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Creative Multilingualism

Katrin Kohl
Rajinder Dudrah
Andrew Gosler
et al.

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1The works given in this section include all those which are recommended for further exploration of the topics addressed in the individual chapters of the volume.

2AGCAS. 2019. ‘What Can I Do with a Modern Languages Degree?’, Prospects,​careers-advice/​what-can-i-do-with-my-degree/​modern-languages

3Information provided by The Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services on different types of career requiring a high level of languages competence and also other types of career where languages are an important adjunct.

4Bilingualism Matters. 2020.

5Founded by Antonella Sorace, Bilingualism Matters is a research and information centre on bilingualism based at the University of Edinburgh. The initiative has spread across the world, and its mission is to work with a wide range of partners to research, support and promote bilingualism.

6Birksted-Breen, Noah. 2020. ‘Vassily Sigarev and the Presnyakov Brothers: Staging the New Russia’, in Contemporary European Playwrights, ed. by Maria Delgado, Bryce Lease and Dan Rebellato (London: Routledge), pp. 168–84.

7A chapter about the plays of two iconic Russian playwrights, whose work was critically acclaimed in Russia and the UK in the early 2000s.

8Birksted-Breen, Noah, and Rajinder Dudrah. 2018. ‘Translating a Russian Play into Hip-hop Theatre: A Conversation’, Creative Multilingualism, 28 November,​blog/exploring-multilingualism/translating-russian-play-hip-hop-theatre-conversation

9A discussion of the dilemmas faced by the director and the curator of Oxygen, from Russian page to British stage.

10Black, Jonathan. 2019. How to Find the Career You’ve Always Wanted (London: Robinson).

11This book offers advice on career planning and choices, writing a CV and preparing for an interview. See also the author’s fortnightly column ‘Dear Jonathan’ in the Financial Times (​dear-jonathan), and the FT Career Starters videos:​watch?v=yjdvCHWVtE4&list=PLqIpf04KBv61XrP8rtadMl5YpVxZt7Wkc

12Casasanto, Daniel. 2013. ‘Development of Metaphorical Thinking: The Role of Language’, in Language and the Creative Mind, ed. by M. Borkent, J. Hinnell et al. (Stanford: CSLI Publications), pp. 3–18,​papers/​Casasanto_Development_of_Metaphorical_Thinking_2013.pdf

13This article considers fundamental questions about the interplay between different types of cognitive metaphor and language.

14Clanchy, Kate (ed.). 2018. England: Poems from a School (London: Picador).

15This anthology of poems written by multilingual schoolchildren at Oxford Spires Academy includes many that were produced during the prismatic workshops.

16Creative Multilingualism. 2020.

17This website represents the research that underpins the content of this volume. The research was conducted by the authors between 2016 and 2020 and funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC, part of UK Research and Innovation) in the context of its Open World Research Initiative (OWRI). The website includes the projects conducted by the seven research strands (see Chapters 1 to 7) and further sections with blogs, resources and reports on conferences and public engagement work, some of which is presented in Chapters 8 and 9.

18Creative Multilingualism. 2020a. LinguaMania: The Podcast,​series/​linguamania

19This series of eight podcasts was made by the Creative Multilingualism team. It explores connections between languages and creativity, and opens up a wide range of perspectives on language learning.

20Creative Multilingualism. 2020c. ‘Resources’,​resources

21This collection of resources offers a wide range of creative activities for the classroom, including how to stage a multilingual concert, how to teach the creation of short films in any language, and suggestions for enabling students to experience the joys of translation.

22Creative Multilingualism (Careers). 2016. ‘What do Modern Languages Students Do after Graduating?’,​blog/​working-languages/​what-do-modern-languages-students-do-after-graduating

23Responses from Oxford graduates in Modern Languages about the varied paths their careers have taken, from teaching, interpreting and food writing to producing TV commercials and running a venture capital fund. The responses were compiled by the Russian department but the variety of career paths is typical for other languages, too.

24Creative Multilingualism (Careers). 2020. ‘How Languages Help in Your Career’,​careers

25A short film consisting of comments from people in a variety of careers on the ways in which languages play a – sometimes surprising – part. More extended videos of the interviews give a deeper insight into the role languages have played in their careers.

26Creative Multilingualism (MPP). 2020a. ‘Multilingual Drama Teaching Activities’,​resources/​multilingual-drama-teaching-activities

27Short videos explain and demonstrate a variety of games including (and in addition to) ‘Buzzy Bees’, ‘Sevens’ and ‘Illnesses and Injuries’, and provide ideas for adapting them for different purposes.

28Creative Multilingualism (MPP). 2020b. ‘Multilingual Performance Project (MPP)’,​mpp

29This web page gives an outline of the Multilingual Performance Project and provides links to resources for schools including the MPP Starter Pack for teachers.

30Creative Multilingualism (Slanguages: Oxygen). 2018a. ‘Oxygen: A Hip-hop Translation’, web page with films and other materials relating to the event on 11 October, Creative Multilingualism,​oxygen-hip-hop-translation

31This web page brings together a film about the adaptation of Oxygen, the recording of the performance, and related material by the participants.

32Creative Multilingualism (Slanguages: Oxygen). 2018b. ‘Oxygen Translated into Hip-hop Theatre: The Full Performance’, 1: 03: 38, posted online by Creative Multilingualism, YouTube, 10 December 2018,​watch?v=bozjOgLLR-U

33A video showing the workshop performance of Oxygen, including a post-performance discussion with the adaptors, director and curator.

34Crystal, David. 1998. Language Play (London: Penguin).

35Many types of language play are explained and illustrated with rich examples. While the book is focused on English, it offers an excellent foundation for investigating language play in other languages.

36Crystal, David. 2010. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, 3rd edn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

37David Crystal’s depth of insight into everything to do with language and languages is unsurpassed, as is his talent for making complex research accessible. This book offers an invaluable point of entry on fundamental questions concerning languages.

38Curtis, Julie. 2018. ‘Collaboration and Ownership in Cross-Cultural Creativity’, Creative Multilingualism, 28 November,​blog/​exploring-multilingualism/​collaboration-and-ownership-cross-cultural-creativity

39This blog post gives an academic perspective on the process of adapting Oxygen for a UK audience.

40Cushen, Patrick. J., and Jennifer Wiley. 2011. ‘Aha! Voilà! Eureka! Bilingualism and Insightful Problem Solving’, Learning and Individual Differences, 21: 458–62,

41Cushen and Wiley shed light on how bilingualism relates to creativity, in a study which reports that bilinguals can show advantages on creative problem-solving tasks and on those involving cognitive flexibility.

42Damrosch, David. 2003. What Is World Literature? (Princeton: Princeton University Press).

43A very accessible introduction to the idea of world literature as literature that travels and how to read it.

44Dudrah, Rajinder, Philip Bullock, Julie Curtis and Noah Birksted-Breen. 2020. ‘Languages in the Creative Economy’, Research Strand 4 of CreativeMultilingualism,​research/​creative-economy

45Research project on language diversity in the creative arts conducted as part of the Creative Multilingualism programme between 2016 and 2020. This chapter draws on that research.

46Duncan, Dennis, et al. 2019. Babel: Adventures in Translation (Oxford: Bodleian Library).

47A series of illustrated essays offers snapshots of linguistic creativity over a timespan of some 3500 years. The artefacts and texts show how translation has enabled ideas and stories to travel across a rich multitude of cultures and traditions.

48Eco, Umberto. 1997. The Search for the Perfect Language, trans. by James Fentress (London: Fontana). Italian version: 1993. La ricerca della lingua perfetta nelle cultura europea (Rome: Laterza).

49Eco traces the search for the perfect language that would be common to all human beings, elucidating the fascinatingly diverse theories put forward by a host of philosophers and philologists across multilingual Europe.

50Edwards, John. 2012. Multilingualism: Understanding Linguistic Diversity (London: Continuum).

51An excellent short introduction to the diversity of languages, and to the emergence and consequences of multilingualism.

52Ethno-ornithology World Atlas. 2020.

53EWA is an online space that promotes nature and language conservation: a place where communities can record and share their knowledge, language traditions and understandings of nature. EWA is about building relationships between Indigenous and local communities, conservationists, academics and their institutions, to promote bird and language conservation through the engagement with, respect for and celebration of diverse cultural traditions of knowledge.

54Evans, Nicholas. 2010. Dying Words: Endangered Languages and What They Have to Tell Us (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell).

55Nicholas Evans writes with eloquence and insight on language diversity, bringing into stark focus what we stand to lose in a time of massive language extinction.

56Farmer, David. 2019. ‘Drama Resource: Books on Drama for Language Teaching and Learning’, Drama Resource,​books-on-drama-for-language-teaching-and-learning/​

57A webpage reviewing resources for using drama in the classroom.

58Fisher, Linda. 2013. ‘Discerning Change in Young Students’ Beliefs about Their Language Learning through the Use of Metaphor Elicitation in the Classroom’, Research Papers in Education, 28 (3): 373–92,​10.1080/​02671522.2011.648654

59This article presents insights into how students perceive language learning, in a study that asked 12-13 year olds to express their views in the form of metaphors that described what language learning was like from their perspective.

60Gibbs, Raymond W. 1994. The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language and Understanding (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

61The author shows how figurative language reveals the poetic structure of the mind, drawing on psychology, linguistics, philosophy, anthropology and literary theory.

62Glucksberg, Sam. 2003. ‘The Psycholinguistics of Metaphor’, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (2): 92–96,​10.1016/​s1364-6613(02)00040-2

63An examination of how people create and understand metaphors such as ‘lawyers are sharks’, demonstrating that we process these as easily as literal meanings.

64Gosler, Andrew, Karen Park and Felice S. Wyndham. 2020. ‘Creating a Meaningful World: Nature in Name, Metaphor and Myth’, Research Strand 2 of Creative Multilingualism,​research/​naming

65Research project on naming conducted as part of the Creative Multilingualism programme between 2016 and 2020. This chapter draws on that research.

66Graham, Suzanne, Linda Fisher, Julia Hofweber and Heike Krüsemann. 2020. ‘Linguistic Creativity in Language Learning’, Research Strand 7 of Creative Multilingualism,​research/​

67Research project on language teaching and learning conducted as part of the Creative Multilingualism programme between 2016 and 2020. This chapter draws on that research.

68Gramling, David. 2016. The Invention of Monolingualism (London: Bloomsbury Academics),​10.5040/​9781501318078

69A cogent account of the process through which our multilingualism has been reduced to monolingualism.

70Hanauer, David. I. 2001. ‘The Task of Poetry Reading and Second Language Learning’, Applied Linguistics, 22 (3): 295–23,​10.1093/​applin/​22.3.295

71This study suggests ways in which poetry can draw students’ attention to important aspects of the language and so benefit their learning. It also explores how poetry reading can enhance students’ cultural awareness.

72Helgesson, Stefan, and Pieter Vermeulen (eds). 2016. Institutions of World Literature: Writing, Translation, Markets (New York and Abingdon: Routledge).

73This volume explores the creative, cultural and financial forces that go into the translation and circulation of national literatures, and the making of world literature.

74Hiddleston, Jane, and Wen-chin Ouyang (eds). [Forthcoming: 2021.] Multilingual Literature as World Literature (London: Bloomsbury).

75The essays in this volume display ways in which literatures that juxtapose and blend what are usually considered to be sovereign linguistic systems contest the very category of ‘national literature’, while raising questions about the concept and definition of language.

76Irwin, Robert. 1994. The Arabian Nights: A Companion (London: Penguin).

77A comprehensive account of the history of The Arabian Nights in Arabic and European translations.

78Janson, Tore. 2012. The History of Languages: An Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

79This book offers an approachable and attractive introduction to how languages may be related historically, and to the nature and history of linguistic diversity.

80Jones, Rodney H. (ed.). 2016. The Routledge Handbook of Language and Creativity (Abingdon: Routledge),​10.4324/​9781315694566

81A volume that presents current research on the relationship between language and creativity in various disciplines, including sections on literary creativity, multimodal and multimedia creativity, and creativity in language teaching and learning.

82Kharkhurin, Anatoliy V. 2012. Multilingualism and Creativity (Bristol: Multilingual Matters).

83This valuable study examines theoretical approaches to the connection between multilingualism and creativity, offering useful discussions of relevant research on both areas as a basis for presenting empirical evidence and educational applications.

84Kohl, Katrin, Marianna Bolognesi and Ana Werkmann Horvat. 2019. ‘The Creative Power of Metaphor: Multimedia Output’, Creative Multilingualism,​creative-power-metaphor-multimedia-output

85These videos look at different aspects of metaphor, focusing on linguistic diversity, emotion, communication and creativity. The videos draw on interviews with researchers who attended an international conference organized by the Creative Multilingualism research strand ‘The Creative Power of Metaphor’ in 2019.

86Kohl, Katrin, Marianna Bolognesi and Ana Werkmann Horvat. 2020. ‘The Creative Power of Metaphor’, Research Strand 1 of Creative Multilingualism,​research/​metaphor

87Research project on metaphor conducted as part of the Creative Multilingualism programme between 2016 and 2020. This chapter draws on that research.

88Lennon, Brian. 2010. In Babel’s Shadow (Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press),​10.5749/​minnesota/​9780816665013.001.0001

89Lennon exposes the problems globalization generates with regards to translation and publication of multilingual literature.

90Lewis, M. Paul. 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Dallas: SIL International),

91A comprehensive and regularly updated catalogue of all the known living languages in the world.

92Littlemore, Jeannette, and Graham Low. 2006. Figurative Thinking and Foreign Language Learning (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan),​10.1057/​9780230627567

93The authors look at the role of figurative speech and figurative thinking in language teaching and learning and discuss the need to attend to figurative extensions of meaning when teaching vocabulary.

94Loh, Jonathan, and David Harmon. 2014. Biocultural Diversity: Threatened Species, Endangered Languages (Zeist: WWF-Netherlands).

95A clear and concise overview of biocultural diversity, engaging with the topic on the themes of evolution, decline and status.

96Macfarlane, Robert, and Jackie Morris. 2017. The Lost Words (London: Hamish Hamilton).

97In response to the 2007 decision by the editorial team of the Oxford Junior Dictionary to replace several words for the natural world with words for the Internet age, author Robert Macfarlane and illustrator Jackie Morris created The Lost Words. The book is both a work of art and a compelling reminder of the magic and power of language.

98Maffi, Luisa (ed.). 2001. On Biocultural Diversity: Linking Language Knowledge and the Environment (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press).

99This compilation of papers from an interdisciplinary group of leaders working in academia, advocacy and Indigenous communities provides a compelling discussion of connections across biological, linguistic and cultural diversity.

100Maher, John C. 2017. Multilingualism: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press),​10.1093/​actrade/​9780198724995.001.0001

101An excellent overview of the topic with a wealth of interesting facts and thought-provoking comments on multilingualism as a feature of the human condition. The final section on revitalization concludes with the view that ‘indigenous is the new cool’.

102Maiden, Martin, Aditi Lahiri and Chiara Cappellaro. 2020. ‘Creating Intelligibility across Languages and Communities’, Research Strand 3 of Creative Multilingualism,​research/​intelligibility

103Research project on intelligibility conducted as part of the Creative Multilingualism programme between 2016 and 2020. This chapter draws on that research.

104Marsh, David, and Richard Hill. 2009. Study on the Contribution of Multilingualism to Creativity: Final Report, Public Services Contract no EACEA/2007/3995/2,​Dylan_en/​news/​assets/​StudyMultilingualism_report_en.pdf

105A European Commission study which sets out to establish the scientific basis for the claim that multilingualism – understood as the ability to engage with more than one language in everyday life – contributes to individual and collective creativity.

106Martin-Jones, Marylin, Adrian Blackledge and Angela Creese (eds). 2012. The Routledge Handbook of Multilingualism (Abingdon: Routledge),​10.4324/​9780203154427

107This collection of essays provides a stimulating insight into a complex field of research, taking account of social, cultural and political angles and contexts. It is aimed at postgraduates and many of the essays are specialized in focus, but it also offers good scope for browsing.

108McCann, William J., Horst G. Klein and Tilbert D. Stegmann. 2003. EuroComRom – The Seven Sieves: How to Read All the Romance Languages Right Away, 2nd edn (Aachen: Shaker).

109This project offers a detailed and thought-provoking model of how ‘family resemblances’ can be used as a means of creating bridges across languages.

110Mehmedbegovic-Smith, Dina, and Thomas H. Bak. 2020. Healthy Linguistic Diet,​

111An engaging project based on an analogy between physical and mental health, showcasing evidence that using two or more languages has lifelong benefits for cognitive development and well-being.

112Moretti, Franco. 2005. Graphs, Maps, Trees: Abstract Modes for Literary History (London: Verso).

113World literary history is presented in this volume in the form of maps, graphs and trees.

114Müller, Lisa-Maria, et al. 2018. ‘Language Learning Motivation at the Transition from Primary to Secondary School’, OASIS Summary of Graham, Suzanne, et al. (2016), British Educational Research Journal,​concern/​summaries/​0g354f20t?locale=en

115Summary of a study of how motivation for language learning changes as students move from primary to secondary school, reporting that young students value learning activities related to culture, communication and creativity.

116Ouyang, Wen-chin. 2005. ‘Whose Story Is It? Sindbad the Sailor in Literature and Film’, in New Perspectives on [the] Arabian Nights: Ideological Variations and Narrative Horizons, ed. by Wen-chin Ouyang and Geert Jan van Gelder (London and New York: Routledge), pp. 1–16.

117This essay relates The Arabian Nights to classical Arabic literature and provides an account of the globalization of ‘Sindbad the Sailor’.

118Ouyang, Wen-chin, Jane Hiddleston, Laura Lonsdale and Nora Parr. 2020. ‘Creativity and World Literatures: Languages in Dialogue’, Research Strand 5 of Creative Multilingualism,​research/​world-literatures

119Research project on world literatures conducted as part of the Creative Multilingualism programme between 2016 and 2020. This chapter draws on that research.

120Owen, Stephen, and Robert Woore. 2019. ‘Teaching Reading to Beginner Learners of French in Secondary School’, OASIS Summary of Woore, Robert., et al. 2018,​concern/​summaries/​nc580m68d?locale=en

121Summary of a study that used semi-authentic texts with beginner learners of French, showing that learners enjoyed them, responded well to more challenging, culturally-rooted material and increased their French vocabulary as a result.

122Park, Sowon S. (ed.). 2016. The Chinese Scriptworld and World Literature, a special issue of the Journal of World Literature, 1.

123This groundbreaking collection of essays shows how research on writing systems can change how you think about language.

124Peterson, David J. 2015. The Art of Language Invention: From Horse-Lords to Dark Elves, the Words Behind World-Building (New York: Penguin).

125A toolkit for constructing languages that shape sci-fi worlds. Along the way, the inventor of Dothraki for The Game of Thrones looks in detail at sounds, words and orthography.

126Pinker, Steven. 1994. The Language Instinct: The New Science of Language and Mind (London: Penguin).

127Pinker argues that language is innate to human beings, and separate from thought. He looks at issues such as the biological origin of language, language acquisition and the evolution of languages and dialects.

128Prismatic Jane Eyre: An Experiment in the Study of Translations,​

129Discover the prismatic world of translation through the many versions of Jane Eyre. The website includes interactive maps and other illuminating visualizations.

130Project MEITS, Heather Martin and Wendy Ayres-Bennett (eds). 2019. How Languages Changed My Life ( [n.p.]: Archway).

131Stories that illuminate how languages have shaped the careers of individuals from many walks of life, including writers and musicians, politicians and activists, teachers and students, scientists and sportspeople.

132Reynolds, Matthew. 2016. Translation: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press),​10.1093/​actrade/​9780198712114.001.0001

133A popular introduction to translation which ranges across the whole field from conflict zones to poetry, and also lays the foundations of the prismatic view.

134Reynolds, Matthew (ed.). 2020. Prismatic Translation (Cambridge: Legenda).

135An in-depth presentation of the prismatic theory of translation, with case studies ranging from ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs to modern digital media.

136Reynolds, Matthew, Sowon S. Park, Giovanni Pietro Vitali and Eleni Philippou. 2020. ‘Creating New Meanings: Prismatic Translation’, Research Strand 6 of Creative Multilingualism,​research/​prismatic-translation

137Research project on prismatic translation conducted as part of the Creative Multilingualism programme between 2016 and 2020. This chapter draws on that research.

138Robinson, Andrew. 2009. Writing and Script: AVery Short Introduction (Oxford: Oxford University Press),​10.1093/​actrade/​9780199567782.001.0001

139A fascinating introduction to the origins of writing systems and their development across millennia.

140Sacks, Oliver. 2012 (1989). Seeing Voices: A Journey into the World of the Deaf (London: Picador).

141A history of total deafness and analysis of the expressive power of sign language. Sacks also offers an engaging account of the different ways deaf and hearing people learn to categorize their respective world views.

142Saussure, Fernand de. 1983. Course in General Linguistics, ed. by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye, trans. and annotated by Roy Harris (London: Duckworth).

143Cours de linguistique générale (1916) was foundational to modern linguistic theory, introducing a ‘scientific’ approach to language study and establishing both the study of semiotics and structural linguistics. Though introduced over a hundred years ago, Saussure’s general principles remain widely accepted as fundamental to linguistic research, including naming.

144Silverfish Films. 2019. ‘Do We Think Differently in Different Languages?’, 4: 10, BBCIdeas, 24 October,​ideas/​videos/​do-we-think-differently-in-different-languages/​p07ry35k

145An engaging short video exploring the interaction between thought and language, involving speakers of different languages.

146Singleton, David, and Larissa Aronin (eds.). 2018. Twelve Lectures on Multilingualism (Bristol: Multilingual Matters),​10.21832/​9781788922074

147A collection of thought-provoking essays on key topics currently being pursued in research on multilingualism, aimed at undergraduates and postgraduates.

148Slanguages. 2020. A project under the aegis of ‘Languages in the Creative Economy’, Research Strand 4 of Creative Multilingualism,​projects/​slanguages

149The process of adapting Oxygen into a hip-hop drama was carried out in the framework of Slanguages, which is both a project and a way of conceptualizing creativity through the prism of diverse ethnic-minority languages.

150Thomason, Sarah Grey. 2001. Language Contact: An Introduction (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).

151This useful and informative account of the nature and effects of language contact includes coverage of how unrelated languages in contact can come to converge over time.

152Warner, Marina. 2011. Stranger Magic: Charmed States & the Arabian Nights (London: Chatto & Windus).

153Warner analyzes the impact of The Arabian Nights in European literature and culture.

154Weinreich, Max. 1963. Languages in Contact: Findings and Problems (The Hague: Mouton).

155A fundamental and classic work on language contact and its effects on the structure of languages.


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