actions.

3 Accelerative Integrated Methodology (AIM) — a relatively recent approach to foreign language teaching and learning. This approach incorporates pantomimic or iconic gestures together with listening and speaking in the learning process.

4 Acquired childhood aphasia — a loss or disturbance of language function that occurs in childhood after the onset of language acquisition; it is often the result of a head injury, stroke, infection, tumor, seizure activity, or progressive disorder.

5 Acquired epileptic aphasia — also known as Landau-Kleffner syndrome.

6 Acquired neurological disorder — an abnormal or disturbed function of the nervous system whose onset begins after birth and is not genetic in origin. These disorders can result from traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), infectious diseases of the central nervous system (e.g., encephalitis), electrical shock, near drowning, drug overdoses, and exposure to toxic chemicals.

7 Active hand — the hand that moves or performs the principal action during the production of a manual sign. See dominant hand and hand preference.

8Adaptive behaviors — positive actions or behaviors such as increased attention span, bowel/bladder control, self-help skills, social interaction, and emotional control. The ability to adjust to or apply familiar skills to new situations (generalization).

9 Adult-acquired apraxia of speech — a neuromotor speech disorder acquired in adulthood (rather than during the developmental stages of childhood) consisting of loss of or impairment in the ability to coordinate the movements involved in speech and that results in impaired speaking or an inability to speak. Adult-acquired apraxia of speech is typically the product of a stroke or brain injury. See apraxia of speech.

10 Agent — in linguistics, the actor or being that performs the action of the verb within a sentence.

11 Agglutination of signs — the combination of two or more signs to convey one concept; for example, using the signs HOUSE plus BOOK to represent the concept library. See compound signs.

12 Aided communication — communication systems that rely on pictures, real objects, electronic devices, voice synthesizers, speech-generating devices, and/or other equipment. Compare with unaided communication.

13 Akbar — sixteenth-century emperor of Hindustan who conducted an experiment to determine humankind’s most fundamental language. By rearing children in silence, he hoped to resolve the question of whether speech arises spontaneously in children and, if so, which language they would speak.

14 Alphabetic language — a language that uses characters or symbols to represent speech sounds in their written form. The letters of the modern English alphabet are derived from the Roman alphabet.

15 Alternative communication system — a communication system meant to serve as an alternative or replacement for speech or signs; for example, the use of a speech-generating device in place of a person’s use of natural speech.

16American Indian Hand Talk — also known as Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL) or North American Indian Sign Language.

17 American School for the Deaf — the first public school for deaf students in the United States; it was founded in 1817 by Laurent Clerc and Thomas H. Gallaudet.

18 American Sign Language (ASL) — the primary language of the Deaf community in the United States; it has its own linguistic structure (grammar and phonology) that is quite different from English and other spoken languages.

19 Amer-Ind — a sign-communication system based on signs from Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL); many of its signs are clearly iconic. Originally devised by Madge Skelly for use with people whose tongues had been surgically removed, Amer-Ind was later adapted for use with individuals with aphasia or other language impairments.

20 Amodal symbol processing — the view that symbols or concepts are processed in the brain without regard to the modality or form in which they were learned or used. In this approach, symbols are abstract notions that are devoid of specific forms or modality.

21 Angelman syndrome — a form of severe or profound intellectual disability that typically involves an absence of speech and a loss of coordination of muscle movement; it is a relatively rare genetic disorder.

22 Aphasia — a disorder that affects the production and/or understanding of language; often the result of a stroke, brain infection, tumor, head injury, or lack of oxygen. The type of aphasia varies depending on the site and extent of the damage. Milder forms are often known as dysphasia.

23 Applied behavior analysis (ABA) — an approach often used in the behavioral training or treatment of non-speaking or minimally verbal individuals with autism spectrum disorder (or other disabilities). This approach typically first involves systematic observation to determine what behaviors are beneficial to the individual and should be increased as well as what behaviors are harmful and should be eliminated. Therapists and parents then reward behaviors deemed beneficial, and may use mild punishment or extinction to reduce the frequency of or eliminate harmful behaviors. Positive behaviors are developed in the individual through rewards for behaviors that are closer and closer to the desired new behaviors in a process called shaping.

24 Apraxia — a neuromotor disorder in which a person has lost the ability to accurately and purposefully control movements and motor configurations in the absence of muscle weakness or paralysis. Apraxia is often the result of a stroke, brain infection, tumor, or head injury. This disorder may involve the limbs and/or oral-motor movements. Also known as dyspraxia.

25 Apraxia of speech — a neuromotor speech disorder that results in impaired speaking or an inability to speak. In this disorder, one has a loss of or impairment in the ability to plan, coordinate, or execute the actions or movements involved in speech production; there are often disruptions in the timing and rhythm of speech. Also known as verbal apraxia (or dyspraxia).

26 Apraxia test battery — a series of tests designed to evaluate an individual’s purposeful gross and fine motor skills.

27 Arbitrary name signs — name signs that are not based on any personally identifiable characteristics of an individual. These name signs often use the handshape for the initial letter of the person’s first name and are made in the neutral signing space or on the arms, hands, head, or torso. Compare with descriptive name signs.

28 Arbitrary signs — signs with no clearly discernible ties to the concepts they represent.

29 Arcuate fasciculus — the white matter tract (or bundle of nerve fibers) of the brain that connects the principal language comprehension region of the brain (Wernicke’s area) with the principal speech-generating region of the brain (Broca’s area). The lack of development of the arcuate fasciculus may explain the absence of spoken language in many children with Angelman syndrome. Persons who have certain forms of aphasia and children with autism also have abnormalities of the arcuate fasciculus.

30 Articulation — the motor act of producing or forming speech sounds (in auditory-vocal languages) or, less frequently, signs (in visual-motor languages).

31 Articulatory disorder — an impairment or disturbance in speech production, commonly caused by structural anomalies (e.g., cleft palate or lip), hearing impairment, weakness of the oral musculature, or delayed onset of language.

32 Articulatory gestures — the locations, shapes/formations, and movements of the mouth, lips, tongue, jaw, and vocal tract during the production of speech sounds.

33 ASD — abbreviation for autism spectrum disorder.

34 ASL — abbreviation for American Sign Language.

35 Asperger, Hans — clinician who conducted important early investigations of children with autism. He described children with difficulties in social interaction and repetitive behaviors, but otherwise the children varied across a wide range of abilities.

36 Asperger syndrome — an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Persons identified with Asperger syndrome historically were depicted as experiencing social interaction difficulties, but having average or above-average intelligence and intact formal language abilities. In the past, many researchers and clinicians considered the diagnosis of Asperger syndrome to be largely the same as that of high-functioning autism.

37 Asymmetrical signs — signs made with two hands and whose handshapes, movements, and/or locations are asymmetrical or different on each hand. Also known as two-handed asymmetrical signs.

38 Ataxia — a loss of or inability to coordinate muscular movement. Ataxia is often present in individuals with Angelman syndrome or cerebral palsy.

39Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) — a disorder that is typically diagnosed in childhood and that often persists into adolescence and/or adulthood. ADHD may negatively impact an individual’s attention span or ability to sustain attention (he or she often is easily distracted, forgetful, or experiences difficulty focusing or finishing tasks), impulse control (is impatient or prone to emotional outbursts), and behavioral regulation (is hyperactive, overly talkative, or unable to sit still).

40 Attrition rate — in this book, the rate at which research participants withdraw from or fail to complete a scientific study before that study ends.

41 Auditory memory — the ability to store and remember information obtained through hearing; the capacity to perceive, encode, rehearse, and recall acoustic- or sound-based material. Auditory memory is related to phonological memory and verbal memory.

42 Auditory processing — the ability of a person to successfully distinguish, recognize, understand, and remember environmental or speech sounds. Auditory processing is related to phonological processing and verbal processing.

43 Auditory sequencing — the ability of a person to process and correctly order a succession or connected series of environmental or speech sounds. Auditory sequencing is related to phonological sequencing and verbal sequencing.

44 Auditory-temporal processing deficit — an inability or a decreased ability to understand speech or recognize and process sounds that are present for only a short duration.

45 Auditory training — instruction that aims to improve the ability to perceive, distinguish, identify, and interpret sounds important to spoken language processing.

46 Auditory-vocal languages — also known as spoken languages.

47Auditory-vocal modality — the use of one’s hearing and mind to perceive and process sounds or speech and the use of one’s voice to transmit information. See speech modality.

48 Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) — systems and approaches that support and enhance typical communication forms such as signs or speech (augmentative) or that provide a substitute for them (alternative).

49 Augmentative communication system — a communication system meant to serve as a support to the main system of communication, which is often either speech or signs. Augmentative communication may include the use of pictures, gestures, manual signs, eye blinking, and digitized or pre-recorded speech output.

50 Australian Sign Language — the primary language of some members of the Deaf communities in Australia. Also known as Auslan or Australasian Sign Language.

51 Autism — a developmental disorder first evident in infancy or early childhood that results in social, behavioral, cognitive, motor, and communication impairments or atypicalities. The identifying characteristics often include limited social affect, bizarre mannerisms or gestures, a preoccupation with maintaining sameness in the environment, and difficulty in using language. Classic autism was first identified by Leo Kanner. Autism is believed to have a strong genetic component and to be the result of an organic or neurochemical dysfunction of the brain. Also known as childhood autism.

52 Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) — the relatively recent view that the characteristics or behaviors that constitute autism occur across a wide range. These characteristics include difficulties in reciprocal social-interaction skills, communication atypicalities, and the frequent presence of repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. In previous years, clinicians and investigators often identified individuals as having more delimited disorders, such as Asperger syndrome and childhood autism.

53 Autonomous speech — spoken language production that is essentially independent of external control or influence. These vocal utterances are not reflexive cries and do not need to rely on gestures for communicative support.

54 Aversives — in behavior modification approaches, aversives are noxious or punishing stimuli that make responses less likely to occur in the future.

55 Axon — the part of a neuron (nerve cell) that conducts impulses away from the cell body to other neurons, glands, or muscles.

56 Babbling — an important stage in the typical language development of an infant (whether deaf or hearing). Babbling consists of the speech-like sounds or sign-like movements produced by infants primarily between four and twelve months of age. Babbling may include the vocalization of syllables, in which a consonant and a vowel sound are combined (in auditory-vocal language development).

57 Baby O-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS) and by babies learning to sign. The index finger and thumb are curved and touch at their tips from an otherwise closed hand; similar to a pincer grip.

58 Baby-signing — a relatively recent trend in which hearing parents teach their hearing infants to sign as a way to enhance communicative exchanges with their babies before they can communicate effectively through speech.

59 Basal ganglia — a system of subcortical structures located in each cerebral hemisphere that are important in the production of planned actions or movements. The basal ganglia receive input from the cerebral cortex and send output to motor centers of the brain.

60 Base — in signing, the hand or arm (and at times an object) that is part of a sign’s production, but which does not move. This stationary hand or arm is acted upon by the other hand or arm.

61 Behavior modification (speech) training — the process of changing a person’s behavior by offering rewards for desired behaviors, and, at times, punishment for undesired ones. Often used to teach speech skills. Also known as operant (speech) training.

62Belgian Sign Language — the primary language of some members of the Deaf communities in Belgium. In recent years, some researchers have asserted that there are two separate sign languages in Belgium: Flemish Sign Language (also known as Vlaamse Gebarentaal or VGT) in the northern, Dutch-speaking part of the country and French Belgian Sign Language (also known as Langue des Signes Belge Francophone or LSFB) in the southern, French-speaking region.

63 Benhaven — an educational institution for children and youth with autism located in New Haven, Connecticut. Benhaven instructors and staff members conducted pioneering programs using manual signs with deaf and hearing individuals with autism.

64 Bent-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the fingers are together and extended at a right angle with respect to the palm.

65 Bilateral — on or of two sides; on both sides of the body.

66 Bimodal bilinguals — persons who acquire fluency in two languages that have distinct modalities. In this book, refers to those persons who become fluent in both a signed language such as American Sign Language (ASL) (visual-motor modality) and a spoken language such as English (speech modality). Such individuals typically learn to sign and to speak during their childhoods.

67 Bimodal input — information that is provided in two different modalities; for example, signing and speaking at the same time (a process known as simultaneous communication) provides information in the gestural (or visual-motor) modality and in the speech (or auditory-vocal) modality. Providing information in more than one modality may increase the likelihood that the information is retained in memory.

68 Birth language — the language to which an infant is exposed from birth onward.

69 Blissymbols — a graphic symbol communication system initially widely used with non-speaking children with cerebral palsy. It is based on a “universal” pictographic system designed by Charles Bliss. See pictographic line drawings.

70 Brain stem — the part of the brain that is between the cerebrum and spinal cord. The brain stem is composed of the thalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brain stem is involved in regulating many of the body’s basic life processes (e.g., breathing, blood pressure, heartbeat).

71 British Sign Language (BSL) — the primary language of the Deaf community in Great Britain.

72 Broca’s aphasia — a form of expressive language loss or nonfluent aphasia in which persons experience great difficulty with the production of speech, although their understanding of speech may not be impaired. Persons with Broca’s aphasia typically have lesions in their left frontal lobes.

73 Cabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez —sixteenth-century Spaniard who utilized the sign-communication system of the Native Americans of the Great Plains in his travels throughout North America. See Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL).

74 Case study — research that focuses on one individual or a small number of individuals.

75 Central nervous system — the brain and spinal cord, which receive sensory information and relay nerve impulses to control motor actions.

76 Central symbolic deficit — a type of aphasia in which a person has difficulty understanding and using various symbol forms in addition to words; examples of these other symbol forms are musical notes and military insignia.

77 Cerebellum — a part of the hindbrain situated between the back of the cerebrum and the brain stem. The cerebellum is involved in muscular coordination (including the timing and sequencing of complex motor movements), the maintenance of equilibrium, and the modulation of various cognitive processes (including language).

78Cerebral cortex — the outermost layer of the cerebral hemispheres and the part of the brain responsible for most mental processes.

79 Cerebral hemorrhage — extensive bleeding from the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain. See stroke.

80 Cerebral palsy — a disability characterized by a loss of or decrease in voluntary muscular control and coordination as a result of brain damage. Some persons with cerebral palsy may have other disabling conditions, such as an impairment in hearing or intellectual disability. Common types of cerebral palsy include spastic unilateral or spastic bilateral CP, which is characterized by increased muscle tone and stiff muscles (subtypes include diplegia and quadriplegia). Dyskinetic CP is characterized by uncontrollable movements and muscle tone that can alternate between too tight and too loose (subtypes include athetoid, dystonic, and choreoathetoid). Ataxic CP is characterized by problems with balance and coordination. A person may also have a mixed form of cerebral palsy in which symptoms of two or more types are present.

81 Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) — also known as a stroke.

82 Cerebrum — the largest, upper portion of the brain; it consists of two hemispheres. The cerebrum is primarily responsible for mental processes in humans. See forebrain.

83 Challenging behaviors — also known as maladaptive behaviors.

84 C-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the fingers are together and curved, with the thumb opposite the fingers.

85 Chereme — also known as a sign phoneme.

86 Childhood apraxia of speech — a disorder in which children experience great difficulty in the production and sequencing of speech sounds. It is evidently based in deficits in the planning and programming of the movements underlying speech. Also known as childhood dyspraxia (of speech), childhood verbal apraxia (or dyspraxia), developmental apraxia of speech, and developmental articulatory apraxia.

87Childhood autism — also known as autism or autism spectrum disorder.

88 Chromosomes — rod-shaped structures containing DNA located in the nucleus of an organism’s cells. Chromosomes contain an organism’s genes, the units of hereditary transmission.

89 Chronic aphasia — a loss of language ability that persists over a long period and does not noticeably or substantially improve with time.

90 Classifiers — in sign language research, particular handshapes in a sign language that symbolically represent a general class of items (such as vehicles, animals, objects, or people). Classifiers are typically used to convey an object’s location and/or movement in space.

91 Claw-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the fingers are spread apart and bent.

92 Cleft lip or palate — an opening in the upper lip or palate (the hard and soft portions of the roof of the mouth); it occurs during early fetal development when the tissue of the lip or palate fails to fuse. A cleft lip or palate often interferes with one’s ability to produce recognizable speech.

93 Clerc, Laurent — a prominent teacher of deaf students, he taught initially at the school for deaf students in Paris. Clerc was persuaded by Thomas H. Gallaudet to move to the United States, where together they founded the first American public school for deaf students (the American School for the Deaf) in 1817. Clerc’s knowledge and use of French signs greatly influenced the development of American Sign Language (ASL).

94 Cochlea — a coiled structure in the inner ear that plays an essential role in the reception and transmission of sound to the brain. The cochlea transforms sound vibrations into electrical signals that then travel to the brain.

95 Cognitive impairment — a disruption of one’s cognitive functions or thought processes, such as receiving, processing, analyzing, and understanding information.

96Collateral effects — in this book, the secondary or indirect effects of a treatment program; for example, teaching a non-speaking person to use signs has the primary effect of teaching communicative skills but may also have the secondary effect of improving that person’s emotional well-being.

97 Columbus, Christopher — famous voyager who first sailed to North America in 1492; in his log of this journey, he documented the use of signs and gestures by the Native Americans he encountered.

98 Communication assessment — a comprehensive assessment or evaluation of a person’s expressive and receptive language abilities. The evaluation may examine the person’s use of speech, signs, gestures, object manipulation, and/or other forms of communication in a variety of settings. It may include measures of phonological mastery, vocabulary size, knowledge of grammatical rules, and social or pragmatic language usage.

99 Communication (or picture) board or book — an augmentative and alternative communication aid or device in which persons may use pictures, symbols, printed words, or letters on a board, screen, or book to communicate. A communication (or picture) board is a piece of material, such as wood, plastic, or cardboard, on which pictures or drawings of desired objects, persons, or actions typically are attached. A communication (or picture) book is a book, notebook, or scrapbook that contains pictures or drawings of objects, persons, or actions that are important to non-speaking individuals. The minimally verbal user often indicates desired objects or activities by pointing to, touching, or gazing at the appropriate picture or drawing.

100 Communication disorder — an inability or impaired ability to transmit or receive information, typically because of difficulties understanding or producing language.

101 Communication intervention system — a system of strategies and techniques used to enhance the communication skills of an individual or group.

102Communication plan — a relatively detailed strategy for teaching or developing a person’s communication skills. For sign communication, this plan may include which signs to teach, when to teach them, how to teach them, who will teach them, and where the signs will be taught.

103 Communicative competence — the ability to use signs, speech, or other forms of communication to effectively convey one’s needs, interests, or desires. Such competence involves linguistic ability together with knowledge of the social rules involved in language use.

104 Communicative spontaneity — the ability to communicate in various settings, without prior prompting, through the use of words, signs, or other symbols. This communication often is used to express needs and to make requests.

105 Comorbidity — the simultaneous existence of two or more chronic medical disorders, diseases, or conditions in a single patient. Comorbidity increases the complexity of diagnosis and treatment of a patient.

106 Complex communication needs — a term applied to the situation of persons who are unable to successfully communicate their daily needs through a spoken, written, or signed language. Persons with complex communication needs typically have more than one disabling condition or impairment.

107 Compound signs — two or more different signs that are used together or combined in order to represent a single concept. See agglutination of signs.

108 Computed tomography (CT) scan — a diagnostic procedure that uses x-rays to take pictures of cross sections of a part of the body; these images are then compiled or put together for viewing by a computer program.

109 Concentration  — a game or task in which the player turns over two cards from a number of cards that have been placed face down on a flat surface. If the two cards are the same, then they are removed from the playing surface. If the cards do not match, then they are returned to their original positions. The game continues until all the cards are removed. This game has been used to investigate visual memory.

110 Concept — an idea derived from specific instances; an abstract representation of an object, action, person, or idea. Words and signs stand for concepts.

111 Concordance rate — the likelihood or probability that a pair of individuals will have the same characteristic if one of them has that characteristic. In this book, the rate at which twins inherit or have the same condition, disorder, or disease.

112 Concrete nouns — people, places, or things that can be directly experienced through the senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell, taste). Concrete nouns are real things or a class of such things. Concrete nouns typically are relatively easy to express iconically in a sign-communication system.

113 Condillac, Etienne Bonnot de — eighteenth-century French philosopher and essayist who developed the view that all knowledge comes from the senses as opposed to innate ideas. He also wrote about the early gestural communication of two imaginary young children.

114 Congenital — present at birth, although not necessarily genetic.

115 Congenitally aphasic — someone whose language skills are impaired from birth.

116 Congruent gesture — in this book, a gesture that matches (or is in accord with) the meaning of a spoken word that is being learned; an iconic or representative gesture. Production of congruent gestures typically helps or enhances a person’s acquisition of paired foreign spoken language vocabulary items.

117 Consecutive movements — in this book, movements made during a sign’s production that occur one after the other. Also known as sequential movements.

118 Contralateral — on the other side. Each hemisphere of a typically developed brain controls the motor actions of the contralateral arm and hand; for example, the right hemisphere of the brain controls the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere of the brain controls the right side of the body.

119 Convention — a custom or way of thinking; often, an unstated agreement or principle that is accepted as true or correct.

120 Copula verb — in grammar, a linking verb that joins or connects the subject of a sentence with an adjective or noun in the predicate of that sentence without indicating that a distinct action is performed. In English, the different forms of the verb be (is, am, are, was, were) are frequently used in this capacity; for example, “The dogs are friendly.” “The woman is a teacher.” “The birds were hungry.” Signed languages typically omit or do not have equivalents of the copular verb be. That is, there is not a distinct sign for the be verb used to express a predicate’s state or quality.

121 Core sign vocabulary — a collection of signs that have been learned and that represent important and necessary objects or aspects of one’s environment.

122 Corsi block-tapping test — a visuospatial (nonverbal) short-term memory test that assesses a person’s ability to remember and repeat sequences in which up to nine identical blocks are tapped or indicated. Both the number of correct sequences and the longest sequence remembered (visuospatial memory span) are recorded. Compare with Digit Span Task.

123 Cortex/cortices — the outermost layer (s) of an organ. Often refers to the cerebral cortex.

124 Cri du chat syndrome — a rare genetic disorder characterized by a high-pitched, cat-like cry. Persons with this syndrome often have poor muscle tone and motor skills, intellectual disability, a small head and/or jaw, an abnormal larynx, and delayed or nonexistent speech.

125 Criterion/criteria — standards or minimal requirements; in this book, primarily the minimum level of recall accuracy necessary to include a sign in the Simplified Sign System (SSS).

126Cross-modal activation — the use of one modality, such as signs (manual modality), that may result in the use of or improvement of skills in another area, such as spoken language (speech modality).

127 Cross-modal transfer — information from one sensory modality moves to or is integrated with information from another; for example, information conveyed in a sign may be stored in a speech code.

128 Cued-recall memory task — a memory research method in which an experimenter presents information (the cue) to a participant along with an item to be remembered and then subsequently presents the cue again to the participant, who is instructed to remember the paired item shown or heard earlier. In this book, the experimenter demonstrated a sign and provided its English translation, then later cued the participant to produce that sign by providing its English translation (or cued the participant to provide the English translation by producing the sign).

129 Cueing — an aphasia treatment technique in which prompts or prestimulation, such as pictures, gestures, written words, or manual signs, are used to facilitate an individual’s lexical retrieval or comprehension. Effective gestural cueing for names of objects and actions often involves the use of iconic gestures or signs.

130 Curved-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the fingers and thumb are together and curved.

131 Deaf/deaf — in this book, deaf is used to refer to any person with a substantial hearing loss, as well as to indicate the medical condition of deafness or the physical aspects of hearing loss. The word Deaf is used to indicate those persons, typically with hearing impairments, who communicate primarily through a sign language (such as American Sign Language), who interact frequently with other signers, and who self-identify with Deaf culture.

132 Deblocking — an aphasia treatment technique in which a disturbed language function is paired with an intact or less impaired language function. See sign-communication deblocking therapy.

133Declarative memory — a memory system that consists of knowledge, such as that of facts and events, that can be expressed by a person in words.

134 Deictic gestures — showing or indicating gestures; also known as indexical (or pointing) signs.

135 Delayed recall — a task that tests the participant’s ability to produce some item from memory after an intervening period or delay has been introduced following the earlier presentation of that item.

136 de l’Épée, Abbé Charles-Michel — founder of the first school for the education of deaf students, irrespective of social condition, in Paris, France in 1760.

137 De novo mutation — an alteration in a gene that is present for the first time in a family member often as a result of a mutation in a parent’s germ cell (egg or sperm) or in the fertilized egg itself; a new or spontaneous mutation in genetic material. A substantial number of all cases of childhood autism are believed to be a result of de novo mutations.

138 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) — the building blocks of life that contain an organism’s genetic code.

139 Depth of processing — a theory in which a person’s ability to remember or recall information is dependent upon the level at which that information is encoded or mentally processed; a greater depth of processing would lead to a stronger, longer-lasting memory. The formation of a visual image, the hearing and saying of a word, thinking about an item’s meaning, and the production of a representative (iconic) gesture may increase depth of processing of an item.

140 Descriptive name signs — name signs that are based on individuals’ identifiable characteristics, such as physical appearance, behavior, personality, or interests. Compare with arbitrary name signs.

141 Designator — also known as handshape or sign handshape; one of the three principal formational parameters of manual signs.

142Developmental delay — a lag in the appearance or emergence of one or more abilities during childhood, such as the ability to mentally or physically perceive, understand, or interact with aspects of the environment.

143 Developmental dysphasia — also known as specific language impairment or developmental language disorder (DLD).

144 Developmental dyspraxia — a neuromotor disorder present from infancy or early childhood in which a person has an impaired ability to accurately and purposefully control or coordinate movements and motor configurations in the absence of muscle weakness or paralysis. See apraxia.

145 Developmental language disorder (DLD) — a recent consensus term for the various language difficulties or impairments experienced by some children and that are not attributable to brain injury, hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, or genetic syndromes. Children with such speech or communicative impairments may have previously been diagnosed with developmental dysphasia or specific language impairment.

146 Diagnostic substitution — a phenomenon by which one term for a condition or disorder is replaced by another term. This shift in terminology often results in a decrease of the incidence of the first condition or disorder and an increase of the incidence of the second condition or disorder.

147 Digit Span Task — a short-term memory test that typically assesses a person’s ability to remember and repeat a series of numbers that have been read out loud or presented on a computer screen. Both the number of correct sequences and the longest sequence remembered (digit memory span) are recorded. Compare with Corsi block-tapping test.

148 Discrete trial training — in this book, a method of teaching words or signs to a learner through highly structured training sessions that typically involve the use of reinforcement (reward, punishment) contingencies. Compare with general exposure and incidental teaching program.

149Dizygotic twins — twins that develop from two separate fertilized eggs; fraternal twins. Compare with monozygotic twins.

150 Dominant hand — the hand that a person uses to perform most manual tasks or to produce the movement parameter or aspect of the majority of his or her signs; usually the right hand. See active hand and hand preference.

151 Down syndrome — a congenital condition typically characterized by a mild or moderate intellectual disability, short stature, a recessed mandible (lower jaw bone), and epicanthic eye folds (small folds of skin from the upper eyelids in the inner corners of the eyes). Down syndrome occurs because of trisomy (three copies of chromosomes instead of the normal two) in chromosome 21.

152 Dysgraphia — a disorder that affects writing or the production of written language.

153 Dyslexia — a disorder that affects reading or the understanding of written language.

154 Early intervention — in this book, therapeutic services that are provided to a person early in development or as close to the onset of a disabling condition as possible. Although certain intervention approaches may be applied at any point in such a person’s rehabilitation, beginning as soon as possible after the onset of a condition (as well as providing more frequent therapy) may produce better, longer-lasting results.

155 Echolalia — the phenomenon of echoing or repeating another person’s speech or signs; also designates the largely involuntary verbal repetition present in some individuals with autism or an intellectual disability. See verbal imitation program.

156 Electroencephalogram (EEG) — typically a noninvasive test that records brain waves that trace electrical activity in a person’s brain. EEGs are commonly used to detect seizures, to diagnose epilepsy, coma, and sleep disorders, or to confirm brain death.

157 Embodied actions — movements that involve the body (e.g., arms, hands, trunk, legs, feet). Often, the view that reasoning or cognition (perception, awareness) arises primarily from the body and bodily experiences. See embodied cognition.

158 Embodied cognition — the view that cognition is primarily the product of the brain’s systems of perception, action, and introspection. This view contrasts markedly with the approach emphasizing amodal symbol processing. See embodied actions.

159 Empirical — based on experimental evidence, direct observation, or verifiable experience instead of theory.

160 Enactment effect — the positive or facilitative effect on one’s memory for verbal material (particularly phrases that describe actions) that is achieved by physically performing the action associated with that verbal material. Foreign language acquisition research over the last few decades has shown that accompanying a to-be-learned foreign language word or phrase with an iconic or representative gesture helps in the learning and longer-term retention or recall of such words or phrases.

161 Encephalitis — an inflammation of the brain, usually the result of an infection, that can result in brain damage, paralysis, or death. See acquired neurological disorder.

162 English translation/word equivalent — the English translation of a sign or of a word from another language. See gloss.

163 Enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) program — an incidental teaching program. This method typically involves the use of parents in addition to teachers to foster learning through natural interaction processes.

164 Environmental cues — information gathered from context or from the surrounding environment that may help support the meaning of a signed or spoken communication; for example, pictures, posters, drawings, toys, or other objects.

165 Epilepsy — a disorder of the nervous system that involves seizures caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

166Essentially correct (sign) recall — in this book, the production by a study participant of a Simplified Sign System (SSS) sign or an American Sign Language (ASL) sign that is formationally close to the sign demonstrated by the experimenter, but which contains a small error in handshape, location, or movement.

167 Etiology — the cause of a condition, disorder, disease, disability, or injury.

168 Executive functioning skills — the cognitive abilities involved in problem solving and goal-directed tasks. These skills may include planning, inhibition of actions, and error correction.

169 Exemplar — a particular instance or typical example of a concept. For example, tree is a broad conceptual category that includes such specific exemplars as oak trees, maple trees, palm trees, and pine trees.

170 Expressive aphasia — a type of aphasia in which a person has difficulty producing language (speech or signs) even though he or she may retain the ability to understand language. Also known as productive aphasia. See Broca’s aphasia.

171 Expressive language skills — the extent to which a person can produce speech, signs, gestures, or written language. Also known as productive language skills.

172 Expressive speech aphasia — a type of aphasia in which an individual can produce very little or no speech. Also known as productive speech aphasia.

173 Expressive vocabulary — the extent to which a person can produce different signs or spoken words; the signs or words that a person produces. Also known as productive vocabulary.

174 Eye-hand coordination — the synchronization of the movement of the hand (s) in accord with movements of the eye (s); visual-motor coordination. The ability to successfully reach for and touch (or grab) objects that are seen by one’s eyes.

175Facial discrimination — in psychological testing, the ability to match or identify a target face (or faces) from among various options. Studies have shown that deaf and hearing signers are often better at this task than non-signers.

176 Facial expression — in this book, the expression on a signer’s face that is often helpful in clarifying or supporting the meaning of a signed communication. In American Sign Language (ASL) and other sign languages, facial expression is a component of many signs and contributes to the understanding of their meanings and syntactical relationships. A form of nonverbal communication.

177 Facial Recognition test — a neuropsychological test of a person’s ability to match or locate a target face from among six options. The faces are presented under different viewing conditions (e.g., identical front view, partial side view, front view under different lighting conditions). This test may be administered to persons with suspected neurological damage or impairments, autism, or aphasia.

178 Field testing — in this book, the testing of the Simplified Sign System (SSS) in natural settings with members of the populations for whom it was primarily developed.

179 Fine motor movements — relatively small motor movements or actions, often of the hands or face. These movements require a high degree of control or accuracy.

180 Finger orientation — the direction that the finger (s) of the hand (s) point during a sign’s production.

181 Fingerspelling — spelling a word from an alphabetical language by manually producing the handshapes that represent each letter in that word. See manual alphabet.

182 Fist — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the hand forms a fist. The hand is clenched with the fingers bent into the palm.

183 Flat-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the hand is flat with fingers together and extended.

184Flemish Sign Language — also known as Vlaamse Gebarentaal or VGT. See Belgian Sign Language.

185 Fluent aphasia — a type of language loss in which a person may produce effortless speech that is lacking in content or meaning. See Wernicke’s aphasia.

186 Forebrain — in humans, the largest portion of the brain; it includes the cerebral hemispheres. Among the forebrain’s many functions are the storing of new information, sequencing voluntary actions, abstract thinking, processing of sensory information, language production and comprehension, and the learning and remembering of emotional events. See cerebrum.

187 Fragile X syndrome — a genetic disorder, more often present in males than females, that usually results in intellectual disability. Expressive language skills typically are more adversely affected than receptive language skills.

188 French Belgian Sign Language — also known as Langue des Signes Belge Francophone or LSFB. See Belgian Sign Language.

189 French Sign Language — the primary language of the Deaf community in France. Many American Sign Language (ASL) signs are related to or derived from signs in French Sign Language. Also known as Langue des Signes Française or LSF.

190 Frontal lobe — the anterior (frontmost), upper lobe of each cerebral hemisphere primarily responsible for thought and consciousness, as well as certain aspects of speech.

191 Gallaudet, Thomas H. — American educator of deaf students. After studying methods of education for deaf students in Europe, he helped found the first public school for deaf students (the American School for the Deaf) in the United States in 1817.

192 Gallaudet University — the first institution of higher education or learning for Deaf students in the world, located in Washington, DC. Gallaudet College was established in 1864 and became Gallaudet University in 1986.

193General exposure — in this book, a method of teaching signs to the main user or learner by incorporating sign usage throughout the surrounding environment or while in the presence of the main user (even if not communicating directly with him or her). The main user may spontaneously or indirectly acquire signs by seeing how those signs are used by other people in conversation. Compare with discrete trial training and incidental teaching program.

194 Generalization — what is learned in one context is extended to others. The ability to apply a concept, word, or sign to multiple examples (exemplars) or situations; this is often a problem for children with autism spectrum disorder. See adaptive behaviors.

195 Genetic — inherited or passed on through one’s genes. See chromosomes and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

196 Genitive — the grammatical case that indicates possession.

197 German measles — a viral infection that when contracted by a pregnant woman may cause brain damage, an intellectual disability, and/or deafness in the developing child. Also known as rubella.

198 Gestation — the length of time that a child develops within the womb; the time between the first day of the mother’s last menstrual period and the birth of a child, which is approximately 284 days for babies born full-term.

199 Gestuno — a system of signs created by the World Federation of the Deaf for use in international settings or interactions between deaf people who do not use the same sign language. Most signs in Gestuno were borrowed from a small number of European sign languages and American Sign Language (ASL). See International Sign.

200 Gestural imitation — the ability to copy or reproduce a person’s gestural movements.

201 Gestural modality — the use of one’s hands, arms, and/or upper body to transmit information. See manual modality, tactile modality, and visual-gestural modality.

202Gestural processing — the ability of a person to successfully distinguish, recognize, understand, and remember gestures.

203 Gestural sequencing — the ability of a person to process and correctly order a succession or connected series of movements of the hands, arms, and/or upper body.

204 Gestures/gestural communication — the movement of the body or limbs to convey information; for example, pantomime, pointing, and facial expressions.

205 G-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the index finger and thumb are extended from an otherwise closed hand and are parallel to each other.

206 Global aphasia — extensive loss or considerable damage to most or all aspects involved in the understanding and production of language. Global aphasia is often the result of major brain damage caused by a stroke, brain infection, tumor, or head injury.

207 Gloss — a brief explanation of a foreign or unknown word. In this book, the spoken language translation of a sign. See English translation/ word equivalent.

208 Glossectomy — the surgical removal of the tongue.

209 Grammar — the rules that describe the structure and principles of a language’s operation; often used to refer to the system of inflections and syntax of a language.

210 Gross motor movements — bodily movements or actions that involve large muscle groups and not the smaller, typically more precise, movements of fine motor actions. Examples include crawling, walking, running, or throwing an object.

211 Hand-internal movements — movements made within a signer’s hand, such as the opening and closing of the hand.

212 Hand preference — the hand that a person prefers to use when performing most manual tasks or producing the movement parameter of signs; usually the right hand. See active hand and dominant hand.

213 Handshape — one of the three major sign formational parameters or aspects identified by linguist and sign language researcher William C. Stokoe that distinguish meaning in sign languages. The configuration of the hand (s) during the production of a sign; for example, C-hand, L-hand, and spread- or 5-hand. Also known as designator or sign handshape. See sign phoneme.

214 Haptic — of or pertaining to the sense of touch; relating to the perception, grasping, and manipulation of objects through touch, typically by use of one’s hands.

215 Hemiparesis — muscular weakness or partial paralysis of one side of the body. See hemiplegia.

216 Hemiplegia — severe weakness in or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the body resulting from damage to motor centers in the brain (areas of the brain that control muscular activity or movement).

217 Herpes encephalitis — a potentially fatal viral infection of the nervous system that may infect the temporal lobes of the brain and cause severe brain damage and seizures.

218 H-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the index and middle fingers are together and extended from an otherwise closed hand.

219 Hindbrain — the rearmost portion of the brain consisting of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata. The hindbrain is responsible for equilibrium and the regulation of essential biological functions (e.g., blood circulation, breathing).

220 Hippocampus — a region in the temporal lobe of the brain involved in forming and storing memories.

221 Homesigns — a basic gestural communication system that is created by a non-speaking (often deaf) child and his or her relatives in the absence of exposure to a full sign language. See personal signs.

222Horns-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the little finger and thumb are extended from an otherwise closed hand.

223 Iconicity — a property of a sign in which the sign bears a resemblance to or close association with the action, object, or characteristic it represents. There is a correspondence between the form of a sign and its meaning. See onomatopoeia.

224 Identifiable (sign) recall — in this book, the production by a study participant of a sign that, despite being imperfectly formed, is sufficiently close formationally to the sign demonstrated by the experimenter as to be recognized or identified as an attempt to produce that sign.

225 Idiom or idiomatic expression — a phrase or an expression that has a figurative (not literal) meaning; a figure of speech. Idioms are difficult to translate into other languages, as a literal interpretation of each word in the phrase renders a different meaning of the expression (the figurative meaning of the entire phrase or expression is different from the literal meaning of each word in the phrase). For example, “It costs an arm and a leg” means that something is very expensive (not that one literally has to use an arm and a leg as the form of payment). Idiomatic expressions are often difficult for foreign language students to learn.

226 Imitation skills — the ability to observe the actions of another and to reproduce or copy those same actions. Children with autism often need to be specifically and painstakingly taught to attend to and copy the actions of another person.

227 Immediate recall — a task that tests the participant’s ability to produce some item from memory very shortly after it has been presented. In this book, the ability to manually produce a sign after no significant time delay.

228 Incidence/incidence rate — the number of or rate at which new cases of a condition, disorder, or disease occurs in a population in a given time frame. Compare with prevalence.

229Incidental teaching program — an educational approach that utilizes the natural interactions (or naturally occurring situations) between teachers or caregivers and their students or clients throughout the day for instructional purposes. When parents also are involved in the teaching, the approach is known as an enhanced milieu teaching program. Compare with discrete trial training and general exposure.

230 Incongruent gesture — in this book, a gesture that does not match the meaning of a spoken word that is being learned. Production of incongruent gestures does not help, and may have a negative effect on, a person’s acquisition of foreign language vocabulary items when paired with those items.

231 Indexical signs — gestures that are linguistic pointers or direct indicators of something; for example, pointing directly at an object. Also known as deictic gestures.

232 Initial sign lexicon — the sign vocabulary that is taught to or acquired by a new sign language learner. The vocabulary items that are taught should in most cases focus primarily on discrete objects and actions useful and important to enhancing the quality of the sign learner’s environment and communication skills.

233 Inner ear — the portion of the ear that includes the vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea. This essential organ of hearing is responsible for the transduction or conversion of sound vibrations into auditory signals, which are then sent to the brain where they are interpreted.

234 Instrument — in linguistics, the means by which the action of the verb is performed within a sentence; the thing employed by the agent to accomplish the action.

235 Intellectual disability — a condition characterized by significantly below average cognitive functioning, impaired adaptive behavior, and often limited motor development and communication skills. Formerly known as mental retardation.

236Intelligible/intelligibility — in this book, how well a person’s speech, manual signs, or gestures are understood by that person’s communication partners.

237 Internal models or representations — the mental pictures or frameworks for comparison that a person has for understanding and learning information; a mental portrayal or description of something. See object visualization and visual image.

238 International Sign — a system of signs that incorporates signs from different sign languages from around the world, and that has been allowed to evolve relatively naturally. Signs that are considered useful, easily learned and remembered, as well as readily formed, are often included.

239 International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) — an organization that promotes the use and study of augmentative and alternative communication strategies with various non-speaking or minimally verbal persons.

240 Intervention program — a course of treatment meant to improve functioning in an area such as communication or social behavior. In this book, we often recommend the use of the Simplified Sign System (SSS) in a sign-communication intervention program to help improve an individual’s communicative interactions.

241 IQ test — a measure of one’s intelligence quotient; a standardized test used to assess or determine one’s level of intelligence relative to the performance of others of the same age.

242 Joint attention — a state or situation in which two individuals are attending to or paying attention to the same thing or action at the same time.

243 Kanner, Leo — psychiatrist who is credited as being the first to identify and describe the major characteristics of childhood autism.

244 Key words — content words; words that contain the principal or content information of an utterance.

245Key word signing — an approach to communication that involves signing only the principal or content words in a sentence while speaking the entire sentence. Key word signing is related to simultaneous communication.

246 Kinesthetic system — the system that senses movement and orientation of the body through information transmitted from receptors in the muscles, tendons, and joints.

247 Knuckle orientation — the direction that the knuckles of the hand (s) point during a sign’s production.

248 Landau-Kleffner syndrome — a relatively rare form of childhood epilepsy that results in a severe loss of receptive language skills (comprehension, understanding) even though the ability to hear is not impaired. Expressive language skills (speech) are often seriously impaired as well. This condition is associated with the onset of seizure activity; persons with Landau-Kleffner syndrome have abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Recovery varies widely. Also known as acquired epileptic aphasia or verbal auditory agnosia.

249 Language — the use of auditory-vocal or written symbols (words) or visual-gestural symbols (signs) in an organized pattern to communicate ideas or feelings. Usually refers to human communication, which can take place in a variety of settings and be expressed and perceived in many different forms (vocal, auditory, visual, tactile, manual, written, etc.). Although most people consider speech or spoken language to be the predominant means of human communication, sign languages and sign-communication systems are also common.

250 Language milestones — important developmental steps or tasks that are used to evaluate an individual’s level of language achievement or linguistic skills; for example, the onset of vocal or manual babbling, the production of one’s first word or sign, and the combination of words or signs.

251 Language modality — the medium that a language uses to produce and transmit information; the mode of production and reception of a language. Examples include auditory-vocal, gestural, manual, speech, tactile, or visual-gestural.

252 Laryngectomy — the surgical removal of the larynx, which holds the vocal cords.

253 Larynx — a part of the respiratory tract that contains the vocal cords; the voice box.

254 Late talkers — toddlers or young children who do not achieve productive (expressive) language milestones within the typical time frame; young children whose speech skills and vocabulary lag well behind those of other children of the same age.

255 Left hemisphere of the brain — one of the two lateral halves of the cerebrum (the topmost portion of the brain). The cerebral hemispheres consist of the left and right hemispheres, each of which is further divided into four lobes. The left hemisphere of the brain controls the right side of the body. In most humans, areas in the left hemisphere are specialized for language.

256 L-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the index finger and thumb are extended from an otherwise closed hand and form a right angle.

257 Limb apraxia — a type of apraxia in which a person experiences a loss of or disturbance in the ability to purposefully control the movements of the arms, hands, legs, or feet.

258 Lingua franca — a common or hybrid language (or communication system) employed among users of different languages when they need to communicate with each other.

259 Linguistic deprivation — a situation in which a child is raised without access to full linguistic input (either spoken language or signed language) and is therefore severely limited in his or her ability to communicate with others.

260 Linguistic family — a grouping of distinct languages whose characteristics nevertheless indicate that they are related to each other; for example, Spanish, French, Italian, Romanian, and Portuguese are all descended from vulgar Latin and thus belong to the same linguistic family.

261 Linguistics — the scientific study of language (whether signed or spoken), including its origins, history, evolution, structure, social variation and application, biological bases, and psychological underpinnings.

262 Lip reading — a skill in which a person depends on his or her ability to visually observe (or, less often, physically touch and feel) the speech movements of another person’s mouth, lips, and face to understand what that person is saying (often without actually hearing what is being said). Also known as speech reading.

263 List intrusion — in this book, the production of an item during a recall study that was presented in a different list (other than the one currently being tested).

264 Literacy — the ability to read and write.

265 Location — one of the three major sign formational parameters or aspects identified by linguist and sign language researcher William C. Stokoe that distinguish meaning in sign languages. The area (s) on or near the body where a sign is made; the place or location of the hand or hands during the production of a sign. Examples include the chin, chest, forehead, or arm. Also known as the sign location or tabula. See sign phoneme.

266 Locative — the grammatical case that indicates location or place.

267 Longer-term recall study — in this book, a task that tests the participant’s ability to manually produce or recognize a sign after a delay often consisting of more than a few days.

268 Longitudinal study — a study that is conducted over an extended period of time on the same participants. Observations are made at various time intervals to provide information on the course of development and to measure long-term effects.

269 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) — a diagnostic or research procedure that uses radio waves and magnets to create images of cross sections of the body; these images are compiled or put together for viewing by a computer program.

270 Main user — in this book, the person who will use the Simplified Sign System (SSS) as a primary language or communication system. See target population or users.

271 Makaton Vocabulary — initially, a vocabulary or lexicon of several hundred basic signs from British Sign Language (BSL) for use with non-speaking persons with an intellectual disability in Great Britain. It has been expanded and used with other non-speaking populations as well. When used in other countries, signs are taken from the principal sign language (s) of the Deaf persons of those countries.

272 Maladaptive behaviors — negative, challenging, or problem behaviors that interfere with a person’s daily life activities; may include self-injury, tantrums, aggression, stereotypies, and destruction of property.

273 Mandible — the lower jaw bone.

274 Manual alphabet — handshapes used in manual communication to represent the individual letters of words from a spoken language. See fingerspelling.

275 Manual apraxia — a type of apraxia in which a person experiences a loss of or disturbance in the ability to purposefully control the movements of the hands and arms.

276 Manual dexterity — the muscular abilities of one’s hands and arms; the extent to which a person can control the movements of the hands and arms. Manual dexterity often refers to a person’s skill and ease in performing manual acts.

277 Manual modality — the use of one’s hands, arms, and facial expression to transmit information. See gestural modality, tactile modality, and visual-gestural modality.

278 Manual numeration — handshapes, locations, and movements used in manual communication to represent individual numbers.

279Manual skills — abilities or skills that involve the use of or movement of the hands or limbs; for example, object manipulation and forming correct handshapes.

280 Maternal chromosomal deletion — a loss or deletion of genetic material from a maternal chromosome. In about 70 % of all cases of Angelman syndrome, genetic material on chromosome 15 (q11-13) is not passed from the mother to the child.

281 Mean — arithmetic average, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

282 Medulla oblongata — the lowest part of the hindbrain and brain stem, located at the top of the spinal cord. The medulla oblongata is involved in the control of breathing, circulation, balance, and certain protective reflexes.

283 Melodic Intonation Therapy — a language therapy technique that uses musical melodies, rhythms, and intonations to stimulate areas of the brain related to language; it is used mostly with persons with expressive speech aphasia to help them regain the ability to speak. A therapist typically first demonstrates and then teaches a client to rhythmically hum or sing words or phrases. This language therapy technique may also be combined with the production of manual signs.

284 Memory aid or cue — in this book, a sentence or phrase provided with each sign in the Simplified Sign System (SSS) lexicon to illuminate the link between that sign and the concept for which it stands. See mnemonic explanation.

285 Mendelian inheritance pattern — a set of rules or principles that describe the way in which biological traits are passed from one generation to another. This pattern of genetic transmission was initially discovered by Austrian monk and botanist Gregor Mendel in the 1800s. These principles state that the inheritance of a trait is determined by genes that are passed from the parent generation to the next (child) generation unchanged. For each trait described, the child receives one gene from each parent. Traits that are suppressed in the parent (or current) generation can still be passed on and expressed in the child (or next) generation.

286 Mental rotation skills — a set of visuospatial skills that allow a person to compare one object or shape with another. These skills include the ability to form a mental image of a two- or three-dimensional object, to mentally rotate or move that object around, to compare the mentally-rotated object with the original object, and then to make a determination as to whether the two objects match or are the same. Mental rotation skills are important to a wide range of cognitive tasks.

287 Metaphor — a non-literal linguistic formulation of a concept that cannot be represented directly. A word, sign, or phrase that often designates one thing is instead used to describe or designate another, thus suggesting likeness (e.g., drowning in money).

288 Metonymic signs — signs that represent or imitate relatively minor or obscure features of their referents. The relationships between these signs and their referents would not be immediately apparent to most observers.

289 Midbrain — the portion of the brain located vertically between the forebrain and the hindbrain and horizontally between the cerebellum and pons. The midbrain is involved in arousal, body temperature regulation, eye movement control, the sleep-waking cycle, and other actions.

290 Middle ear — the portion of the ear that extends from the eardrum to the inner ear. The middle ear amplifies and transmits sound-produced vibrations to the inner ear. The middle ear contains a chain of tiny bones (the malleus, incus, and stapes) that is involved in this sound wave transmission.

291 Midface — the region of the face near the eyes and nose; a common sign location.

292 Mild intellectual disability — a category of below average mental functioning (IQ range: 55–69); about 85–89 % of persons with an intellectual disability are in this category. These individuals typically develop communication, language, and social skills and may achieve academically up to the sixth-grade level. As adults, they may be able to be employed and live independently, although some support and supervision often are needed.

293 Mirror image signs — also known as symmetrical signs.

294 Mirror neurons — neurons in the brain that are activated or fire when a monkey or a person views certain actions performed by others; these same neurons also activate or fire when the observer performs those actions. Recent studies into mirror neurons may provide insight into the origins of language. See observation matching system.

295 Mnemonic explanation — a memory aid or cue. In this book, an explanation of how a sign and its meaning are related that may help a person to remember that sign.

296 Moderate intellectual disability — a category of below average mental functioning (IQ range: 40–54); about 6–10 % of persons with an intellectual disability are in this category. These individuals develop some communication, language, and social skills and often achieve academic skills at the intermediate elementary school level, typically through special education. As adults, with some support, they may be able to be employed in unskilled or semiskilled jobs.

297 Monozygotic twins — twins that develop from a single fertilized egg; identical twins. Compare with dizygotic twins.

298 Motor ability — a person’s ability to purposefully control the movements of her arms, hands, legs, and body.

299 Motor complexity — the level of difficulty involved in purposefully controlling or producing a specific movement. When used in reference to signs, it is based on the type and number of movements contained in a sign, the spatial orientation of the sign, and the sign’s particular handshape (s) and location (s).

300 Motor coordination — the ability to control and combine muscular activity or movement.

301Motor cortex — the region of the brain that controls movement and motor activity. The motor cortex is a part of the cerebral cortex.

302 Motor embodiment — in this book, a person’s ability to imagine himself or herself in another person’s body and to view things from that other person’s perspective or vantage point. Signers typically produce sign utterances from their own viewpoints, while perceivers of these sign utterances learn to adopt the perspectives of the sign producers.

303 Motor imagery — in this book, the creation of visual or mental images of oneself performing motor actions or movements without overtly or physically producing such movements; a recent technique or approach to rehabilitating motor abilities and control in stroke patients with physical impairments.

304 Motor milestones — important developmental steps or tasks that are used to evaluate an individual’s level of motor achievement or motor skills; for example, sitting, crawling, and walking.

305 Motor planning — the mental formulation for muscular activity or movement of part of the body; the ability to organize sensory information in order to plan and carry out motor activity.

306 Motor processing skills — the ability of a person to successfully distinguish, recognize, understand, and/or remember movements or motor-based information.

307 Motor programming process — the planning or organizing of a motor action or actions. Because both signing and speaking involve sequential motor actions, these actions need to be planned or organized so that the resulting actions are appropriately coordinated and sequenced.

308 Motor sequencing — the ability of a person to process and correctly order a succession or connected series of movements of part of the body.

309 Motor speech disorder — a dysfunction of motor abilities involved in producing speech.

310Movement — one of the three major sign formational parameters or aspects identified by linguist and sign language researcher William C. Stokoe that distinguish meaning in sign languages. The action or movement of the hands or arms in making a sign; for example, nodding or bending of the wrists, up and down movements of the arms or hands, and wiggling of the fingers. Also known as signation or sign movement. See sign phoneme.

311 Multi-channel system — in this book, the use of facial expression (involving the eyes, eyebrows, nose, and mouth), head and eye movements, body posture, and hand movement to convey meaning in sign languages.

312 Multimodal — having or occurring in several forms or modalities. The gestural, manual, auditory-vocal, tactile, and visual modalities may be involved in communication.

313 Multimodal communication system — a communication system that provides information in multiple different modalities; for example, the use of manual signs, speech, printed material, pictures, photos, and/or real objects in communication.

314 Multi-movement signs or gestures — signs or gestures that involve more than one manual movement.

315 Multi-term sign utterance — a signed sentence/phrase composed of two or more signs.

316 Mute — unable or unwilling to produce intelligible speech.

317 Name sign — a sign that represents a specific person. In American Deaf communities, it is common practice to create a name sign by using the handshape from the manual alphabet for the initial letter of the person’s first name or by modifying an existing sign that refers to a prominent physical, emotional, or other characteristic of that person. See arbitrary name signs and descriptive name signs.

318 Native user — a person who has grown up learning a specific language and is fluent in that language. See principal language.

319Natural language — in contemporary usage, a language that has its own vocabulary and grammar and that is learned by native signers or speakers; examples include American Sign Language (ASL), English, French, Russian, and Mandarin Chinese.

320 Neural plasticity — the ability of the brain to adapt to new stimuli, incorporate new information, or successfully adjust to a brain injury. Younger children’s brains typically have greater neural plasticity (and thus adaptive ability) than the brains of adults.

321 Neuro-imaging techniques — procedures that record and map brain activity, including computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans.

322 Neuromotor impairment — damage to the nerves or muscles that results in a decreased ability or loss of control of motor activity.

323 Neuropathology — the study of the characteristics, causes, and effects of diseases of the nervous system; a disease or dysfunction of the nervous system.

324 Neurophysiology — the study of the structure, function, and processes of the body’s nervous system and neural circuitry.

325 Neutral place or space — the area in front of the signer’s torso; a common sign location.

326 Nondeclarative memory — also known as procedural memory.

327 Nonfluent aphasia — a type of expressive or productive language loss that is characterized by labored and effortful speech. See Broca’s aphasia.

328 Non-oral communication system — a communication system that does not use speech; for example, the use of sign communication, symbols, pictures, or objects. See augmentative and alternative communication.

329Nonverbal communication — communication that does not involve vocalized speech; it includes gestures, pantomime, facial expression, and the positioning and movements of various parts of the body.

330 Nonverbal intelligence — a measure of mental ability (or abilities) that does not involve the production or understanding of speech (or language). See Raven Progressive Matrices.

331 Non-vocal sounds — environmental sounds; sounds not produced by the human voice.

332 North American Indian Sign Language — also known as Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL).

333 Object visualization — the formation in one’s mind of a picture-like mental image of an object. Visualizing an object or the use of that object may help some people with language impairments to remember the name of that object. See internal models or representations and visual image.

334 Observation matching system — the ability of a person to match sensory stimuli (e.g., auditory or visual input) with the correct mental understanding of the stimuli; the ability to observe an action and then execute or perform that same action. See mirror neurons.

335 Occipital lobe — the posterior (rearmost) lobe of each cerebral hemisphere; it contains the primary visual projection area or visual cortex.

336 Okay-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the index finger and thumb are curved and touch at their tips from an otherwise open hand.

337 Onomatopoeia — spoken words that imitate the sounds associated with the designated concept or object; for example, quack, cuckoo, moo, or buzz. See iconicity.

338 Operant (speech) training — also known as behavior modification (speech) training.

339Oral cavity — the area of the mouth; the opening in the head that is bounded externally by the lips and internally by the pharynx.

340 Oral educational programs — educational programs for deaf students that focus on speech and lip reading; sign language and fingerspelling are not included. Oral-only educational programs prohibit the use of sign language and fingerspelling.

341 Oral-motor/oromotor apraxia — an inability or significantly decreased ability to control the movement of the muscles of the jaw, tongue, mouth, lips, larynx, pharynx, and velum. Such a disruption in movement may interfere with speech and swallowing.

342 Oral-motor/oromotor coordination — the ability to control and combine the muscular activity or movement of the jaw, tongue, mouth, lips, larynx, pharynx, and velum.

343 Oral-motor/oromotor planning — the mental formulation for muscular activity or movement of the jaw, tongue, mouth, lips, larynx, pharynx, and velum.

344 Oral-motor/oromotor sequencing — the ability of a person to process and correctly order a succession or connected series of movements of the muscles of the jaw, tongue, mouth, lips, larynx, pharynx, and velum.

345 Oral-motor/oromotor skills — skills that involve movement of the muscles of the jaw, tongue, mouth, lips, larynx, pharynx, and velum. These skills are important in speech, chewing, and swallowing.

346 Otitis media — inflammation of the middle ear that may cause pain, fever, and hearing impairment. Children with Down syndrome are especially vulnerable to otitis media.

347 Paget-Gorman sign system — a sign-communication system devised in England to render English manually (on the hands).

348 Palate — the roof of the mouth; there is both a hard palate and a soft palate (velum).

349Palm down — the position of the hand when the palm faces down toward the floor.

350 Palm in — the position of the hand when the palm faces in toward the signer.

351 Palm orientation — the direction that the palm of the hand (s) faces during a sign’s production.

352 Palm out — the position of the hand when the palm faces out or away from the signer.

353 Palm to the side — the position of the hand when the palm faces to one side or the other.

354 Palm up — the position of the hand when the palm faces up toward the ceiling.

355 Panacea — a remedy or solution (often mythical) to all of one’s problems or ills.

356 Pantomime — the conveying of information by body movement and realistic gestures; frequently it involves the use of the entire body in a continuous sequence of image-evoking movements or actions. Also known as mime. In signing, a type of highly iconic sign or gesture that clearly resembles and acts out in some significant way the action, object, or characteristic it represents (its referent). Pantomimic signs are formed by using the hands, arms, shoulders, and the face.

357 Parameters — in this book, a more recent term for the aspects that make up a manual sign’s formation: handshape, location, and movement. See sign phoneme.

358 Parietal lobe — one of the four lobes of each cerebral hemisphere, the parietal lobe is located between the frontal and occipital (rearmost) lobes. The parietal lobe is the region of the brain involved with the sense of touch and the experience of one’s body in space and movement.

359 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) — a standardized test of receptive English vocabulary typically given to children. The test involves the test administrator saying a word and then the person being tested selecting the picture from a collection of four pictures that best represents that word. The test measures verbal ability and scholastic aptitude.

360 PECS — abbreviation for Picture Exchange Communication System.

361 Pedagogical/pedagogy — pertaining to the science or art of teaching and instruction; the educational principles, techniques, and methods a teacher or professor employs.

362 Perfect (sign) recall — in this book, the production by a study participant of a Simplified Sign System (SSS) sign or an American Sign Language (ASL) sign that is formationally identical to the sign demonstrated by the experimenter.

363 Peripheral vision — vision at the edges or boundaries of one’s field of sight.

364 Personal signs — a communication system often based on the various gestures that a particular non-speaking individual produces naturally (without training). Individuals with Angelman syndrome may use personal signs to communicate. See homesigns.

365 Pharynx — in humans, the anatomical channel, together with its enclosing muscles and mucous membrane, that is located behind the nasal cavity and mouth and extends to the esophagus; the throat. The pharynx serves as a passage for air and food.

366 Phoneme — the smallest unit of speech or sound that may signal a difference in meaning; a class of speech sounds that is perceived as having a single distinct sound in a language.

367 Phonemic sequencing errors — errors in speech production in which a succession or connected series of sounds are produced in the incorrect order or out of sequence.

368 Phonological memory — the ability to process, store, and remember information based on speech sounds. This includes the capacities to perceive, encode, rehearse, and recall verbal material. Phonological memory is related to auditory memory and verbal memory.

369Phonological processing — the ability of a person to successfully distinguish, recognize, understand, and remember speech sounds. Young children often systematically alter the sounds of the adult language to fit their limited production repertoires. Phonological processing is related to auditory processing and verbal processing.

370 Phonological sequencing — the ability of a person to process and correctly order a succession or connected series of speech sounds. Phonological sequencing is related to auditory sequencing and verbal sequencing.

371 Phonology — the linguistic study of the basic units of sound in a spoken language or the basic units of sign in a signed language, as well as their rules for combination.

372 Physical prompter — a person who guides an individual’s (typically a child’s) hand in grasping and then releasing a picture of a desired item in the Picture Exchange Communication System.

373 Pictographic line drawings — simple drawings that are used to represent concepts and are often pictorial in nature; they are frequently used with individuals who have trouble communicating through either speech or signs. See Blissymbols.

374 Picture board or book — see communication (or picture) board or book.

375 Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) — an alternative communication system in which a physical prompter teaches an individual (typically a child) to associate a particular item with its picture by presenting both to that individual and then guiding him or her to grasp and then give the picture to the caregiver in exchange for the item.

376 Pincer grip — a handshape similar to the baby O-hand. The tips of the index finger and thumb close together. The pincer grip typically emerges early in an infant’s development.

377 Pivotal response treatment — an intervention approach for children with autism spectrum disorder that uses behavioral learning techniques within the context of ongoing interactions between the child and those persons around him or her.

378 Plains Indians — Native Americans who lived on the Great Plains and who often used a sign-communication system known as Plains Indians Sign Language (PISL) to communicate with members of other tribes or nations who did not speak the same language.

379 Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL) — a manual sign-communication system used in North America among members of different tribes or nations of Plains Indians who did not speak the same language. Also known as American Indian Hand Talk or North American Indian Sign Language.

380 Play therapy — a psychotherapeutic approach in which children are encouraged to reveal their feelings and conflicts through their play.

381 Pointing-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the index finger is extended from an otherwise closed hand.

382 Ponce de León, Pedro — sixteenth-century Benedictine monk who undertook the first systematic instruction of deaf students in Spain.

383 Pons — the thickened area of the hindbrain located below the midbrain and at the top end of the medulla oblongata. The pons is involved in the integration and coordination of facial sensations and movements, as well as regulating attentiveness, sleep, and arousal. See brain stem.

384 Poor (reading) comprehenders — a term applied to persons who have reading comprehension impairment. Poor comprehenders typically can read aloud at an age-appropriate level, but have difficulty understanding the meaning of what they have just read. See reading comprehension impairment.

385 Portable prompt system — an item or a collection of items that can be easily carried from place to place and that may serve as a memory aid for its user. For example, a reference card with a picture or drawing of a sign, the sign’s meaning, and a brief description of how the sign is made.

386Positron emission tomography (PET) scan — a diagnostic procedure that produces images of chemical activity in the body using the injection of a radioactive substance. It helps determine how well organs and tissues are functioning by measuring blood flow, oxygen use, and sugar metabolism.

387 Postlingually deaf — a person who becomes deaf or loses his or her hearing after gaining some considerable amount of speech or spoken language skills.

388 Praxis — the ability to purposefully control one’s movements or to use (or to understand the uses of) objects.

389 Preactivation — in this book, the activation of parts of the brain through motor activity (such as standing) in the hopes of improving or enhancing another activity (such as remembering words or vocabulary). This recall strategy may be helpful for persons who have language or memory impairments.

390 Prehominid — refers to the extinct primates that resemble or are related by ancestry to humans; the time period before the appearance of humans.

391 Prelingually deaf — a person who is born deaf or loses his or her hearing before gaining any significant speech or spoken language skills.

392 Prelinguistic gestures — gestures produced by an infant or young child prior to his or her production of referential words (words used to name or label new instances of a concept). Such gestures might include the acts of showing or giving something to another. These early emerging communicative gestures typically are absent or occur very infrequently in infants who are subsequently diagnosed with autism or on the autism spectrum.

393 Prestimulation — the act of giving a participant some form of advance knowledge of or information about a forthcoming stimulus that may increase the likelihood (or ease) that the stimulus will be recalled or recognized. See cueing and prompts.

394Preterm infant — a premature infant; an infant born before thirty-seven weeks of gestation.

395 Prevalence — the number of cases of a condition, disorder, or disease in a population at any given time. Compare with incidence/incidence rate.

396 Primary progressive aphasia — a clinical syndrome in which there is a gradual deterioration of language functioning over a period of at least two years while other cognitive abilities are largely preserved. In later stages, some individuals may also show marked disturbances in cognition (perception, memory) and behavior.

397 Primate — a member of the biological order or grouping Primates. Examples of living primates include apes, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, lemurs, and humans.

398 Principal language — the language one uses as a primary means of communication or for the majority of one’s communicative interactions. See native user.

399 Problem behaviors — also known as maladaptive behaviors.

400 Procedural memory — a memory system that consists of knowledge of how to do something, such as how to ride a bike or do a certain dance. A person may demonstrate this knowledge through performance of actions or behaviors, but not be able to express this knowledge through words. Also known as nondeclarative memory.

401 Productive aphasia — also known as expressive aphasia.

402 Productive language skills — also known as expressive language skills.

403 Productive speech aphasia — also known as expressive speech aphasia.

404 Productive vocabulary — also known as expressive vocabulary.

405 Profound intellectual disability — a category of below average mental functioning (IQ below 25); about 1–2 % of persons with an intellectual disability are in this category. These individuals have extremely limited language and communication skills, which are often achieved through augmentative and alternative communication. Many persons with a profound intellectual disability also have serious physical difficulties and neurological damage. Some may learn basic self-help skills but typically require close supervision in a sheltered setting.

406 Prognosis — outlook or prospect of recovery; often used in medical settings to forecast or predict the outcome of a particular health condition, disease, disorder, or treatment program.

407 Progressive disorder — a condition that worsens or deteriorates over time.

408 Project Head Start — an intervention program started in the United States in the 1960s in an attempt to combat the effects of poverty on young children’s development. Mainstays of the program include the provision of nutritious meals, access to regular medical and dental care, and educational instruction for pre-school children (mostly three- and four-year-olds) from low-income families.

409 Proloquo2Go — an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) software application for certain electronic devices geared toward helping minimally verbal persons to communicate effectively with others. The system is based on the selection of graphic symbols or pictures on a screen to communicate; it also offers a voice-output (or speech-generating) feature.

410 Prompts — verbal, gestural, physical, or visual encouragement to perform an activity. See cueing, physical prompter, and prestimulation.

411 Proprioception — the ability to perceive the spatial position or movement of one’s body.

412 Proximalization error — an error in the production of a manual sign in which the movement is displaced from one joint (e.g., the knuckles of the hand) to a joint closer to the trunk of the body (e.g., the wrist, elbow, or shoulder).

413 Pseudo-words — word-like constructions; made-up or invented words. Combinations of sounds that resemble the way words are constructed in a particular language, but which are not actual words from that language.

414 Psychodynamic therapy — a treatment or therapeutic approach that is based on the view that symptoms are largely the product of unresolved unconscious conflicts from childhood.

415 Raven Progressive Matrices — a standardized, nonverbal test of mental ability that involves the detection of patterns and analysis of figures. The test measures abstract reasoning, problem solving, and learning ability.

416 Reading comprehension impairment — a difficulty or limitation in the ability to understand text passages that one has adequately read aloud. Persons with reading comprehension impairment have intact phonological skills, but tend to have weak vocabulary knowledge, problems with listening comprehension, difficulty understanding figurative language (metaphors, idioms), and problems with processing grammatical information. One of the main strategies for addressing reading comprehension impairment is to focus on teaching vocabulary. See poor (reading) comprehenders.

417 Rebus — a representation of syllables, words, or phrases by pictures of objects, arrangements of letters, or symbols whose names in sound resemble the intended syllables, words, or phrases.

418 Receptive aphasia — a form of language loss or aphasia in which an individual has difficulty understanding or processing language.

419 Receptive language skills — the extent to which a person can understand other persons’ speech or signs; a person’s ability to understand language.

420 Receptive vocabulary — the words or signs that a person understands; the extent to which a person can understand other persons’ spoken words or signs.

421 Recognizable (sign) recall — in this book, the production by a study participant of a sign from memory that is either produced correctly or includes only a small formational error in comparison with the sign demonstrated by the experimenter. Used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS)/American Sign Language (ASL) comparison study to encompass perfect (sign) recalls and essentially correct (sign) recalls.

422 Referent — the object, action, property, or concept that a word or sign represents.

423 Register — in linguistics, the level of formality of a person’s language; register usually varies according to the setting and audience. For example, a researcher giving a presentation at a professional conference would be expected to use formal, highly grammatical, and more complex speech when describing the results of a scientific study. That same person, however, would likely use less formal speech and grammar when interacting with a family member or friend.

424 Rehabilitation program — a treatment program or plan of activity by which an individual may improve or regain the use of damaged functions of the body.

425 Representative gesture — a gesture that visually resembles the concept for which it stands; a highly iconic gesture.

426 Residential program — a treatment program that typically provides housing, shelter, care, social development, and rehabilitation to clients who cannot function independently.

427 Right hemisphere of the brain — one of the two lateral halves of the cerebrum (the topmost portion of the brain). The cerebral hemispheres consist of the left and right hemispheres, each of which is further divided into four lobes. The right hemisphere of the brain controls the left side of the body.

428 Ritalin — a neural stimulant medication often given to treat persons with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); trademark for methylphenidate preparation.

429 Rubella — also known as German measles.

430Sapir-Whorf hypothesis — the view advanced by anthropologist and linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf and his academic mentor Edward Sapir that one’s language affects one’s thoughts. Sapir and Whorf claimed that one’s language might limit the scope of one’s thinking and that language might influence thought.

431 Scott, W. R. — the principal of an English institution for deaf students in the mid-1800s who embraced signing as a form of instruction. Teachers from his school often were successful in teaching signs to individuals with a significant intellectual disability.

432 Second-first language acquisition — the process by which an internationally adopted child (who has to that point been exposed to the language of his or her native country) learns the new (and different) language of his or her adoptive parents. The language skills of internationally adopted children in their new language tend to lag behind those of non-adopted children of the same age and family socioeconomic background.

433 Seizure — loss of control of one’s movements, behavior, or consciousness brought on by abnormal electrical activity in the brain; a seizure may occur as a result of a brain infection, tumor, injury, or stroke. See epilepsy and Landau-Kleffner syndrome.

434 Semantic — having to do with the meaning component of language.

435 Semantic category — an overarching notion or concept, such as chair, that is exemplified by many different physical forms, such as a wing chair, a wooden chair, a high-backed chair, a folding chair, etc.

436 Semantic encoding — the storage in memory of the meaning that is conveyed by language.

437 Semantic relations — the roles of the principal words or signs in an utterance; the limited set of meanings often present in children’s early spoken or signed utterances.

438 Semicircular canals — a part of the inner ear involved in sensing motion and balance.

439Sensorimotor actions — acts produced by an individual that may involve the use of his or her limbs (e.g., arms, legs), bodily motor activities, and senses (e.g., vision, touch). Much early development may depend on sensorimotor (also spelled sensorymotor) actions.

440 Sequential movements — also known as consecutive movements.

441 Severe intellectual disability — a category of below average mental functioning (IQ range: 25–39); about 3–4 % of persons with an intellectual disability are in this category. These individuals often have quite limited language abilities, poor motor skills, and limited self-help skills. With special education, they can improve their communication skills, but rarely demonstrate academic achievement. They require a supportive environment with supervision.

442 Signation — also known as movement or sign movement; one of the three principal formational parameters of manual signs.

443 Sign-communication deblocking therapy — an aphasia treatment method in which a manual sign typically is produced at the same time as the corresponding spoken word (or appropriate oral movements); the goal is for the impaired speech skills to improve as a result of being paired with the more intact signing skills. See deblocking.

444 Sign-communication system — a form of manual communication often based on signs from sign languages used by Deaf persons and/or Native Americans. See Amer-Ind, Paget-Gorman sign system, and Simplified Sign System (SSS).

445 Sign-communication training or teaching — the instruction of persons in the use of signs from a sign language or sign-communication system.

446 Sign dialect — an often regional variation within a sign language, akin to dialects in spoken languages, which may involve differences in sign vocabulary or sign formation. For example, the formation of the sign CHICKEN in American Sign Language (ASL) may vary according to where one lives.

447Signed English — a manual and visual form of English that puts American Sign Language (ASL) signs in English word order and makes greater use of fingerspelling; the signs may be further modified to indicate specific English words, plurality, or verb tense. Signing Exact English is a form of Signed English.

448 Signed languages — also known as sign languages.

449 Sign handshape — also known as designator or handshape.

450 Sign language psycholinguistics — the study of how sign languages are acquired (as a native language and as a second or additional language), how sign languages are processed in the brain or understood, and how sign languages are produced. Sign language psycholinguistics may cover such topics as the neurobiological bases for the origins of sign language, similarities and differences between sign language acquisition and spoken language acquisition, how brain damage affects the production and comprehension of sign language (aphasia), and the use of sign languages with special populations.

451 Sign languages — languages that rely on the transmission of meaning through manually produced and seen signs. Deaf persons in most countries have their own distinct sign languages. Also known as signed languages, visual-gestural languages, or visual-motor languages.

452 Sign location — also known as location or tabula.

453 Sign movement — also known as movement or signation.

454 Sign notation (al) system — a system of symbols used to describe a sign’s handshape, movement, and location in written form; for example, Stokoe notation. See sign phoneme.

455 Sign phoneme — a sign’s basic unit of formation that can signal a difference in meaning; a sign’s particular handshape, location, or movement. Also known as a chereme (sign language linguist William C. Stokoe’s term). See parameters.

456Signs — in this book, concepts that are produced manually (primarily by the hands and arms) and are composed of the formational parameters or aspects known as handshape, location, and movement.

457 Simplified Sign System (SSS) — the sign-communication system originally designed for use with hearing, but non-speaking, populations by the present authors. Most SSS signs resemble their concepts.

458 Simultaneous communication — an approach to communication in which the user speaks and signs at the same time. Often the user produces signs according to the word order of the spoken language. Simultaneous communication is related to key word signing.

459 Simultaneous movements — movements made during a sign’s production that occur at the same time.

460 Skelly, Madge — person who developed the sign-communication system Amer-Ind by selecting and adapting signs from Plains Indian Sign Language (PISL). These signs initially were used to meet the communication needs of patients who had undergone a glossectomy or laryngectomy because of cancer.

461 Social interaction skills — the ability to successfully communicate and interact with other people and to understand the communication of others. Social interaction skills encompass the use and understanding of nonverbal cues (e.g., facial expressions, body posturing), conversational rules (e.g., appropriate topics, turn taking, reciprocity), and other social customs. Social interaction skills are important for establishing self-esteem, building friendships, and gaining acceptance into one’s community.

462 Social touch aversion — the dislike of or strong preference to avoid common means of interacting or contact with others through touch (e.g., hugging, touching of the hands or arms). Often present in children with autism.

463 Socioeconomic status (SES) — the position one has in society largely as a result of one’s material wealth. Other factors include one’s level of education and occupation.

464Sound symbolism — the view that sounds of a word often are linked or related to the meaning of the word to some extent.

465 Spatial memory — the ability to perceive and remember the relations and locations of objects or actions in space. This ability may include that of remembering the sequencing of actions produced in space. See Corsi block-tapping test.

466 Spatial orientation — in signing, the positioning of the arms and/or hands in space.

467 Spatial relations/relationships — the ability to perceive and understand the positioning of objects in space relative to each other (including their size, volume, distance apart, order, and direction).

468 Spatial skills/spatial cognition skills — the ability to perceive and comprehend relations in the spatial domain. Tests of spatial ability might involve finding embedded figures and mentally rotating shapes.

469 Specific language impairment (SLI) — delayed or atypical language development with no apparent cognitive or sensory dysfunction. Also known as developmental dysphasia or developmental language disorder (DLD).

470 Speech-generating device — an electronic device that allows the user to produce digitized or pre-recorded speech. See voice output communication aid (VOCA).

471 Speech-language center of the brain — the portion of the brain responsible for the processing of language input and output; in most persons, language processing occurs primarily in the left hemisphere of the cerebrum. See speech signals.

472 Speech-language pathologist (SLP) — a professional trained to assist in the development or recovery of speech and language skills in persons with communication disorders. See speech therapy.

473 Speech modality — the use of the voice to transmit information. See auditory-vocal modality.

474Speech reading — also known as lip reading.

475 Speech signals — the sound waves of speech that have been converted into electrical impulses on the way to the brain’s language center. Speech signals may be disrupted along these neural pathways, resulting in an impaired ability to understand spoken language.

476 Speech therapy — a system of spoken language training in which an individual is trained in perceiving speech sounds and assisted in learning how to form speech sounds, words, and sentences; speech exercises. See speech-language pathologist.

477 Spinal cord — the cord or column of nervous tissue that extends from the brain along the length of the back. The spinal cord, a part of the central nervous system, carries nerve impulses to and from the brain.

478 Spoken languages — languages that rely on the transmission of meaning through spoken and heard words; also known as auditory-vocal languages.

479 Spontaneous communication — a person’s ability to initiate communication, typically through signs or speech, without immediate prior prompting or usage by others.

480 Spread curved-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the fingers are spread apart and curved.

481 Spread- or 5-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the hand is flat with fingers spread apart and extended. Known as the 5-hand in Stokoe’s sign notational system.

482 SSS — abbreviation for the Simplified Sign System.

483 Standard deviation — a measurement of the variation or distribution of values within a data set with respect to the mean (the arithmetic average of the values). A higher standard deviation reflects a greater distance from the average (expected) result. This statistic is obtained by calculating the difference between each value and the mean, squaring each result, adding the squared values together and dividing by the number of values to obtain the variance, and then taking the square root of the variance.

484Standardization — in reference to the Simplified Sign System (SSS), the selection and use of one consistent sign or gesture to convey a particular concept, even if many acceptable gestural variations exist.

485 Stanford-Binet IQ test — a well-respected and individually administered test of intelligence. The test has its roots in the intelligence test developed by Alfred Binet (1857–1911) in France; it then was revised and adapted for use in America by Lewis Terman of Stanford University. The test measures a person’s performance on a broad range of tasks that vary in content and difficulty.

486 Stationary hand — a hand that is part of the production of some two-handed manual signs. A stationary hand often serves as a non-moving base in the formation of a two-handed asymmetrical sign.

487 Stereotyped motor movements — frequently repeated, routinized, or stereotypical behaviors such as finger flicking, hand flapping, or rocking back and forth; these behaviors are common among children with autism. Also known as stereotypies.

488 Stereotypies — also known as stereotyped motor movements.

489 Stokoe notation — a system of symbols developed by linguist and sign language researcher William C. Stokoe to describe in a written or printed form a sign’s formational parameters or aspects of handshape, location, and movement. See sign notation (al) system and sign phoneme.

490 Stokoe, William C., Jr. — pioneering linguist who showed that American Sign Language (ASL) is a genuine language with its own distinct structure that is quite different from that of English and other spoken languages. See sign phoneme.

491 Stroke — a rupture (cerebral hemorrhage) of or obstruction (clot) in a blood vessel in the brain that may result in a sudden loss or reduction of sensation, consciousness, and voluntary movement. A loss or disturbance of language abilities and/or paralysis of one side of the body (hemiplegia) may occur as well. Also known as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA).

492Subject performed task effect — for a maximum facilitative effect of gestures on memory (or enactment effect), the gestures need to be produced by each individual participant. Also known as self-performed task effect.

493 Sublexical — referring to or pertaining to the constituent parts of a word or sign (such as the phonemes within a word or sign).

494 Swiss-French Sign Language — the primary language of some members of the Deaf communities in Switzerland. Also known as SSR.

495 Symbol — a word, sign, or other token that stands for a concept, but which typically does not bear any clearly apparent vocal, manual, or visual connection to that concept.

496 Symbolic coding system — a communication system composed of symbols that are used to represent concepts. Examples include speech and manual signs.

497 Symbolic gestures/gesturing — manual gestures that are used to represent objects, actions, and properties in one’s environment. These gestures frequently bear a resemblance to the concepts they represent. Infants make use of symbolic gestures as part of the typical course of both signed and spoken language development.

498 Symbol-processing skills — the capacity to recognize that something can stand for or represent something else. In most instances, the ability to perceive and understand visual or auditory signs, marks, or characters.

499 Symbol system — a system in which certain things stand for or represent something else, typically concepts. Language is an important symbol system.

500 Symmetrical signs — signs made with two hands and whose handshapes, movements, and locations are the same or mirror images of each other. Also known as mirror image signs or two-handed symmetrical signs.

501Synesthesia — a condition in which one sense affects or spills over into another sense. One of the most common forms is the association of specific letters and/or numbers with specific colors; other forms include seeing shapes or colors when one hears sounds, and hearing sounds in response to visual input. Perhaps the result of cross-activation of neighboring regions of the brain or of enhanced white matter connectivity in certain areas of the brain. Also known as sensory blending.

502 Syntax — the study or description of how words or signs are arranged or combined into phrases, clauses, and sentences.

503 Tabula — also known as location or sign location; one of the three principal formational parameters of manual signs.

504 Tactile modality — the use of one’s hands (or other body parts) to transmit and receive information through the sense of touch. See gestural modality and manual modality.

505 Tangible symbols — symbols that may be perceived, especially through the sense of touch. See haptic.

506 Tapered- or O-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the fingers are together and curved, with the finger tips touching the thumb tip.

507 Target population or users — in this book, persons who are to be the main users or beneficiaries of a communication intervention program.

508 Temporal lobe — the region of the brain lying below the temple in each cerebral hemisphere. It includes the primary auditory projection area of the brain and is important in hearing and language processing.

509 Temporal relations — the ability to perceive and understand the positioning or arrangement of objects or events in time relative to each other (including their chronology or order of appearance, their synchronicity or simultaneous occurrence, or their asynchrony or unrelated occurrence).

510Text-to-speech alternative communication device — an electronic device that stores text for later retrieval and conversion into speech; a speech-generating device. See augmentative and alternative communication and voice output communication aid (VOCA).

511 Thalamus — a portion of the brain stem above the midbrain that is responsible for relaying sensory information (e.g., temperature, pain) to the cerebral cortex; it plays a major role in motor control. The thalamus also is involved in functions such as arousal, sleep, memory, emotion, attention, and consciousness.

512 Topicalization — in sign language linguistics, the practice of an accomplished signer first establishing the topic or focus of a conversation at the beginning of a signed sentence before continuing with new information about that topic in the rest of the signed utterance (known as the comment). For example, signing CAT before describing what the cat did.

513 Total Physical Response — a method for teaching foreign languages developed by James Asher. Total Physical Response coordinates the production of spoken language by the teacher with physical movement or bodily action from the student as the student acts out what has been said. Initial stages of this method focus on a student’s ability to understand what the teacher is saying (listening comprehension) and to respond to the teacher’s commands. The student’s ability to speak the language is allowed to develop naturally and spontaneously.

514 Toxic chemicals — poisons or substances that may have a harmful, and potentially fatal, effect on an organism’s health.

515 Translucency — in this book, the extent to which the relationship between a sign and its meaning can be discerned or understood after the meaning of the sign is provided.

516 Transparency — in this book, the extent to which one can accurately perceive or guess the meaning of an unfamiliar sign.

517Traumatic brain injury (TBI) — damage to the brain that results from a blow to the head, a fall, an accident, physical abuse, a concussive force (such as an explosive device), or another type of head injury.

518 Trunk — the area of a signer’s body from approximately the shoulders to the waist, not including the head or limbs; a common sign location.

519 Tuberculous meningitis — a potentially fatal bacterial infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord; it may cause motor impairments, paralysis, or seizures.

520 Tumor — an abnormal overgrowth of cells in an organism; a tumor can be benign (non-life threatening) or malignant (life-threatening).

521 Two-handed asymmetrical signs — also known as asymmetrical signs.

522 Two-handed symmetrical signs — also known as symmetrical signs.

523 Unaided communication — communication systems (such as speech, manual signs, or gestures) that do not rely on elements outside the communicator’s own body (such as pictures, real objects, electronic devices, voice synthesizers or speech-generating devices, and other equipment). Compare with aided communication.

524 Universal design — the design of an environment, product, or service so that it can be accessed, understood, and utilized to the greatest extent possible by all people regardless of their age, size, ability, or disability. Universal design for learning is an inclusive educational model in which the needs of persons with disabilities are considered and enacted on a broad scale to the benefit of all students (not just those persons with disabilities).

525 Unmarked handshapes — basic handshapes or hand configurations that are the most easily formed handshapes present in sign languages. Unmarked handshapes typically are acquired early by children learning to sign and occur in sign languages worldwide. Such handshapes often are substituted for handshapes that are more difficult to form or articulate by young signing children. Unmarked handshapes include the flat-hand, the spread- or 5-hand, the pointing-hand, and the fist.

526Upper respiratory tract — the upper portion (mouth, nose, and throat) of an organ system through which air passes in the breathing process.

527 Velum — soft palate; the mucous membrane that partially separates the mouth from the pharynx and is important in closing the nasal passages during swallowing.

528 Verbal apraxia (or dyspraxia) — also known as apraxia of speech.

529 Verbal auditory agnosia — also known as Landau-Kleffner syndrome.

530 Verbal imitation program — a speech therapy approach or program in which individuals are encouraged to repeat or imitate the speech of others. See echolalia.

531 Verbal memory — the ability to store and remember spoken or written material; memory for words. Verbal memory is related to auditory memory and phonological memory.

532 Verbal processing — the ability of a person to successfully distinguish, recognize, understand, and remember spoken or written material. Verbal processing is related to auditory processing and phonological processing.

533 Verbal sequencing — the ability of a person to process and correctly order a succession or connected series of spoken or written material. Verbal sequencing is related to auditory sequencing and phonological sequencing.

534 Vestibule — a part of the inner ear important in sensing the spatial position of one’s body.

535 V-hand — a sign handshape used in the Simplified Sign System (SSS); the index and middle fingers are spread apart and extended from an otherwise closed hand in the shape of a “V.”

536 Visual cortex — the region of the occipital lobes (rearmost lobes of the cerebral hemispheres) in which visual (obtained by sight) information is processed.

537 Visual field — the area that is visible to a person when not moving one’s eyes or head.

538Visual-gestural languages — also known as sign languages.

539 Visual-gestural modality — the use of one’s eyes to perceive manual signs and gestures and the use of movements of one’s hands, limbs, and body, together with facial expressions, to communicate. Also known as visual-motor modality. See gestural modality and manual modality.

540 Visual image — a mental picture or representation of something that typically is based on visual information. See internal models or representations and object visualization.

541 Visual-motor languages — also known as sign languages.

542 Visual-motor modality — also known as visual-gestural modality.

543 Visual Patterns Test — this test measures a participant’s short-term visual memory. A participant is shown a matrix, for three seconds, with some of its cells (squares) filled. The participant then tries to reproduce the recently seen pattern of filled squares in a blank grid.

544 Visual perspective-taking — the ability of a person to successfully process and understand the spatial relationships among objects in the visual environment. In this book, the ability to understand the movements or gestures produced by another person, mentally flip and rotate them, and then produce those same movements or gestures. For example, watching a person move her right hand from the right side of her body to the left side of her face and then moving one’s own right hand from the right side of one’s body to the left side of one’s face. One possible error in visual perspective-taking (in this example) would be to move one’s left hand from the left side of one’s body to the right side of one’s face (producing a mirror image of the original movement).

545 Visual-processing skills — the ability of a person to successfully distinguish, recognize, understand, and remember visual information.

546 Visual sequencing — the ability of a person to process and correctly order a succession or connected series of visual information.

547Visuospatial immediate memory skills — the ability to remember or recall information presented visually with no significant time delay.

548 Vocal cords — muscular flaps located in one’s voice box or larynx that vibrate during the production of certain sounds.

549 Vocal inflection — the intonation, pitch, and/or volume with which speech is produced that may provide information on how to interpret an oral communication.

550 Vocal stimuli — spoken or speech-based cues or prompts; for example, saying the initial /b/ sound to help another person access or remember the word book.

551 Voice output communication aid (VOCA) — an electronic device often used by non-speaking or minimally verbal persons to generate spoken (or written) text; a speech-generating device.

552 Washoe — a chimpanzee taught by researchers R. Allen Gardner and Beatrix Gardner to communicate using American Sign Language (ASL) signs.

553 Wechsler scales of intelligence — standardized tests of intelligence for children and adults that measure verbal and performance skills. In this book, many research studies refer to the WISC-R (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children — Revised) or the WISC-III (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children — III) editions of the test.

554 Wernicke’s aphasia — a loss or disturbance of language ability as a result of damage to a particular part of the brain (Wernicke’s area). A type of fluent aphasia in which the speech of a person usually retains its grammatical structure, but it is without much meaning because of the omission of content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs). Language comprehension often is very poor.

555 White matter (tract) of the brain — neural fibers in the brain that are beneath the cerebral cortex and that run to and from cortical cells. These fibers (or tracts) are insulated with a fatty material that is whitish in appearance.

556Williams syndrome — a rare disorder that results in an intellectual disability and poor visuospatial abilities; speech and expressive language abilities are less impaired.

557 Word retrieval — the ability of a person to successfully remember and produce a specific word on demand; persons with certain types of aphasia often have difficulty accessing or retrieving words from memory.

558 Word-sign pairs — a collection of signs together with their spoken language translations. See English translation/word equivalent and gloss.

559 Working memory — the maintenance of incoming information in short-term storage as it is being processed in a preliminary way.


Rechercher dans OpenEdition Search

Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search