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Oral Literature in Africa

Ruth Finnegan


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A. General Reference Works

Print references

African Abstracts, International African Institute (IAI), London, 1950–1972.

Notes and Queries on Anthropology, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 6th edn, 1951.

Fiches analytiques (Sciences humaines africanistes), Centre d’analyse et de recherche documentaires pour l’Afrique noire, Paris, 1966-.

International African Institute, Bibliography of Current Publications (quarterly in Africa.)

ABRAHAM, R. C., Dictionary of Modern Yoruba, London, 1958.

DUIGNAN, P., and GLAZIER, K. M., A Checklist of Serials for African Studies, Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1963.

GASKIN, L. J. P., A Select Bibliography of Music in Africa, International African Institute, London, 1965.

JONES, R. (comp.), Africa Bibliography Series (Series A): Ethnology, Sociology and Linguistics, International African Institute, London.

West Africa, 1958

North-East Africa, 1959

East Africa, 1960

South-East Central Africa and Madagascar, 1961.

VAN SPANNDONCK, M., Practical and Systematical Swahili Bibliography, Leiden, 1965.

Web references

British Museum Library online catalogues (includes Royal Anthropological Institute Library):

Centre d’études linguistiques et historiques par la tradition orale (CELHTO):’Etudes-Linguistiques-et-Historiques-par-Tradition-Orale-(French%3a-Center-for-Linguistic-%26-Historical-Study-of-Oral-Tradition%3b-Niamey%2c-Niger)-(CELHTO).html

International African Institute:

International African Institute, Africa Bibliography:; [restricted access]

International Library of African Music:

International Society for the Oral Literatures of Africa (ISOLA):

International Society for Studies in Oral Tradition (ISSOT):

Langage, langues et cultures d’Afrique noire (LLACAN):

Langues et civilisations à tradition orale (LACITO):

Leiden University, Netherlands. Merolla, D., Ameka, F. K. and Dorvlo, K. (eds and contribs), Ewe stories and storytellers from Ghana:

—, Merolla, D., Aiello, F. and Brunotti, I. (eds and contribs), Zanzibar: Taarab and Ngoma performances:

—, Multimedia Research and Documentation of African Oral Genres: connecting diasporas and local audiences. Coordinated by D. Merolla and Jansen, J., Leiden University, funded Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research:

—, Verba Africana series:

Open Book Publishers/World Oral Literature Project, Cambridge: Oral Literature series (2011-) (full texts readable online):

Open Folklore:

Oral Tradition:

Royal Anthropological Institute and the Centre for Anthropology, British Museum, The Anthropological Index Online:

School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London (SOAS) library catalogue online:

Scheub, Harold, Africa Focus: Sights and Sounds of a Continent:

—, African Films and Resources: htm;

—, African Story Teller Study Module:

—, African Studies Collection:

—, South African Voices:

World Oral Literature Project (WOLP):

B. General Bibliography

ABIMBOLA, W., ‘The Odù of Ifá’, Afr. Notes [Ibadan] 1, 3, 1964: 6–12.

—, ‘Yoruba oral literature’, Afr. Notes [Ibadan] 2, 2–3, 1965: 12–16.

ABRAHAMSSON, H., The Origin of Death: Studies in African Mythology, Uppsala, 1951.

ADALI-MORTTY, G., ‘Ewe Poetry’, Black Orpheus 4, 1958.

—, ‘Ewe Poetry’, Okyeame [Accra] 1, 1960.

ADAM, J., ‘Nouvel extrait du folklore du Haut-Ogooué’ (AEF): Devinettes et fables des Ambede’, Anthropos 35/6, 1940–41: 131–2.

ADEWA, E. A., ‘Qualities of African Folklore’, Nigeria 15, 1938.

ALBERT, E. M., ‘“Rhetoric”, “Logic”, and “Poetics” in Burundi: culture patterning of speech behavior’, Am, antrop. 66, 6, pt. 2, 1964: 35–54.

ALNAES, K., ‘Nyamayingi’s Song: an analysis of a Konzo Circumcision Song’, Africa 37, 1967.

AMES, D., ‘Professionals and Amateurs: the musicians of Zaria and Obimo’, African Arts 1, 2, 1968: 40–5, 80 and 82–4.

ANDRZEJWESKI, B. W., Poetry in Somali Society’, New Society 1, 24, 1963: 22–24.

—, ‘Emotional bias in the translation and presentation of African royal art’, Sieera Leone language review 4, 1965: 95–102.

—, ‘The art of the miniature in Somali poetry: an introduction’, Afr. Language review 6, 1967: 5–16.

—, and GALAAL, M. H. I., ‘A Somali Poetic Combat’, J. Afr. Languages 2, 1963.

—, and LEWIS, I. M., Somali Poetry: an introduction, OLAL, Oxford, 1964.

—, and MESSENGER, J. C., Journal of the Folklore Institute [Indiana] 4, 2/3, Special Issue on Africa, 1967.

—, PILASZEWICZ, S., and TYLOCH, W. (eds), Literatures in African Languages: Theoretical Issues and Sample Surveys, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, and Warszawa: Wiedza Powszechna, 1985.

ANYA-NOA, L., ‘Berceuses beti’, Effort camerounais, 1962/3.

—, and ATANGA, S., ‘La sagesse béti dans le chant des oiseaux’, Abbia 8, 1965: 97–141.

ANYUMBA, H. O., ‘The nyatiti lament songs’, East Africa past and present (Présence africaine), Paris, 1964: 187–98.

APPIAH, A., and GATES, H. L. (eds), Africana: the encyclopedia of the African and African American experience, New York: Basic Civitas Books, 1999.

ARANZADI, I. X., La adivinanza en la zona de los Ntumu: tradiciones orales delbosque fang, Madrid, 1962.

AREWA, E. O., and DUNDES, A., ‘Proverbs and the ethnography of speaking folklore’, Am. Anthrop 66, 6, 1964: 70–85.

ARMSTRONG, R. G., ‘Talking Drums in the Benue-Cross River Region of Nigeria’, Phylon 15, 1954.

—, ‘Talking Instruments in West Africa’, Explorations 4, 1955.

ARNOTT, D. W., ‘Proverbial lore and word-play of the Fulani’, Africa 27, 1957: 379–96.

ARNOTT, K., African Myths and Legends, London, 1962.

ARNETT, E. J., ‘A Hausa Chronicle’, J. Afr. Soc. 9, 1909/10.

—, The Rise of Sokoto Fulani, Kano, 1922.

AUSTEN, RALPH A. (ed.), In Search of Sunjata. The Mande Oral Epic as History, Literature, and Performance, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

AWONA, S., ‘La guerre d’Akoma Mba contre Abo Mama (epopee du mvet)’, Abbia 9/10, 1965; 12/13, 1966.

BA, A. H., ‘Poésie peule du Macina’, Présence afr. 8/9, 1950.

—, and KESTLEOOT, L., ‘Les épopées de l’Ouest africain’, Abbia 14/15, 1966; Présence afr. 58, 1966 (1966a).

—, and KESTLEOOT, L., ‘Da Monson et Karta Thiéma’, Abbia 14/15, 1966 (1966b).

BABALOLA, S. A., ‘The characteristic features of outer form of Yoruba Ijala chants’, Odu 1/2, 1964–5: 33–77.

—, The content and form of Yoruba Ijala, OLAL, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966.

BALANDIER, G., ‘Femmes “possedees” et leurs chants’, Présence qfr. 5, 1948.

—, ‘Littératures de l’Afrique et des Amériques noires’, in R. Queneau, Histoire des littératures, Encyclopédie de la Pléiade, I, Paris: Gallimard, 1955.

BANG, D. N., ‘In praise of Zulu literature’, Native teachers journal 30, 1951.

BANSISA, Y., ‘Music in Africa’, Uganda J., 1936.

BARBER, KARIN, ‘African-language literatures and postcolonial criticism’, Research in African Literatures 26, 4: 3–30, 1995.

—, The anthropology of texts, persons and publics: Oral and written culture in Africa and beyond, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

—, (ed.), ‘Audiences in Africa’, special issue, Africa 67, 3: 347–499, 1997 (1997a).

—, (ed.), Readings in African Popular Culture, Oxford: James Currey, 1997 (1997b).

—, (ed.), Africa’s Hidden Histories: Everyday Literacy and Making the Self, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.

—, and FARIAS, P. F. DE MORAES (eds), Discourse and its Disguises: the Interpretation of African Oral Texts, Birmingham: Birmingham University, 1989.

—, COLLINS, J., and ALAIN, R., West African Popular Theatre, Oxford: James Currey, 1997.

BARKER, W. H., and SINCLAIR, C., West African folk-tales, London: Harrap, 1917.

BARRA, G., 1000 Kikuyu Proverbs, London, 2nd edn, 1960.

BARRY A. O., L’épopée peule du Fuuta Jaloo. De l’éloge à l’amplification rhétorique, Paris, Karthala, 2011.

BASCOM, W. R., ‘The sanctions of Ifa divination’, JRAI 71, 1941: 43–54.

—, ‘The Relationship of Yoruba folklore to divining’, JAF 56, 1943: 127–31.

—, ‘Literary style in Yoruba riddles’, JAF 56, 1949: 1–16.

—, ‘Verbal art’, JAF 68, 1955: 245–52.

—, ‘Odu Ifa: the order of the figures of Ifa’, Bull. IFAN (B) 23, 1961.

—, ‘Folklore research in Africa’, JAF 77, 1964: 12–31.

—, ‘Folklore and literature’ in R. A. Lystad (ed.), The African world: A survey of social research, London: Pall Mall Press for the African Studies Association 1965 (1965a).

—, ‘The forms of folklore: prose narratives’, JAF 78, 1965 (1965b): 3–20.

BASSET, R., Contes populaires d’Afrique, Paris: E. Guilmoto, 1903.

BAUMAN, R., (ed.), Verbal Art as Performance, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1977.

—, and PAREDES, A. (eds), Toward new perspectives in folklore, Texas: Published for the American Folklore Society, University of Texas Press, 1972.

—, and SHERZER, J., Explorations in the Ethnography of Speaking, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974, 1989.

BAUMANN, H., Schöpfund und Urzeit des Menschen im Mythus der afrika-nischen Völker, Berlin: Reimer, 1936.

—, and WESTERMANN, D., Les peuples et les civilisations de l’Afrique (French tr. by L. Homburger), Paris, 1948.

BAUMGARDT, U., Littératures africaines: langue, mode de communication et réprésentations identitaires, Paris: INALCO, 2002

—, (forthcoming) Encyclopédie des littératures en langues africaines (ELLAF).

—, and BORNAND, S., ‘Autour de la performance’, Cahiers de littérature orale, 65, 2009 (2009a, 2009b).

—, and BOUNFOUR, A. (eds), Panorama des littératures africaines: état des lieux et perspectives, Paris: l’Harmattan, 2000.

—, and BOUNFOUR, A. (eds), Le proverb en Afrique: forme, function et sens, Paris: l’Harmattan, Notes to Literature, Vols 1 and 2, 2004.

—, and DERIVE, J. (eds), Littératures orales africaines: perspectives théoriques et méthologiques, Paris: Karthala, 2008.

—, and ROULON-DOKO, P., ‘L’expression de l’espace dans les langues africaines’ Journal des Africanistes 79, 1, 2 (1), 2010.

—, and UGOCHUKWU, F. (eds), Approches littéraires de l’oralité africaine, Paris: Karthala, 2005.

BÉART, C., Jeux et jouets de l’Quest africain, 2 vols, Mem. IFAN 42, 1955.

BEATON, A. C., ‘Some Bari songs’, Sudan notes 18, 1935; 19, 1936: 277–87.

—, ‘The Poetry of the Bari Dance’, Sudan Notes 21, 1938.

—, ‘Fur Dance Songs’, Sudan Notes 23, 1940.

BEATTIE, J. H. M., ‘Nyoro Personal Names’, Uganda J. 21, 1957.

BEIDELMAN, T. O., ‘Hyena and rabbit: a Kaguru representation of matrilineal relations’, Africa 31, 1961: 250–57.

—, ‘Further adventures of Hyena and Rabbit: the folktale as a sociological model’, Africa 33, 1963: 54–69.

—, ‘Some Baraguyu Cattle Songs’, J. Afr. Languages 4, 1965.

BEIER. H. U., ‘Yoruba folk operas’, Afr. Music 1, 1, 1954.

—, ‘The Historical and Psychological Significance of Yoruba Myths’, Odú 1, 1955.

—, ‘Yoruba vocal music’, Afr. Music 1, 3, 1956.

—, ‘Transition without Tears’, Encounter 15, 1960.

—, The Origin of Life and Death: African Creation Myths, London, 1966 (1966a).

—, (ed.), African Poetry, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966 (1966b).

—, (ed.), Introduction to African literature, London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1967.

BELCHER, S., Epic Traditions of Africa, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

BELINGA, E., Littérature et musique populaires en Afrique noire, Toulouse, 1965.

—, Introduction generale a la littérature orale africaine: definition, creativite litteraire orale, problemes d’esthetique et de langue, symbolisme, traduction, Yaounde: University of Yaounde, 1977.

BELMONT, N. and CALAME-GRIAULE, G. (eds), ‘Les voies de la mémoire’, Cahiers de littérature orale, 43, Paris: INALCO, 1998.

BEN-AMOS, D. (ed.), Epic and Panegyric Poetry in Africa, special issue, Research in African Literatures 14, 3: 277–400 (1983).

—, and Goldstein, K. S. (eds), Folklore: performance and communication, The Hauge: American Folklore Society, 1975.

BENDER, C. J., ‘Die Volksdichtung der Wakweli’, ZES, Beiheft 4, 1922.

BENEDICT, R., Zuni Mythology, New York, 1935.

BENZIES, W. R., and JACKSON, H. M. G., ‘Proverbs from the Matabele’, Nada 2, 1924.

BERENGER-FERAUD, L. J. B., Recueil de contes popularies de la Sénégambie, Paris, 1885.

BERRY, J., Spoken art in West Africa, London, 1961.

BIEBUYCK, D., ‘Mubela: een epos der Balega’, Band [Leopoldville] 12, 1953.

—, and MATEENE, K. C., Mwnedo. Une Epopée Nyanga, Ass Class Afric, 2002.

BIRD, C. S. ‘Heroic songs of the Mande hunters’, in R. M Dorson (ed.), African Folklore, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1972.

BISSET, C. J., ‘Some Chikaranga Proverbs’, Nada 11, 1933.

BIVAR, A. D. H., and HISKETT, M., ‘The Arabic Literature of Nigeria to 1804: a provisional account’, BSOAS 25, 1962.

BLACKING, J., ‘The Social value of Venda riddles’, Afr. Studies 20, 1961.

—, Venda children’s songs, Witwatersrand, 1967.

BLEEK, D. F., ‘Bushman Folklore’, Africa 2, 1929.

—, ‘Special Speech of Animals and Moon used by Xam Bushmen’, Bantu Studies 10, 1936.

BLEEK, W. H. I., Reynard the Fox in South Africa; or, Hottentot fables and tales, London, 1864.

—, A Brief account of Bushman folklore and other texts, London, 1875.

—, and LLOYD, L. C., Specimens of Bushman folklore, London 1911.

—, (ed. D. F. BLEEK), The Mantins and his friends, Cape Town, 1924.

BOCCASSINO, R., ‘La preghiera degli Acioli dell’Uganda’, Ann. Lateranensi 13, 1949.

BOELAERT, E., ‘Nsong’â Lianja: l’épopée nationale des Nkundó’, Aequatoria 12, 1949.

—, ‘Premiéres recherches sur la structure of cinq poesies Ionkundo’, IRCB Bull 23, 2, 1952.

—, ‘De structuur van de Nkundo-poëzie’, Kongo-Overzee 21, 1955.

—, Lianja-verhalen I, AMRCB-L 17 (1957); II, De voorouders van Lianja, AMRCB-L 19, 1958.

BOHANNAN, P., African Outline, A General Introduction, Harmondsworth, 1966.

BORNAND, S., Le Discours du griot généalogiste chez les Zarma du Niger, Paris: Karthala, 2005.

BOSTON, J., ‘Some Northern Ibo Masquerades’, JRAI 90, 1960.

BOUILLON, A., ‘La corporation des chasseurs de Baluba’, Zaïre 8, 1954.

BOWERS, C., ‘Nupe Singers’, Nigeria Magazine 84, 1965.

BOWRA, C. Heroic Poetry, London, 1952.

—, Primitive Song, London, 1962.

BRAKELEY, T. C., ‘Work Song’, in M. Leach (ed.), Standard Dictionary of Folklore, Mythology and Legend, New York, 1949.

BRANDEL, R., The Music of central Africa: an ethnomusicological study, Former French Equatorial Africa, the former Belgian Congo, Ruanda-Urundi, Uganda, Tanganyika, The Hague, 1961.

BREITINGER, E. (ed.), Theatre and Performance in Africa: Intercultural Perspectives, Bayreuth: Universität Bayreuth, 1994.

BROWN, D. (ed.), Oral Literature and Performance in Southern Africa, Oxford: James Currey, 1999.

BUBU, M., and FURNISS, G., ‘Youth culture, bandiri, and the continuing legitimacy of debate in Sokoto town’, Journal of African Cultural Studies 12: 27–46, 1999.

BUFE, E., ‘Die Poesie der Duala-Neger in Kamerun’, Archiv fürAnthropologie 13, 1, 1914.

BULL, A. F., ‘Asu (Pare) Proverbs and Songs’, Africa 6, 1933.

BURTON, R. F., Wit and wisdom from West Africa; or, a book of proverbial philosophy, idioms, enigmas, and laconisms, London, 1865.

BURTON W. F. P., ‘A Luba Folk-tale’, Bantu Studies 9, 1935.

—, ‘Oral Literature in Lubaland’, Afr. Studies 2, 1943.

BÜTTNER, C. G., Anthologie aus der Suaheli-Litteratur, 2 vols, Berlin, 1894.

—, ‘Märchen der Herero’, ZAS 1, 1888.

BYNON, J., ‘Riddle Telling among the Berbers of Central Morocco’, Afr. Language Studies 7–8, 1966–7.

CAGNOLO, C., ‘Kikuyu Tales’, Afr. Studies 12, 1952–53.

CALAME-GRIAULE, G., ‘Ésoterisme et fabulation au Soudan’, Bull, IFAN (B) 16, 3/4, 1954 (1954a).

—, ‘Les “moqueries de villages” au Soudan français’, Notes afr. 61, 1954 (1954b).

—, ‘L’art de la parole dans la culture africaine’, Présence afr. 47, 1963.

—, Ethnologie et language: La parole chez les Dogon, Paris, 1965.

—, and LIGERS, Z., ‘L’homme-hyène dans la tradition soudanaise’, L’Homme 1, 2, 1961.

CALLAWAY, H., Nursery Tales, traditions, and histories of the Zulus, Springvale, 1868.

CARRINGTON, J. F., ‘The drum language of the Lokele tribe’, Afr. Studies 3, 1944.

—, Talking drums of Africa, London, 1949 (1949a).

—, A comparative study of some Central African gong-languages, IRCB Mém 18, 3 1949 (1949b).

—, ‘Individual Names given to Talking Gongs in the Yalemba Area of Belgian Congo’, Afr. Music 1, 3, 1956.

—, ‘Tone and Melody in a Congolese Popular Song’, Afr. Music 4, 1, 1966/7.

CASALIS, E., Études sur la langue sechuana, Paris, 1841.

CENDRARS, B., Anthologie négre, Paris, 1921.

CERULLI, E., ‘Folk-literature of the Galla of southern Abyssinia’, Harvard Afr. Studies 3, 1922.

—, ‘Poesie di Guerra e di amore dei Galla’, Arch. antrop. e etnol. 5, 1942.

—, Storia della letteratura etiopica, Milan, 1956.

CÉSARD, E., ‘Proverbes et contes haya’, Anthropos 23, 1928; 24, 1929.

—, ‘Devinettes et observances superstitieuses haya’, Anthropos 29, 1934.

CHADWICK, H. M., and N. K., The Growth of Literature, 3 vols, Cambridge, 1932–40.

CHADWICK, N. K., ‘The distribution of oral literature in the Old World’, JRAI 69, 1939.

CHATELAIN, H., Folk-tales of Angloa, Memoir of the American folklore society, I, Boston and New York, 1894.

CHAYTOR, H. J., From Script to Print: an Introduction to Medieval Vernacular Literature, Cambridge, 1945.

CHERBONNEAU, A., Essai sur la literature arabe au Soudan d’après le ‘Tek-milet-ed-dibadje’ d’Ahmed-Baba, le Tombouctien, Constantine, 1856.

CHIWALE, J. C., Central Bantu Historical Texts 3: Royal Praise-names of the Lunda-Kazembe of Northern Rhodesia, Rhodes-Livingstone Communication 25, 1962.

CHRISTALLER, J. G., A Collection of 3, 600 Tshi proverbs, Basel, 1879.

CHRISTENSEN, J. B., ‘The role of proverbs in Frante culture’, Africa 28, 1958.

CLARK, J. P., ‘The Azudu Saga’, Afr. notes 1, 1, 1963.

—, ‘Poetry of the Urhobo Dance Udje’, Nigeria Magazine 87, 1965.

—, ‘Aspects of Nigerian Drama’, Nigeria Mag. 89, 1966.

—, The Ozidi Saga, Ibadan: Ibadan University Press, 1977.

CLARKE, J. D., ‘Ifa Divination’, JRAI 69, 1939.

CLARKE, K. W., ‘A motif-index of the folktales of culture area V, West Africa’, PhD thesis, University of Indiana, 1958.

CLARKE, R. T., ‘The Drum Language of the Tumba People’, American J. Sociology 40, 1934.

COLE-BEUCHAT, P. D., ‘Riddles in Bantu’, Afr. Studies 16, 1957.

—, ‘Notes on some folklore forms in Tsonga and Ronga’, Afr. Studies 17, 1958.

COLIN, R., Les contes noirs de l’Ouest africain, Paris (Présence africaine), 1957.

COLLIER, F. S., ‘Yoruba Hunters’ Salutes’, Nigerian Field 18, 1953.

COMHAIRE-SYLVAIN, S., ‘Les jeux des enfants noirs à Léopoldville’, Za¿re 3, 1949 (1949a).

—, ‘Quelques devinettes des enfants noirs de Léopoldville’, Africa 19, 1949 (1949b).

CONRAD, DAVID C. and CONDÉ, D. T., Sunjata: a West African Epic of the Mande People, Indianapolis: Hackett, 2004.

CONTEH-MORGAN, J. and OLANYAN, T. (eds), Drama and Performance, special issue, Research in African Literatures 30, 4, 1999.

CONTI ROSSINI, C., Proverbi, tradizioni e canzoni Tigrine, Verbania, 1942.

COOK, P. A. W., ‘History and izibongo of the Swazi chiefs’, Bantu studies 5, 1931.

COPE, T., ‘”African Music”, a lecture given at Natal University’, Afr. Music 2, 2, 1959.

—, Izibongo-Zulu praise poems, OLAL, Oxford, 1968.

CORNEVIN, R., ‘Les poémes épiques africains et la notion d’épopée vivante’, Présence afr. 60, 1966.

CORNFORD, F. M., The Origin of Attic Comedy, London, 1914 (reprinted 1961).

COULON, V. and GARNIER, X. (eds), Les littératures africaines, textes et terrains, Paris: Karthala, 2011.

COUPEZ, A., ‘Les rythmes de la poésie rwanda’, Folia scientifica Africae centralis [Bukavu] 4, 3, 1958.

—, ‘Rhyme quantitative dans les berceuses Rundi’, Folia Scientifica Africae Centralis [Bukavu] 5, 3, 1959.

—, and KAMANZI, Th., ‘Rythmes quantitatifs en poésie rwanda’, Folia scientifica Africae centralis [Bulavu] 3, 3, 1957.

—, Récits historiques Rwanda, AMRAC 43, 1962.

CRONISE, F. M., and WARD. H. W., Cunnie Rabbit, Mr Spider and the other Beef, West African folk tales, London, 1903.

CROWLEY, D. J., ‘Folklore research in the Congo’, JAF 74, 1961.

—, ‘The dilemma of Congolese folklore’, Journal of folklore Institute 4, 2/3, 1967.

CUMMINS, S. L., ‘Sub-tribes of the Bahr-el-Ghazal Dinkas’, JRAI 34, 1904.

CURTIN, P. D., The image of Africa, London, 1965.

CURTIS, N., Songs and tales from the dark continent, New York, 1920.

CUTTER, C., ‘The politics of music in Mali’, African arts 1, 3, 1968.

DA CRUZ, C., ‘Petit recueil des pseudonyms (Fon)’, Etudes dahoméennes (IFAN) 15, 1956.

DADIÉ, B. B., ‘Le role de la légende dans la culture populaire des noirs d’Afrique’, Présence afr 14/15, 1957.

—, ‘Folklore and Literature‘, in L. Brown and M. Crowder (eds.), Proceedings of the first international congress of Africanists, London, 1964.

DAHLE, P. B., ‘Eine Siegeshymne der Ama-Zulu’, Festschrift Meinhof, Glückstadt, 1927: 174–95.

DAMMANN, E., Dichtungen in der Lamu-Mundart des Suaheli, Hamburg, 1940.

—, ‘Die “Urzeit” in afrikanischen Verschlingemythen’, Fabula [Berlin] 4, 1961.

DANQUAH, J. B., Gold Coast: Akan Laws and Customs, London, 1928.

DAUPHIN-TINTURIER A. M., and DERIVE, J., Oralité africaine et creation, Paris: Karthala, 2005.

DE CLERCQ, A., ‘Quelques légendes des Bena Kanioka’, Anthropos 4, 1909.

—, ‘Légendes des Mongwandi’, Revue congolaise 2, 1912.

DE DAMPIERRE, E., Poétes Nzakara, Classiques africains I, Paris, 1963.

DE FOCAULD, C., Poésies touarègues, 2 vols, Paris, 1925–30.

DE GANAY, S., ‘Les devises des Dogons’, TMIE 41, 1941.

DÉGH, L., Narratives in Society: A Performer-Centered Study of Narration, Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1995.

DELAFOSSE, M., Essai de manuel de la langue agni, Paris, 1900.

—, Haut-Sénégal-Niger, Vol. 3, Paris, 1912.

—, Traditions historiques et légendaires du Soudan occidental, Paris, 1913.

—, Contribution à l’étude du théâtre chez les noirs’, Ann. et mém. Com et. AOF, 1916.

—, The negroes of Africa: History and translation (Eng. Tr. by F. Fligelman), Washington, 1931.

—, and GADEN, H., Chroniques du Foûta sénégalais; traduites de deux manuscripts inédits…, Paris, 1913.

DEMPWOLFF, O., ‘Ein Märchen und 30 Lieder der Dzalamo’, ZKS 3, 1912–12.

DENISOFF, R. S., ‘Songs of Persuasion: a Sociological Analysis of Urban Propaganda Songs’, JAF 79, 1966.

DENNETT, R. E., Notes on the folklore of the Fjort, French Congo, London: Folklore Society, 1898.

DENNY, S. R., ‘Some Zambesi Boat Songs’, Nada 14, 1936–7: 35–6.

DE OLIVEIRA, J. O., Literatura Africana: Moçambique: provérbos, adivinhas, contos e fábulas dos Tongas do Sul do Dave, Tongas da Zambézia e Vátuas, Lisboa, 1644.

DE PÉLICHY, A. G., ‘Prières païennes d’Afrique noire’, Rhythmes du monde (Bruges et Paris) 7, 1, 1959 (AA 12, 4).

DERIVE, J. (ed.), L’épopée: unité et diversité d’un genre, Paris: Karthala, 2002.

—, and DUMESTRE G. et al., Des hommes et des bêtes, chants de chasseurs mandingues, Paris, Classiques Africains 27, 1999.

DE ROP, A., De gesproken woordkunst van de Nkundó, AMRCB-L 13, 1956.

—, ‘L’épopée des Nkundo: l’original et la copie’, Kongo-Oversee 24, 1958.

—, ‘Het epos van de Nkundo Mongo’, Band 18, 1959 (AA 2, 323).

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