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Feeding the City

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Sara Roncaglia

Index

Texte intégral

Abbott, Dina 19

acculturation xiv, 119, 121, 127, 162

Achaya, K. T. 1, 16, 61

Adarkar, Neera 19

Adiga, Aravind 137

Advani, Lal Krishna 141

affirmative action 163–164

Aime, Elena 10

Aime, Marco vii, 148–149

Akola 54

Al Qaeda Jammu 142

Al Qaeda Kashmir 142

Alandi 43–44, 182

Al-Biruni 72

Ambedkar, Bhimrao Ramji 52–53

Ambegaon 54, 110

American Civil War 2–3, 4

Andheri 28, 33, 91, 92, 94, 110, 113, 117, 118

Anglo-Indian food 16

Annapurna 20–21

Annapurna, Mahlia Mandal viii, 20–21

Appadurai, Arjun 30, 134, 144

Arango, Joaquin 56

Armstrong, John 5

Arnone, Angela viii, 177

Aryan peoples 61–62, 133, 187

Audar 14

Augé, Marc 166

Aungier, Gerald 5

Ayurveda 65–68, 78, 83–84

three gunas: sattvic, rajasic, tamasic 66, 83, 136, 190, 192

Babur 141

Bacche, Havji Madhu 12–15, 17, 43, 118

Balakrishnan, Natarajan 98

Barilla viii

Barnard, Alan 156

Barth, Fredrik 130, 139

Bastard, Sebastien viii

Baumann, Gerd 157

Bene Israel 6–7 See also Jews

Béteille, André 131

Bhabha, Homi K. 119, 140

Bhakti 37–39, 46, 59, 62, 183 See also Varkari Sampradaya

Bhimashankar 14, 43, 183

Bhora 5–6, 184 See also Muslims

BJP: Bharatiya Janata Party 48, 135, 141, 183

Boas, Franz 156, 164

Bollywood 10, 27, 178

Bombay / Bambaiya Hindi 10

Bombay / Mumbai

as a global city xiv, 24–25, 27, 30, 85, 126–128, 144, 146, 151, 153–154, 161 See also globalisation, cultural diversity in Bombay / Mumbai

as a business and financial centre 3, 27

Central station 117

Churchgate station 22, 28, 33, 76, 105, 115, 117–118

exports to China 2–3, 4

name-change xiii, 25–26, 140

post-independence reconfiguration 23–24

textile industry in 2–3, 4, 15, 18–19, 22, 23–24, 27–28

urbs prima in Indis 3

Victoria Railway Station/Chattrapati Shivaji Terminus 26, 94, 118

Bombay Presidency 25

Bonacich, Edna 8, 9

Bonte, Pierre 127

Borivali 33, 91

Bourdieu, Pierre 167

Brahmins 38, 39, 46, 49, 59, 63, 68–69, 72, 74, 78, 185

Brown, Patricia 16

Buddha 62

Buddhism 61, 103, 133, 135

Caccamo, Francesca vii, 175

Caillé, Alain 148

Caldwell, Melissa L. 146

Camporesi, Piero 137

Caracchi, Pinuccia vii, 43

Carena, Augusto 89

caste 12, 47–51, 73–74, 186 See also caste associations, dabbawala “caste”, multi-caste conglomerates, varna

and food / eating xiii, xiv, 30, 44, 51, 71–74, 76–77, 78–81

and industrialisation 51–55

caste associations 53, 55, 58–59

Castiglioni, Ida 160

Catherine of Braganza 2

chain migration 56–57

Chandavarkar, Rajnarayan 51, 53

Chandrasekhar, Ramasastry 12

Charles II, King of England 2

Charles, Prince of Wales 88–89

Chaudhuri, Kirti Narayan 3

Christians 6–8, 44, 135

Church of Goa 7–8 See also Christians

CNN-IBN 29

Cologna, Daniele viii

Colombo, Enzo 124, 172

Connerton, Paul 108

Consolaro, Alessandra vii, 177

cookbooks 30, 123

coolies 11–12, 13, 184

Coser, Rose Laub 154

Crèvecoeur, J. Hector St. John de 162

Csordas, Thomas J. 167

Cuche, Denys 166

culinary fusion 17, 76 cultural diversity See also food diversities, melting pot, multiculturalism

conceptual analysis of 155–161, 163

differentialist approach to 157

ethnography of 172–179 See also visual ethnography

in Bombay-Mumbai xiv, 4–11, 16–18, 27, 31, 44, 61, 73–77, 79–81, 84–85, 119, 126–129, 132–144, 151

salad bowl metaphor for 163–164

universalist approach to 157, 161, 163, 164

cultural relativism 156

culture methodological interpretation of 155, 166–172

dabbas xiii, 1, 2, 31, 105–106, 119–120, 184

dabba identification system 101–107

glossary of symbols 103–104

system evolution 105, 106

dabbawalas See also NMTBSCT

competition among 87, 110–111

co-operation between 109–110

code of ethics 13–14, 32, 37, 38, 41, 44, 47, 58, 60, 111, 149–150, 176 See also puja, Varkari Sampradaya

illiteracy among xiv, 14, 32, 35, 41, 58, 101, 107–109

inter-generational ties 15, 32–35, 43, 54, 112, 113–115 See also chain migration

recruitment of 14, 92, 112

shared origins of 14, 44–47, 53–59, 107, 113–114

women as 35, 54, 178

dabbawala “caste” 39, 53–54, 55–59

dabbawala customers

Bombay elite 16–17

mill-workers 15, 18–24

Mumbai middle classes 22, 24–31

dabbawala-customer relationship 14, 31–35, 111–113

Dadar 15, 21, 22, 35, 91, 94, 113, 117–118

Dal Lago, Alessandro 157

Dalits 39, 52–53, 59, 63, 184

Daniélou, Alain 38

Das, N. K. 133

David, Kenneth vii, viii

David, Rebecca vii

De Ponti, Barbara 166

De Saussure, Ferdinand 164

decolonisation 161–162

decosmopolitanism 134–135

Demel, Walter 157

dhabas 15, 75, 185 See also restaurants

dharamshalas 13–14, 43–44, 185

dharma xi, 50, 64, 65, 70, 103, 185

Doniger, Wendy 62

Douglas, Mary 79, 80, 147

Drèze, Jean 77

Dumont, Louis 47–48, 50

Dupront, Alphonse 127

Duranti, Alessandro 81, 152

Durkheim, David Émile 164

Dwyer, Rachel 29

Ehrenreich, Barbara 71

Ekanath 38, 40, 43, 185

Eliade, Mircea 66

Elias, Norbert 136, 138, 170

Emperor Aurangzeb 40, 45

English East India Company 2

enlightenment 156, 157–158, 164

ethnic groups 8–9, 18, 61, 126, 129–132 See also ethnicity

ethnic tensions xiv, 25, 135, 141–143, 153–154, 158–159 See also Hindu-Muslim conflict, racism

ethnicity 25, 81, 129–132, 139–140, 157, 160–161

ethnocentrism 129, 156, 159, 164

Fabietti, Ugo 156

Faeta, Francesco 178, 179

Falzon, Mark-Anthony 17

FEEM: Enrico Mattei Foundation vii

Ferguson, James 160

Ferrozzi, Claudio 97

fieldwork 87, 174–177 See also visual ethnography

interviews 174–176

transcription vii, 176–177

translation vii, viii, 175, 176–177

Fischer, Michael M.J. 81, 139

Fischler, Claude 137

flavour 66–67, 79, 80, 122–123

Flood, Gavin 61, 64

Foglio, Antonio 125

food See also Anglo-Indian food, Ayurveda, caste and food, food diversities in Bombay / Mumbai, food rules, foodscape, home-cooked food, junk food, kaccha food, pakka food, purity and food, street food

as a cosmic principle 60–64, 68

as a gift 147–149

holy practices related to 64–69

hygiene xiii, 16, 31, 136

in Sanskrit literature 20–21 63–64, 65–68

food diversities in Bombay / Mumbai xiv, 13, 15, 17, 30–31, 44, 61, 73–77, 79–81, 84–85, 119, 121–123, 124–129, 137–139, 143–144, 145–146, 150–151, 176

food rules 62, 65–74, 78–81, 138–139, 150

foodscape xv, 144–146, 151 See also Wilk, Richard

Forbes 6 Sigma 98

Foucault, Michel 132

Frazer, James George 136

Freed, Stanley A. 72–73

Gandhi, Indira 20

Gandhi, Mohandas 190

Ganguly–Scrase, Ruchira 29

Garruccio, Roberta viii, 34, 89, 176

gastrosemantics xiv, 60–85, 152–153

Geertz, Clifford 159, 164, 171

Ghatkopar 117

Giglioli, Pier Paolo 172

Girgaon 13, 15, 22, 28

Girni 22–23

Glazer, Nathan 129

globalisation xv, 30, 78, 85, 121–122, 124–125, 126–128, 138, 144, 145, 146, 149, 150–151, 153–154, 173–174

Godbout, Jacques T. xi, 148

Godelier, Maurice 148

Goodenough, Ward 169–170

Goody, Jack 150, 167, 170, 171

Grant Road 12, 15, 23, 91, 113, 117

Grignaffini, Giorgio 128

Gupta, Akhil 160

Halbwachs, Maurice 170

Hannerz, Ulf 156, 168

Hansen, Thomas Blom 46

Harris, Marvin 63

Héritier, Françoise 163

Herzfeld, Michael 33, 177

Hindu-Muslim conflict 26, 27, 45, 72, 133–134, 141–143

Hindus 4–5, 25, 44, 45–46, 63, 135, 185, See also caste, Marathas, BJP: Bharatiya Janata Party, VHP: Vishwa Hindu Parishad

Hindustan Times 29

Hindustani 10

Hindutva ideology 26, 135, 153–154, 186

Hobsbawm, Eric 26

Hochschild, Arlie Russell 71

Hofstede, Geert 89

Hofstede, Gert J. 89

home-cooked food xiii, 14, 22, 30–31, 34, 76–77, 78–79, 80, 83, 84, 97, 111–112, 113, 127–128, 146

Hugo, Graeme 56

Husserl, Edmund 164

Ibrahim, Dawood 141

Inden, Ronald 48

Indian National Council of Applied Economic Research 28–29

industrial unrest 20, 22, 23–24, 28, 52, 94–95

International Commission for the Future of Food and Agriculture 145–146

Izard, Michel 127

Jaffrelot, Christoph 29

Jainism 61, 62, 103, 133 See also Mahavira

Jakobson, Roman 81

Janabai 38–39

Jedhe, Keshavrao 40

Jejori 43, 186

Jews 6–8

Jnanadeva 38–40, 43, 186

junk food 74–75

kaccha food 73, 186

Kakar, Sudhir 54

Kalyan 33, 115, 118

Kandivali 28, 33, 54, 91

Karaka, Dosabhai Framji 5

karma 19, 50, 67, 114, 186

Karve, Irawati 40

Kaul, Shailindra vii

khanawals 19–22

Khare, Ravindra S. 60–61, 64, 152

Khoja 5–6, 187 See also Muslims

King, Niloufer Ichaporia 18

Kingsley, Davis 51

Kouaouci, Ali 56

Krishnamachari, Bose 119

Kroeber, Alfred L. 164

Kshatriya 46, 49, 55, 58, 59, 185, 187

Kulke, Eckehard 5

Kunbis 46, 52, 57–58, 187

Laws of Manu See Manu Smrti

Le Breton, David 84, 120

Le Guérer, Annick 120

Lévi, Sylvain 62

Lévi-Strauss, Claude 81–85, 159

Lévi-Strauss’s culinary triangle 81–85

Longo, Chiara viii

Lower Parel 23, 28

Mahajan, Gurpreet 133

Mahalaxmi / Mahalakshmi 15, 23

Maharashtrian identity 25–26, 40, 45–47, 48, 53, 55, 57–59, 132, 134–135, 140, 144, 188, 190 See also Marathas, Shiv Sena, Shivaji Bhonsle

Malad 28, 35, 91, 92

Mahavira 17, 42, 62, 185

Maifreda, Germano 89, 176–177

Malcolm X 163

Mamo, David 51

manas 62, 188

Manekshaw, Bhicoo J. 18

Manu Smrti 49, 188

Marano, Francesco 178

Marathas 12, 23, 25–26, 40, 45–47, 48–49, 53, 55, 57–59, 91, 132, 134–135, 140, 188 See also Maharashtrian identity

Marathi-speakers See Marathas

Marchi, Armando viii

Marine Line 44, 105, 118

Marriot, McKim 71

Martini, Claudio 146

Masselos, Jim 48, 142

Massey, Douglas S. 56

Mauss, Marcel 147, 148, 167

MAUSS: Mouvement Anti-Utilitariste dans le Sciences Sociales 148

Maval 54, 110

Mayer, Hans 157–158

McGregor, R. S. 182

McGrew, Anthony 173–174

Mead, Margaret 178

Medge, Raghunath vii, 12, 13, 16, 17–18, 22, 25–26, 31, 32–33, 37, 41, 43–45, 54, 55, 58, 76–77, 87–90, 91, 93–94, 96, 105, 108–115, 174

Mehta, Deepa 19

Mehta, Suketu vi

melting pot 17, 161–163

Memmi, Albert 158

Menon, Meena, viii, 19

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice 167

Michaels, Walter Benn 165

middleman minorities 8–9, 16

migration xiv, 2–8, 10–12, 14, 19, 27, 47–48, 54–57, 59, 61, 75–77, 85, 89–91, 113–114, 126–128, 143, 157, 160–162

Minkowski, Eugène 119, 151

Mintz, Sidney W. 122, 129

Montanari, Massimo 126

Morin, Edgar 120

Morris, Morris D. 51–52

Moynihan, Daniel P. 129

Mughal empire 40, 45, 141

Muktabai 38–39, 43

multi-caste conglomerates 53

multiculturalism 160–164, 166 See also cultural diversity

Mumba (goddess) 25–26

Munshi 54

Muslims 5–6, 44, 45, 135, 184 See also Bhora, Khoja, Hindu-Muslim conflict

Muzzarelli, Maria Guiseppina 18

Namadeva 38–40, 189

Nandy, Ashis 134

Navarini, Gianmarco 124

Navi Mumbai 21, 24

Nehru, Jawaharlal 30

Nencioni, Sara Talli 89

NMTBSCT: Nutan Mumbai Tiffin Box Suppliers Charity Trust xiii–xiv, 12–15, 24, 27, 34, 38–39, 41, 43, 47, 53–57, 60, 87–118 See also dabbas, dabba identification system, dabbawalas

area directors 91–92

delivery process 98–101

delivery schedule 100–101

distribution logic 97–98

executive committee 88–90 See also Medge, Raghunath

foundation and development of 12–15, 17–18, 87 See also Bacche, Havji Madhu mukadams 92–94, 112

organisational structure of 87–88, 94–96 “practical management” 107–108

railway network as a mental map xiv, 115–116

use of railways 99, 100–101, 106, 116–118

Nussbaum, Martha C. 159

Orientalism 47, 48

Outcastes See Dalits

pakka food 73–74, 189

Pandharpur 39–43, 90, 189

Parekh, C. S. 12

Parker Bowles, Camilla 89

Parsee kitchens 13, 15, 16–18

Parsees 5, 8, 16–18, 189 See also Parsee kitchens

Pathak, Gauri 58

Pellegrino, Adela 56

Pennacini, Cecilia 178

Petrini, Carlo vii, 121

Piano, Stefano 50–51

Piasere, Leonardo 173

Pike, Kenneth L. 169–170

pilgrimage 39–43, 90 See also dharmshala

Pirenne, Henri 137

Poliakov, Léon 61

Pratt, Mary Louise 169

principle of incorporation 136–137

puja 13, 41, 44, 60, 108, 118, 189 See also dabbawala code of ethics, Varkari Sampradaya

Pune 12, 14, 40, 54, 55, 56–58, 90, 94, 95, 114, 189

Purav, Prema 20

purity 49–50, 70, 129, 132, 135, 140, 144 and food 30, 40, 62–70, 71–73, 74, 79–81, 83–84, 136, 143–144 See also home-cooked food

Purusha-sukta 49, 189

racism 135, 157, 158

Raigar 35

Rajgurunagar 14,54, 55, 90, 94, 190

Ramanujan, Attipat Krishnaswami 5, 152

Ramdas 45

Ranade, Mahdev Govind 46

religious fundamentalism 25, 26, 135, 138, 141–142, 153–154

Remotti, Francesco 144

Research Foundation for Technology, Science and Ecology 146

restaurants 15, 17, 74–77, 78, 123–124, 143

Rigveda 49, 189

Rivera, Annamaria 158

Romantic particularism 156

Roncaglia, Sara 89, 176–177

Ronchi, Veronica 89

Rotilio, Giuseppe 123

Roy, Arundhati 134

RSS: Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh 190

Rushdie, Salman 1, 132, 140

Russell, Robert Vane 58 Russell, Sharman Apt 137

Sabban, Françoise 126

Sabharwal, Gopa 131

Salsano, Alfredo 149

samsara 50, 188, 190

Samyukta Maharashtra 40, 190

Sandhu, Abjijeet vii

Sangamner 54

Sapelli, Giulio vii, 13, 89, 149

Sapir, Edward 164, 169

Sardesai, Govind Sakharam 46

Sassen, Saskia 134

Savarkar, Vinayak Damodar 135, 186

Sayad, Abdelmalek 85

Schein, Edgar H. 89

Scrase, Timothy J. 29

Semi, Giovanni 124

Sen, Amartya 77

Senge, Peter M. 89

Seppilli, Tullio 33, 128

shakti 21, 70

Shanti Nagar 72

Shapiro Anjaria, Jonathan 74

Shapiro, Roy 97

Sheikh, Usman vii, 176

Shiv Sena 25, 26, 46, 134–135, 142, 143, 191

Shiva 21, 38, 39, 63, 118, 184, 186, 191, 192

Shiva, Vandana 77–78, 146

Shivaji Bhonsle 26, 40, 44–47, 48–49, 53, 55, 58, 188

shudra 39, 49, 50, 59, 192

Smith, Brian K. 62

Smith, David 70

Solinas, Giorgio vii, ix–xii

Sorcinelli, Paolo 137

Stark, Oded 56

Steel, Carolyn 138

Strambio, Andrea 89

street-food vendors 20, 74–75, 143

strikes See industrial unrest

Suez Canal 3

Surne, Narayan 80

Taguieff, Pierre-André 157

Talekar, Gangaram vii, 24, 34, 54, 87, 91, 95, 174

Tarozzi, Fiorenza 18

taste See also flavour

a unified cosmology of xv, 150–154

as a cultural construct xv, 76, 84, 119,

123, 124–125, 128–129, 144–145, 146

grammars of 152–153

Taylor, Charles 166

Taylor, J. Edward 56

Tedlock, Dennis 176

Teo, Chung-Piaw 98

Terra Madre vii, 146, 174

Thana 2, 33, 91, 115

Thane 6, 24, 115, 118

Thapar, Romila 61, 135

tiffin See dabba

Tomatis, Federica vii

Torri, Michelguglielmo 16, 61, 92, 133

Tukarama 38–40

Untouchables See Dalits

vaishya 49, 58, 185, 192

Van Binsbergen, Wim M.J. 165, 166

Van der Veer, Peter 29

Van Gennep, Arnold 33

Varkari Sampradaya 32, 37–44, 46, 47, 58, 83, 91, 147, 176, 192 See also

dabbawala code of ethics, puja

Varkari sants 38–41, 45

Varma, Pavan K. 29

Varma, Rashmi 134–135

varna 39, 49–50, 192

varna leap” 58

vegetarianism 17, 44, 58, 62–63, 72, 74, 76, 143

Vereni, Piero 167

VHP: Vishwa Hindu Parishad 141, 192

Vile Parle 89, 90, 105, 117

Virar 33, 76, 115, 117

visual ethnography 178–179

Wagner, Roy 166

Walker Bynum, Caroline 18

Watson, James L. 146

Weber, Max 50, 164

Wilk, Richard R. 122–123

Wilson, Woodrow 130

Wittgenstein, Ludwig 121

women’s role in food preparation 16–18, 19, 68–71 See also Annapurna Mahila Mandal

Zangwill, Israel 162

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