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Infrastructure Investment in Indonesia

Sally Wilson
Colin Duffield
Kevin Kin Peng Hui

List of Illustrations and Tables

Texte intégral

Chapter 1

Fig. 1.1 Historical and projected populations of Indonesia, 1960–2050. 3
Source: World Bank 2015a.
Fig. 1.2 Indonesian GDP per capita in USD, 1980–2013. Source: World 5
Economic Forum 2015b.
Fig. 1.3 Investment realisation of FDI 2012–June 2017 in USD per 7
quarter. Source: BKPM 2017b.

Chapter 2

Fig. 2.1 Indonesian Six Economic Corridors identified for the MP3EI. 18
Source: Ministry of National Development Planning/National
Development Planning Agency, 2011 (Bappenas 2011a),
Masterplan Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia Economic
Development 2011–25. Coordinating Ministry for Economic
Fig. 2.2 Relationships between various Indonesian project planning 22
agencies and authorities (figure by the authors)
Fig. 2.3 KPPIP process for coordinating project outcomes. Source: 23
KPPIP, 2016.
Fig. 2.4 Global Competitiveness Index* scores for East Asia and 29
Pacific countries. Source: World Economic Forum 2017 The
Global Competitiveness Report 2017–2018. The GCI measures
all indicators on a 1–7 scale and aggregates the scores to find
a final overall GCI score. The higher the score the better the
measure being assessed.
Fig. 2.5 The most problematic factors for doing business in 30
Indonesia 2016. Source: World Economic Forum 2016, Global
Competitiveness Report 2016–2017.*
Fig. 2.6 The most problematic factors for doing business in Indonesia 31
2017. Source: World Economic Forum 2017, The Global
Competitiveness Report 2017–2018.
Fig. 2.7 World Bank Rankings on Doing Business topics — Indonesia. 32
Source: World Bank 2018. Doing Business 2018 — Indonesia.
World Bank Group.
Fig. 2.8 Distance to Frontier (DFT) on Doing Business 33
topics — Indonesia. Source: World Bank 2018. Doing Business
2018 — Indonesia.
Fig. 2.9. Barriers to doing business in Indonesia and Australia (sorted 46
by mean score — most problematic to least for Indonesia)
(Figure by the authors)
Fig. 2.10 Barriers to doing business — a comparison of Indonesia and 47
Australia* (Figure by the authors)

Chapter 3

Fig. 3.1 Increased opportunity for private sector finance (Figure by 56
the authors)
Fig. 3.2 Private versus public engineering construction in Australia 57
(Figure by the authors)
Fig. 3.3 Landlord Port Model (Figure by the authors based on the 66
World Bank resource,
Fig. 3.4 Proposed new Indonesian Special Economic Zones. Source: 66
Indonesia Investments 2017, https://www.indonesia
Table 3.1 Major Australian Asset recycling transactions (Table compiled 68
by authors from various publicly available websties and data
sources relating to the facilities)
Fig. 3.5 Availability of finance (Figure by the authors) 71
Fig. 3.6 Port is attracting enough finance (Figure by the authors) 72
Fig. 3.7 The importance of making investment decisions in transport 73
to improve ports (Figure by the authors)
Fig. 3.8 The importance of making investment decisions in water 73
infrastructure to improve ports (Figure by the authors)
Fig. 3.9 The importance of making investment decisions in energy to 73
improve ports (Figure by the authors)
Fig. 3.10 The importance of making investment decisions in materials 74
handling to improve ports (Figure by the authors)
Fig. 3.11 Level of importance of developing areas listed where 74
investment should be directed to improve operations of
PORTS in general in Indonesia. (Figure by the authors)
Fig. 3.12 Level of importance of developing areas listed where 75
investment should be directed to improve operations of
PORTS in general in Australia. (Figure by the authors)
Table Relative effectiveness of various funding mechanisms — 76
3.2 Indonesia (Table by the authors)
Table Relative effectiveness of various funding mechanisms — 78
3.3 Australia (Table by the authors)

Chapter 4

Fig. 4.1 Project support system (Figure by the authors based on data. 88
Source: Haryanto 2015).
Fig. 4.2 Legend used for project schedule charts (Figure by the 90
Fig. 4.3 Case study locations (map source: Amin (2015)) 91
Table 4.1 Jakarta Sewerage System 91
Table 4.2 West Semarang Drinking Water Supply 93
Fig. 4.4 Jakarta Sewerage System project implementation schedule 92
(Figure by the authors)
Fig. 4.5 West Semarang SPAM (left), supply map (right) (image 93
source: Amin (2015)).
Fig. 4.6 West Semarang Drinking Water Supply project implementation 94
schedule (Figure by the authors)
Table 4.3 National Capital Integrated Coastal Development 95
Fig. 4.7 National Capital Integrated Coastal Development project 96
implementation schedule (Figure by the authors)
Table 4.4 Bontang Oil Refinery 97
Fig. 4.8 Bontang Oil Refinery project implementation schedule 97
(Figure by the authors)
Table 4.5 Umbulan Springs Drinking Water Supply Project 98
Fig. 4.9 Umbulan Springs project implementation schedule (Figure by 99
the authors)
Table 4.6 Channel Deepening Project, Victoria 100
Table 4.7 M7 Motorway, New South Wales 102
Fig. 4.10 Channel Deepening Project implementation schedule (Figure 101
by the authors)
Fig. 4.11 M7 Motorway project implementation schedule (Figure by 103
the authors)
Fig. 4.12 Gateway Review Process (left) in comparison to Indonesian 105
case studies (right)

Chapter 5

Table 5.1 Port Botany — Key Events 1969–2018 (Table by the authors) 122
Fig. 5.1 Port Botany Container Terminals. Source: https://www. 124
Fig. 5.2 Heavy Commercial Vehicles Trips from Port Botany, Average 125
Weekday, 2006. Source: Bureau of Transport Statistics 2010.
Fig. 5.3 Southern Sydney Freight Network and Port Botany Rail Line. 130
Source: ARTC 2015, Fig. 1.2, p. 6.
Fig. 5.4 Motorway Connections Proposed Between Sydney Airport 132
and Port Botany (Figure by the authors)
Table 5.2 Metropolitan Sydney intermodal terminals, 2008 134
Table 5.3 Sydney suburban intermodal terminals — TEU capacity 134
Fig. 5.5 Location of existing and proposed freight terminals for Port 135
Botany Source: Sydney Ports Corporation 2008.
Table 5.4 Approximate construction costs of Port Botany and enabling 146
infrastructure (Australian Dollars in 2016 prices)

Chapter 6

Fig. 6.1 Overall efficiency of ports in Asian region (incl. Australia) on 157
country basis (Figure by the authors, based on World Bank
2016 data)
Fig. 6.2 Relationship between infrastructure and overall efficiency on 157
country basis (Figure by the authors based on World Bank
2016 data)
Table 6.1 Input and output variables used in the port DEA analysis. 165
Fig. 6.3. Computing efficiency frontier in VRS and CRS model (Figure 167
by the authors)
Table 6.2 Sample ports for efficiency comparison (Table by the authors) 168
Table 6.3 Descriptive port statistics for input and output variables for 168
Table 6.4 Sample of container terminals for efficiency comparison 169
(Table by the authors)
Table 6.5 Descriptive container terminal statistics for inputs and 170
outputs variables for DEA
Table 6.6 Port Efficiency score for functional inputs based on DEA 171
models (Table by authors)
Table 6.7 Port Efficiency score for operational inputs based on DEA 171
models (Table by authors)
Table 6.8 Container terminal Efficiency in terms of Crane Rate (Table 172
by authors)
Table 6.9 Container terminal Efficiency in terms of Ship Rate (Table by 173
Table Container terminal Efficiency in terms of Container 173
6.10 Throughput (Table by authors)
Table Sources of efficiency gains (after Cheon, Dowall and Song 174
6.11 (2010))
Fig. 6.4 Improvement percentage* of inefficient units based on 175
constant crane rate, ship rate and throughput (Figure by
Table Summary of Container Terminal Efficiency scores (Table by 176
6.12 authors)
Fig. 6.5 Port of Tanjung Priok (Jakarta) logistics flow chart (Figure by 179
Fig. 6.6 Port of Surabaya logistics flow chart (Figure by authors) 179
Fig. 6.7 Port of Melbourne logistics flow chart (Figure by authors) 180

Chapter 7

Table 7.1 The determining factors of Port competitiveness. 190
Fig. 7.1 Maritime Cluster composition of services in major port cities. 191
Source: Lam and Zhang, (2011).
Fig. 7.2 Enhancement of market power through joint venture. Source: 192
Song (2001).
Fig. 7.3 TAMA’s aims and networks. Source: adapted from TAMA- 193
Greater Tokyo Initiative (2017).
Fig. 7.4. Main Functions of TAMA. Source: adapted from Wahyuni 194
and Wahyuningsih (2018).
Fig. 7.5 TAMA-Greater Tokyo Initiative’s Five-year Action Plans. 196
Source: adapted from TAMA-Greater Tokyo Initiative (2017).
Fig. 7.6. TAMA strategy 1. Source: adapted from TAMA-Greater 198
Tokyo Initiative (2017).
Fig. 7.7 Strategy 2: TAMA support measures. Source: adapted from 199
Wahyuni and Wahyuningsih (2018).

Chapter 8

Table 8.1 Rank of ASEAN Logistics Performance Index 207
Fig. 8.1 Coverage of Pelindo I, II, III, and IV. Source: adapted from 209
Sheng (2015).
Fig. 8.2 Most Problematic Factors of Doing Business in Indonesia. 211
Source: Schwab (2017).
Fig. 8.3 Respondent Data: (Top) Respondent’s Specialisation and 214
number of respondents, (Bottom) Respondents’ association/
working for or with, in the ports and number of respondents
(Figure by the authors)
Fig. 8.4 Summary of Indonesian port problem (Figure by authors) 215
Fig. 8.5 The Most Problematic Factors for Doing Port Business in 216
Indonesia. (Figure by authors). Red (Government Related
Variables), Blue (Business Related Variables) 1 (Most
Problematic-Major Effect), 3 (Neutral), 5 (Least Problematic-
Minimal/No Effect)
Fig. 8.6 Government Reform Package Usefulness Score (mean) (Figure 217
by the authors). 1 (Very Unhelpful), 3 (Neither Unhelpful or
Useful), 5 (Very Helpful)

Chapter 9

Table 9.1 Four Models of port administration 229
Table 9.2 The transaction details and investors in major city ports in 231
Australia. (Table compiled by the authors)
Fig. 9.1 Port management — the balance between public and private 234
(World Bank 2007)
Fig. 9.2 Landlord port management structure (AIC 2018) 234
Fig. 9.3 Themes observed from the thematic analysis of the FGD 236
discussions (Figure by the authors)
Table 9.3 Factors Helping to Improve Governance/Policy in Ports (Table 238
by the authors)
Table 9.4 Factors Acting as Obstacles to Governance/Policy of Ports 241
(Table by the authors)
Table 9.5 Factors Which Help Improve Management Structures in Ports 242
(Table by the authors)

Chapter 10

Table Impact of project finance structure to the sponsor’s return 253
10.1 (Yescombe 2007) private-sector financing through public-
private partnerships (PPPs).
Fig. 10.1 Infrastructure financing options. (Figure by the authors from 254
Hui, Duffield, Wilson, 2018)
Fig. 10.2 Research flowchart (Figure by the authors from Hui, Duffield 256
and Wilson 2018)
Fig. 10.3 Respondents’ characteristics (n=34) (Figure by the authors) 258
Table Financing vehicle/method effectiveness (Top-10 choices). 259
Fig. 10.4 Responses on the major barriers to gaining approval for 260
infrastructure projects in Indonesia. (Figure by the authors)
Fig. 10.5 The respondents’ suggestions on ways to improve the 261
decision-making process for infrastructure projects in
Indonesia. (Figure by the authors)
Fig. 10.6 Responses to the question “Has your port either attempted 261
to undertake major development (or achieved major
development) using international providers — including
finance?” (Figure by the authors)
Fig. 10.7 Responses to the question on the different kinds of facilitations 262
by international providers. (Figure by the authors)
Fig. 10.8 The contractual relationship and project cash flows around 265
the NPCT-1 project. (Figure by authors based on data from
Table Loan facilities received by IPC from 2013 to 2015 267
Fig. 10.9 The effect of the different NPCT-1 financial leverage levels on 267
the project value with a certain target of IRRequity/Permitted
Equity Return (PER). (Figure by authors)
Fig. 10.10 The project value under different IRRequity thresholds. (Figure 268
by authors)
Fig. 10.11 The NPCT-1 project under a PPP-based structure with 270
availability payment. (Figure by authors)
Fig. 10.12 The NPCT-1 project value to IPC under different project 271
company financial leverage level. (Figure by the authors)
Fig. 10.13 The NPCT-1 project value to IPC under different level of 272
IRRequity to be covered by the availability payment. (Figure
by the authors)
Fig. 10.14 The availability payment requirements that the government 272
must pay at a certain level of target IRRequity under different
project company capital structure. (Figure by the authors)
Fig. 10.15 Banking financing allocated to logistic infrastructure (road, 273
railway, port, airport, information and communication
technology, warehouse) in trillion Rupiah. Source: Nirwan

Chapter 11

Fig. 11.1 Global Port Network of IZP and China Merchant Group. 284
Source: adapted from 11 September
Fig. 11.2 Dubai Ports global network. Source: adapted from http://web. 285 11 September 2019.
Table Comparisons of Advantages and Disadvantages of Road and 286
11.1 Rail Modes
Fig. 11.3. Functional integration and exploitation of scale economies of 291
logistics operation. Source: adapted from Robinson (2002) and
Rodrigue (2006).
Fig. 11.4 Hinterland Areas and Movement Corridors of Containers 297
carrying Goods towards Tanjung Priok Port. Source: adapted
from Tanjung Priok Port, 11 September 2019.
Fig. 11.5 Number of Vehicles through Toll Road by Toll Gate Branch, 298
2014–2016. Source: adapted from PT Jasa Marga/Indonesia
Highway Corp 2018.
Fig. 11.6 Traffic Conditions around the Tanjung Priok Port (morning 299
peak hour). Source: adapted from Google Maps 11 September
Fig. 11.7 Mix of through traffic and the movement of local traffic. 299
Source: adapted from Google Maps, 11 September 2019.
Fig. 11.8 Toll Roads Network (include Access Toll Road to Tanjung 301
Priok Port). Source: adapted from Toll Road Management
Agency, 2018.
Fig. 11.9 Proposed Cikarang Bekasi Laut (CBL) Inland Waterway for 302
container access to Tanjung Priok Port. Source: adapted from
PT Pelindo II, 11 September 2019.
Fig. 11.10 Gates available at Tanjung Priok Port. Source: adapted from 303
Masterplan of Tanjung Priok Port (2017).
Fig. 11.11 The Movement Pattern of Incoming and Outgoing Trucks at 304
the Port of Tanjung Priok. Source: adapted from Herdian et
al. 2017.
Fig. 11.12 Belawan Port and Its Hinterland. Source: adapted from 306
Masterplan of Belawan Port, 11 September 2019.
Fig. 11.13 Export and Import Volumes from Belawan Port. Source: 306
adapted from Central Bureau Statistics of Sumatera Utara
Province, 2017.
Table Projections of cargo loads and unloads at Belawan Port 307
Table Forecast data of cargo flows at Belawan International 307
11.3 Container Terminal (BICT)
Fig. 11.14 Main Road Networks Going from and To Belawan Port. 308
Source: adapted from Google Map, 11 September 2019.
Fig. 11.15 Loading and Unloading Activities at the Industrial Area of Sei 309
Mangkei. Photo courtesy: Danang Parikesit, 2017
Fig. 11.16 Existing and Planned Railway Lines in North Sumatra. 310
Source: adapted from Masterplan of Kuala Tanjung Port, 11
September 2019.
Fig. 11.17 The Transportation Networks of Roads and Railways as well 311
as Corridors of Belawan and Kuala Ports. Source: adapted
from Google Maps, 11 September 2019.
Fig. 11.18 Teluk Lamong Port Terminal (no. 2) as one of the terminals in 312
the Operational Area of Tanjung Perak Port. Source: adapted
from Pelindo III, 11 September 2019.
Fig. 11.19 Container Flows at Tanjung Perak Port and Teluk Lamong 313
Port Terminal, in TEU (2011–2015). Source: adapted from
Pelindo III, 29 March 2018.
Table Projection of Ship Visit Flows to Teluk Lamong Port Terminal 313
Fig. Current Movement of Container System in Tanjung Perak 314
11.20 Port. Source: PT Pelindo III, 11 September 2019.
Fig. The Application of Rail-based Container Trains as a form 315
11.21 of transportation of goods at Teluk Lamong Port Terminal.
Source: adapted from PT Terminal Teluk Lamong, 11
September 2019.
Fig. 11.22 Automatic Container Transporter Development Plan. Source: 316
adapted from PT Teluk Lamong, 11 September 2019.
Fig. The proposed Integrated Toll Roads to Teluk Lamong 317
11.23 Port Terminal. Source: adapted from PT. Teluk Lamong, 11
September 2019.


Table A1 Focus Group Discussion Questions 348


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