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Conservation Biology in Sub-Saharan Africa

 | 
John W. Wilson
, 
Richard B. Primack

Index

Texte intégral

|Ai-|Ais/Richtersveld TFCA (Southern Africa) 465–466

abalone (Haliotis spp.) 273

abiotic environment 69–71

acidification, of oceans 186

acid rain 213

Addo Elephant National Park (South Africa) 278, 389

Adeso (Horn of Africa) 361

aesthetic values 114–115

African Parks 43, 444, 446–447, 498

agriculture. See also crops; See also crops biological control 107, 109

climate change 190

habitat loss 142–143, 525–526

marginal lands 533

perverse subsidies 40

pollinators 103–104

sustainable practices 526–528, 530

traditional systems 142, 526

Aichi Biodiversity Targets 431, 478–480

air pollution 212–213

air quality, monitoring 106

albedo effect 99, 173

Albertine Rift (Central Africa) 79, 475–476

algae

blooms 210

relationship with coral 187

Allee effect 282–283, 388

alleles

genetic variation 65, 68

loss 277–279

Alliance for Zero Extinction 471

alpha diversity 79–80

amenity values 114–115

amphibians

diseases 240–241

ex situ conservation 411

translocation 407

Animal Demography Unit (ADU, South Africa) 572

animal welfare 408, 413

Anthropocene 258

APLORI (A.P. Leventis Ornithological Research Institute, Nigeria) 576–579

aquaria. See ex situ conservation

aquatic ecosystems. See also freshwater ecosystems, marine ecosystems; See also freshwater ecosystems, marine ecosystems

biomagnification 204–205

biomes 26

eutrophication 210

monitoring 66–67, 105, 330, 332

overharvesting 220, 223

pollution 207–211, 216

archaea, antibiotics 117

Arusha Manifesto 36

assisted colonisations/migrations 384, 405–407

assisted reproductive technologies 414–417

authoritarianism 35–36, 46

avoidance costs 119

bacteria

plastic-degrading 237

species diversity 82

balance of nature 494

Bandiagara Escarpment (Mali) 327

baobab (Adansonia digitata) 91

bats

as biological control 106

overharvesting 315–317

pollinators 101

behavioural ecology 378–379

benefit sharing 498

bequest values 116

beta diversity 80

Big Five animals 26–27

bilharzia/schistosomiasis 149, 242

binomial terms 63–64

bioaccumulation. See biomagnification

bioassays 330

bioblitzes 299

biochemical indicators 332

biocontrol. See biological control

biodegradation 207

biodiversity

commercial rights 122–123

definition 62

distribution 82–85

indexes 64

informatics 64

inventories 299–300, 302

laws 29, 32–37, 428–441, 448–454

offsets 362, 558

Sub-Saharan Africa 24–28

value 92–94, 96–123

Biodiversity Hotspots 472–473

bioenergy 170–172, 560–561

biogeographic transition zones 85, 471

biologging devices. See wildlife tracking

biological control 106–107, 109, 346–347

biological interactions

climate change 182–183

co-extinction 275

coextinction 183

ecosystem engineers 97

extinction cascades 98

keystone species 97–98

maintenance 341

pollination 101, 105

seed dispersal 102

biomagnification 204–205, 207

biomes 24–26, 70

biomimicry 113

biomonitoring 330–332

biopiracy 123

bioprospecting 118, 122–123

bioregional management 493

biosorption 106

biosphere reserves 486, 491

biotic attrition 182

biotic environment 70–71

BirdLife South Africa 221–222, 406

birds

climate change 179–181

ecotourism 114, 568

migrations 150–152

primary threats 328

black markets 567

botanical gardens. See ex situ conservation

breeding back (de-extinction) 285, 288

buffer zones. See zoning

bushmeat crisis 94–95, 218–220

Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (Uganda) 23, 463

bycatch 220–223

calendar, environmental 613–614

camera traps 309

CAMPFIRE (Communal Areas Management

Programme for Indigenous Resources,

Zimbabwe) 537, 539

canine distemper virus 241

captive breeding. See also ex situ conservation

databases 408

pre-release training 392

risk of inbreeding 281

translocations 391–393

carbon cycle 99

carbon dioxide

Africa’s emissions 170

greenhouse gas 168, 170, 172–173

photosynthesis 99–100

sequestration 99–100, 363–364

carbon trading 363

carrying capacity 388, 391

censuses, population 302–306

certification

of origin 432, 438

sustainability 452, 530, 532

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 434

chronosequence studies 382

cichlid fishes 29, 73, 268

circadian rhythms 215

CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) 432, 451

citizen science 569, 571–573

climate. See also temperature, precipitation

corridors 405

refuges 405

regulation (ecosystem service) 99–100

climate change

agriculture 190

assisted colonisations 405–407

beneficiaries 189–190, 192

bioenergy 170–172

biological interactions 182–183

biotic attrition 182

deserts 179–181

drivers 168, 170, 172–173

ecosystem restoration 363–364

forecasting 173–175

freshwater ecosystems 184–185

historical 175–176

human-wildlife conflict 189

impact on people 176–177, 192–193

interaction with habitat loss 188–192

islands 182–183

malaria 190–192

marine ecosystems 185–188

mitigation 404–407, 564

Paris Agreement 434–435

protected areas 502

range-shift gaps 188–189

refugees 176

reptiles 184

sea-level rise 176, 187

terrestrial ecosystems 178–179, 181–184

cloning 287, 415

cocoa, shade-grown 527–528, 530

coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) 81

coextinction 183, 275

coffee

African origin 28

climate change 190

shade-grown 527

collaborators, working with 573–574

COMACO (Community Markets for Conservation, Zambia) 534–535

co-managed protected areas 465–466

co-management 37

communities, biological 69–71

community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) 535–536

community conserved areas 464

compensation payments 540

competing interests 52

conflict, environmental degradation 47, 92

conflicting priorities 449

confounding factors 332

connectivity. See also dispersal; See also dispersal

climate change 405

definition 395

drawbacks 403–404

loss 139–140, 148–149, 188–189

maintenance 396–397, 401–403, 533

protected areas 492–493

conservation

advocacy 9

agriculture 526–527

categories. See IUCN Red Lists

corridors. See connectivity fortress 4, 35

history 29, 32–37, 42–43

partnerships 573–574

refugees 36

conservation biologists, roles 7, 9

conservation biology

aims 3–5, 7

crisis discipline 9, 556

ethical principles 16

interdisciplinary approach 9–10

normative discipline 3

science 3, 9–11

societies 4

conservation categories, IUCN Red Lists 272–273, 312

Conservation International (CI) 472

Conservation Through Public Health (CTPH) 5–7

consumers (trophic levels) 99

consumption. See also human population growth

globalisation 158

population growth 156–159

wealth 2, 157–159

consumptive use values 94

contingent valuation 119

contractual parks 465–466

Convention

Concerning the Protection of the World’s

Cultural and Natural Heritage 432

on Biological Diversity (CBD) 431

on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 432, 451

on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals 432

on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (African) 36, 433

on the marine environment 433

Ramsar Wetlands 433

cooperative breeding 282–283, 388 coral reefs

bleaching 187–188

climate change 186

restoration 362

species diversity 84

corridors. See connectivity

cost-benefit analysis 122, 385

course-filter assessments 274

crops. See also agriculture; See also agriculture

genetic diversity in wild 28, 68

human-wildlife conflict 541

originated in Africa 28

cross-fostering 392

crowding

diseases 241

private protected areas 41

cryopreservation 413

cryptic species 72–74, 81

cultural services 112–117

customary laws 29, 435

cycads 267, 441

cycads (Encephalartos spp.) 28, 259

dams

climate change 560

environmental impacts 148–149, 216, 269–270

removal 402

data reliability 319

DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 204–205, 207

debt-for-nature swaps 563

decision support tools 476, 478

decomposers (trophic levels) 99

deep ecology 117

de-extinction 285, 287–288

deforestation. See forests

Demographic Species Knowledge Index 318, 407

demographic stochasticity 281–282

demographic studies 306–308. See also population viability analysis (PVA)

deoxygenation, of oceans 188

desertification 153, 156, 360–361

deserts, climate change 179–181

development corridors 532

direct use values 93–94

diseases

use in biocontrol 347

diseases (and pathogens)

anthroponotic 241

gorillas 5, 7

keystone species 98

threat to biodiversity 238, 240–242

zoonotic 230, 241

dispersal. See also connectivity; See also connectivity

barriers 139–140, 149

climate change 182–183

seed 102, 140

distance sampling 302

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

barcoding 441

environmental (eDNA) 66–67

genetic diversity 65, 68

dogs

law enforcement 448

use in human-wildlife conflict 540–541

drones. See unmanned aerial vehicles

Dzanga-Sangha Project (Central African Republic) 487, 489

early warning systems 106

Earth observation satellites 333–338, 381

Earth Summit 431

Ebola virus 241

eco-colonialism 35, 465

ecological

footprint 158–159

restoration. See restoration

succession. See succession

traps 386

ecologically

extinct 259

naïve 276

relevant 388

economic development 557

economic growth 556

ecosystem

complexity 339, 405

connectivity 395–397, 401–404

definition 70

diversity 62, 69–71

engineers 97–98

healthy 328

management 337–350

monitoring 328–338

processes 338–343

productivity 99

resistance/resilience 328

restoration 354–357, 359–364

stability 83, 96–98, 185

transient 395

ecosystem services

definition 92

mangroves 152, 360–361

material contributions 93–95

nonmaterial contributions 112–117

option values 117–118

payments for 563

regulating services 96–102, 104–106, 109

valuation 118–123

wetlands 149

ecotones. See biogeographic transition zone ecotourism

ethics 115

risks 498–499

value 114–115

edge effects

habitat fragmentation 140–142

protected areas 484

Edith Stephens Nature Reserve (South Africa) 523–525

educational values 112–113

effective population size (Ne) 313–314

electronic waste/e-waste 214

elephants

combatting trade 48–51

conservation 444, 446–447

ecosystem engineers 97

genetic drift 278

globalisation 429

ivory burning 427

mitigating conflict 379, 541

population declines 34, 227–229

taxonomic status 73

Embryo Plus (South Africa) 414–417

emergence of conservation 565–567

empty forest syndrome 220

Endangered Widlife Trust (EWT, South Africa) 286–287

energy cycle 99, 340–341

energy pathways 340–341

entomology, forensic 442–443

environmental

awareness 112

crimes. See laws DNA (eDNA) 66–67

economics 118–123

education 44, 574–580

governance 351–353

impact assessments (EIAs) 437

justice 13

monitors 105, 330–331

stochasticity 282–283

environmentalism 3 erosion

desertification 153

prevention 101

estuaries. See wetlands ethics

conservation biology 16, 18

de-extinction 288

ecotourism 115

environmental 12–13

Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society (EWNHS) 153–155

ethnobotany 146–147

eutrophication 210, 332

evolution 16

evolutionary significant units (ESU) 269–270, 380

exclusive economic zones (EEZ) 433

existence values 116–117

exotic species. See invasive species

experiments 382

ex situ conservation

challenges 411, 413

diseases 242

importance 406–408

types of facilities 409–410

externalities 121–122

extinction

area effects 134–135

cascades 98

committed to 261

debt 261

declaring 260–261

definition 259

estimating risk 309–314, 317–319

history of African 263, 266–268, 271

locations 268

mass 258, 268

multiple drivers 257

rates 259

rates in African 260

risk in small populations 277–285

species threatened with 271–276

time lag to 261–262

vortex 284

extirpation, definition 259

extractive industries, working with 530–532

extractive reserves 466

facial recognition technologies 309

factor income 119

family planning 5, 7, 158–159

Fauna & Flora International (FFI) 136, 138

fences

beehives 379, 541

conservation tool 397

crop raiding 541

dispersal barriers 139–140

pastoralism 521

predator-proof 540

removal 397

strategic gaps 533

fertilisers

eutrophication 236

microdosing 526

overuse 525

field stations 466–468

fieldwork

challenges 64–66, 73, 77, 381–382

importance 337, 381, 574

filter feeders, pollution monitoring 105

fire

edge effects 142

habitat loss 142–143

management 341–343

fish

biomagnification 207

diversity 28–29

ecotourism 114–115

primary threats 328

translocation 269–270

fisheries

climate change 188

declining 220

ghost fishing 220, 223

perverse subsidies 121

seabirds 221–222

sea turtles 303, 305

sustainable. See Marine Stewardship Council

threatened species 219

unregulated 449

zoning 490

flagship species 471

flooding

climate change 176–177, 186

dams 148–149

prevention 100–101

flufftail, white-winged (Sarothrura ayresi) 155

focal species 471

food chains/webs

biomagnification 204–205, 207

energy pathways 340–341

importance of plants 413

microplastics 210

forensics, environmental 441–443

forestry. See logging

forests

edge effects 140–142

loss 145, 148

mapping 338

market value 120

regulating water/soil quality 101–102

restoration 357, 359–360

speed of regeneration 105

value 145

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) 452, 530

fortress conservation 4, 35

fossil fuels

air pollution 212–213

alternatives 560–561

climate change 170, 172–173

hydrological fracturing 211

perverse subsidies 121, 564

founder effects 281, 285

four Rs 482

fracking. See hydrological fracturing

Frankfurt Zoological Society (FZS) 52, 297

free, prior, and informed consent (FPIC) 520

freshwater ecosystems

climate change 184–185

connectivity 148, 402

invasive species 236

laws 433

loss 148–149

Freshwater Research Centre (South Africa) 269–270

frog, Hewitt’s ghost (Heleophryne hewetti) 257

funding

carbon trading 363–364, 564

debt-for-nature swaps 563

effectiveness 564–565, 567–568

ex situ facilities 411, 413

multilateral organisations 562

NGOs 562

payments for ecosystem services (PES) 563

protected areas 501

tips 607–610

trophy hunting 46

fungi

chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) 240–241

lists 64

malaria-killing 237

plastic-eating 106

Gaia hypothesis 96

Gambella National Park (Ethiopia) 144

gamma diversity 79–80

gap analysis 334, 474

Garamba National Park (DRC) 440, 498

gazelle, Speke’s (Gazella spekei) 281

general circulation models (GCM) 173, 175

genetic

drift 277–279

pollution 236

recombination 68

genetically modified organisms (GMO) 237–238

genetic diversity

definition 62, 65, 68

loss 277–281

maintenance 410, 413

wild crops 28

genome resource bank 413

genotype 65

geospatial analysis 332–338, 381–383, 404

ghost fishing 220, 223

giraffes, taxonomic status 72

Global 200 ecoregions 471

Global Environment Facility (GEF) 562

globalisation

consumption 158

environmental crime 428–429

global warming. See climate change

golden moles (Chrysochloridae) 74–75, 77

gorillas

diseases 5, 7

Ebola virus 241

ecotourism 114

hunting of 47

inbreeding 280

reintroduction 388

threat status 61

Gorongosa National Park (Mozambique) 300, 302

Green Belt Movement (Kenya) 355

greenhouse effect 168

greenhouse gases. See also carbon dioxide; See also carbon dioxide

definition 168

methane 172

nitrous oxide 173

regulation 434–435

green infrastructure 521–522

greenwashing 558

gross domestic product (GDP) 556

groundwater pollution 211

habitat

carrying capacity 388, 391

corridors. See connectivity definition 134

degradation 135, 139–142

islands 135

matrix 135, 401

stepping stone 401

habitat fragmentation

definition 138

dispersal 139

edge effects 140–142

fences 139–140

patch size 138

roads 472

seed dispersal 140

habitat loss

agriculture 142–143, 525–526

area effects 134–135

bird migrations 150–152

definition 134–135

edge effects 140–142

ground-nesting birds 153–155

interaction with climate change 188–192

land grabbing 143–144, 171–172

parasites and diseases 240

protected areas 497

roads 138, 144–145, 472

threatened species 328

habituated animals 392

hand-held devices 74, 558, 569

hard releases 393

hazard detection 105–106

head-starting 393

heavy metals

biomagnification 207

pollution 207

removal 106

hedonic pricing 119

HeroRATs 106

heterosis 278

hidden costs 121–122

hippopotamus, pygmy (Choeropsis liberiensis) 136, 138

hirola (Beatragus hunteri) 521

honeybees

conservation 238–240

elephant deterrent 379, 541

hotspots of biodiversity 472–473

human population growth. See also consumption

consumption 156–159

extinctions 258

Sub-Saharan Africa 2

human-wildlife conflict

climate change 189

crop-raiding 541

IUCN Task Force 542

predators 397, 540–541

hunting

bans 226, 451

overharvesting 218–220

quotas 314–317

regulation 33–34, 436

research 94–95

roads 144

threatened species 219

trophy 46, 567

hyacinth, water (Eichhornia crassipes) 236, 349

hybridisation

ex situ conservation 411

genetically modified organisms (GMO) 237

in small populations 280

invasive species 236

outbreeding depression 280

threat to biodiversity 73

hybrid vigour 73, 280

hydrocarbons 212

hydrological fracturing 211, 560

hydrology 152, 359

hydropower. See dams

illegal wildlife trade. See also laws; See also laws

elephants. See elephants magnitude 448

overharvesting 226, 230 stimulation 567

Image Based Ecological Information System (IBEIS) 468

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) 472

iNaturalist 569

inbreeding (and inbreeding depression) 278, 280–281

indicator species 105, 330–331

indirect use values 96–102, 104–106, 109, 112–117

industrialisation 158–159

Industrial Revolution 258

informal economies, law enforcement 450–451

infrastructure

green 521–522

habitat loss 144–145

unsustainable development 532

wildlife-friendly 533–534

in situ conservation 406

integrated conservation and development projects (ICDP) 10, 534–536

integrated pest management (IPM) 348

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 174

Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) 92, 123

intermediate disturbance hypothesis 298

international agreements. See laws, international

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) 107

international waters 433

introductions. See translocations

invasive species

benefits 348–349

characteristics 231

control 107, 109, 344–348

definition 231

edge effects 141–142

global register 344–345

impact 235–236, 268

islands 233–235

laws regulating 438

monitoring 67

spread 231–232

threatened species 328

inventories 299–300, 302

IPAT equation 158

islands

climate change 176, 182–183

extinctions 134–135

habitats as 135

invasive species 233–235

IUCN

Conservation Planning Specialist Group (CPSG) 408

Green List of Protected Areas 499

Human-Wildlife Conflict Task Force 542

protected areas classification 466, 469

Red List of Ecosystems (RLE) 274, 471

Red List of Threatened Species 271–273, 312

ivory trade. See elephants

Kakum National Park (Ghana) 563

Kavango-Zambezi TFCA (Southern Africa) 398–400

Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA) 472

keystone species 97–98

Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens (South Africa) 579

Kruger National Park (South Africa) 34, 148, 302

Kyoto Protocol 434

lake burping 282–283

Lake Chad, shrinking 212

Lake Victoria, extinctions 268

land degradation, economic losses 120

land grabbing 143–144, 171–172, 567

landmines, detection 106

landscape connectivity. See connectivity

landslides, deforestation 105, 283

land sparing/sharing 525–526

lark, Liben (Heteromirafra archeri) 154–155

laws

customary 29, 435

enforcement 439–444, 446–448

history 29, 32–37, 42–43

international 430–434

legislative prioritities 428–429

limits 226, 448–452

multi-level cooperation 452–454

national and local 435–438

Lazarus species 28, 260–261

legal title 520

lichens

air pollution 106

biosorption 106

light pollution 215

Lilongwe Wildlife Trust (Malawi) 48–51

limiting resources

definition 71

fluctuations 71

provisioning 380, 385, 494

literature reviews 380

livestock

guarding animals 540–541

human-wildlife conflict 540–541

wildlife 467

living fossils 81

Living Planet Index 556

local adaptations 380, 388, 404

locally extinct, definition 259

local people, working with 496–498, 569, 572

logging

habitat loss 145, 148

overharvesting 226

sustainable practices 530, 532

threatened species 219

long-term studies 382

lungs of the planet 100

Maasai Mara National Reserve (Kenya) 140

macroinvertebrates 330

malaria

climate change 190–192

control 204–205, 237

management. See also populations,

ecosystems, protected areas; See also populations, ecosystems, protected areas adaptive 349–350

bioregional 493

co- 37

fire 341–343

privately protected areas 41

threatened species 376, 378, 380–382, 384–386, 388, 391–396, 398–399, 401–411, 413, 415–417

water 101–102

mangroves. See also wetlands; See also wetlands

mangrove swamps. See also wetlands loss 152

restoration 360–361

value 152, 360

marine ecosystems

climate change 185–188

connectivity 402

laws 433

marine protected areas (MPAs) 480–482, 490

marine protected areas (MPAs) 479

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) 221–222, 452

market failures 121–122

mark-recapture surveys 302, 307

Marxan (conservation software) 441, 476, 478

mass extinctions 258

material contributions (ecosystem services) 93–94

matrix habitat 135, 401

Mau Forest Complex (Kenya) 101–102, 120

maximum sustainable yield 314

Mediterranean-type ecosystems 84

megafauna 26–27

mesopredator release 540

metapopulations

definition 395

ex situ conservation 411

management 286–287

microclimate 140–142

microloans 52

microplastics 210

migrations

assisted 405–407

climate change 182–183

laws 432

loss 139–140, 150–152, 533

recovery 397

refueling sites 150–152, 401

wildebeest 140

Millennium Seed Bank (UK) 410

minimum dynamic area (MDA) 313

minimum viable population (MVP) 311–314, 318

mining

perverse subsidies 121, 564

protected areas 502

working with 531

minnow, Maloti (Pseudobarbus quathlambae) 269–270

miombo 24, 178

mite, varroa (Varroa destructor) 238–240

mixed-use zoning 486, 490–491

Miyawaki method (restoration) 359

model reliability 319

mollusks

pollution monitoring 105

primary threats 328

monitoring

aquatic ecosystems 66–67, 105, 330, 332

design principles 319

distributions 570–572

ecosystems 328–330, 332–338

invasive species 67

long-term 318, 394

populations 297–299, 302–309, 318–319

protected areas 485, 495–497

quadrat surveys 306

restoration projects 357

translocations 394

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 434

morphospecies 64–65

mountain-top extinctions 178

Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (West Africa) 133

movies, contribution to conservation 112

Mpala Conservancy (Kenya) 467–468

mussel, Mediterranean (Mytilus galloprovincialis) 235

mutations, genetic diversity 65, 68

mutualistic relationships. See biological interactions

Nagoya Protocol 123

Namaqua National Park (South Africa) 116

Namibia, natural resource management 536

National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA) 333

national parks. See protected areas

natural

regeneration. See restoration

resources. See material contributions

selection 278

natural history

definition 376

importance 380

museums 62

study 380–383

naturalists 381

natural regeneration. See restoration

natural resources. See material contributions

nature deficit disorder 575

nature’s contributions to people (NCP). See ecosystem services

neglected taxa 413, 417

neocolonialism 143, 219

nested enterprises 566

Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Tanzania) 342, 450

niche models. See species distribution models (SDM)

non-consumptive use values 96–102, 104–106, 109, 112–117

non-governmental organisations (NGO) 43, 562

non-invasive techniques 308–309

nonmaterial contributions (ecosystem services) 112–117

normative discipline 3

no-take zones 486, 491

nuclear power 561

nutrients

cycling 339

loss in soil 340

pollution 210

obstructive mindsets 46

oceans

acidification 186

carbon absorption 186

deoxygenation 188

warming 185, 187–188

oil pollution 208–209

okapi (Okapia johnstoni) 14, 16

Ol Pejeta Conservancy (Kenya) 414–417

open-access resources 121–122

option values 117–118

outbreeding depression 280, 404

overharvesting 94–95, 218–220, 222–226, 230, 328

ozone

atmospheric 434

formation 212

palm oil 170–172, 396, 452

palustrine ecosystems 148

Pan-African Association for Zoos and Aquaria (PAAZA) 408

pangolins 112, 428, 575

smuggling 440

traditional medicine 223

paper parks 43, 463

parasites

as biological control 107, 109

honeybees 238–240

threat to biodiversity 238, 240–242

parasitic wasp (Anagyrus lopezi) 107, 109

Paris Agreement 434–435

parrots

Cape (Poicephalus robustus) 78–79

pet trade 224–225

passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags 448

pastoralism 520–521, 540

pathogens. See diseases

payment for ecosystem services (PES) 563

Peace Parks Foundation 493

penguin, African (Spheniscus demersus) 209, 309, 405–406

perch, Nile (Lates niloticus) 268

persecution 219, 230

persistent organic pollutants (POP) 207

perverse subsidies 121–122, 363–364, 564

pesticides

biomagnification 204–205, 207

drift 206

persisting in environment 207

pollution 204–207

pest species. See invasive species

petroleum products. See fossil fuels

phenological mismatch 182–183

phenotype 65

phenotypic plasticity 277

photochemical smog 212

photosynthesis 99–100

plants

blindness 413

climate regulation 99–100

ecosystem productivity 99

ecotourism 116

IUCN evaluations 273

lungs of the planet 99–100

nutrient cycle 339

overharvesting 146–147, 219, 226

regulating water/soil quality 101–102

water cycle 339

plastic

micro- 210

pollution 208

reduced use 556

Pleistocene extinctions 263

poaching 453, 454. See also illegal wildlife trade; See also illegal wildlife trade

poisoning. See also pesticides; See also pesticides

invasive species 235

retaliatory 230

secondary 206, 540

vultures 110–111

policies. See laws

pollinators

agriculture 103–104

market values 120

value 101, 105

pollution

air 212–213

biomagnification 204–205

genetic 236

groundwater 211

heavy metal 207

laws 438

light 214–215

microplastics 210

monitoring 105–106, 332

noise 216

nutrient 210

oil 208–209

persisting in environment 207

pesticide 204–207

plastic 208

removal 100, 106

soil 213–214

thermal 216–217

threatened species 328

threat to humans 205–206

water 207–211

population and habitat viability analysis (PHVA) 313

population, health, and environment (PHE) 5–7

populations

bottlenecks 281

decline 556

definition 65

effective size of (Ne) 313–314, 317

estimating extinction risk 309–314, 317–318

management of small 286–287

meta- 395, 411

minimum viable (MVP) 311–313, 318

monitoring 297–299, 302–309, 318–319

persistence of small 285

role of keystone species 97–98

source/sink 395

threats to small 277–284

translocations 384–388, 391–394

population viability analysis (PVA) 309–314, 317–319

poverty, consequences 44

poverty, threats 46

precipitation

biomes 70

climate change 175

Lake Chad 212

predators

as biological control 106

biomagnification 207

energy limitations 340–341

exclusion zones 397

human-wildlife conflict 540–541

invasive species as 268

keystone species 97–98

meso-predator release 540

metapopulation management 286–287

translocation 389–390

prescribed burns 342–343

primary producers (trophic levels) 99

primates

bushmeat 218

extinction debt 261

seed dispersal 102

threats 171–172

prioritisation

ecosystem approach 471

gap analysis approach 334, 474

hotspot approach 472

optimisation approach 476, 478

species approach 471

wilderness approach 472

privately protected areas 40–42, 464–465

problem animals. See human-wildlife conflict

productive use values 94

protected areas

accommodating visitors 498–499

achievements 42–43

African network 479

Aichi targets 478–480

classification 463–466, 469

climate change 502

definition 462–463

design 480, 482, 484

downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADD) 502

fragmentation 484

funding 501

habitat loss 497

history 29, 32–36

largest 492

management 494–495

marine (MPAs) 480–482, 490

monitoring 485, 495–497

networks 492–493

optimal size 483–485, 493

paper parks 43

selection 469, 471–472, 474–476, 478

urban 523–525

value of small 493

working with local people 496–498

zoning 486, 490–491

protests 51, 450

provisioning services 93–94

publication, importance of 11, 394

public outreach 11, 574–575, 578–579

pygmy Rwandan water lily (Nymphaea thermarum) 406

quadrat surveys 306

quagga (Equus quagga quagga) 32, 285, 288

racing stripe darkling beetle (Stenocara gracilipes) 113

Rainforest Alliance 452

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands 433

range-shift gaps 188–189

rapid biodiversity assessments (RAP) 299

reconciliation ecology 522

Red Lists. See IUCN Red Lists

Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) 564

reference sites 337, 357, 362

refugee

climate 176

conservation 36

species 386

regulating services (ecosystem services) 96–102, 104–106, 109

regulations. See laws

rehabilitation

ecosystem. See restoration

wildlife 209, 242, 385

reintroductions. See translocations

religion, conservation 12

remote sensing 333–338, 381–382, 497

renewable energy 560–561

replacement costs 101, 119–120

reptiles

climate change 184

sex determination 281

reserves. See protected areas

reservoirs. See dams

restocking. See translocations

restoration

adaptive 357

approaches 355–356

climate change 363–364

connectivity 396

coral reefs 362

definition 354–355

forests 359

mangrove swamps 360–361

monitoring 357

planning 356

rivers 402

seasonal drylands 360–361

urban areas 357, 359

wetlands 359

resurrection biology. See de-extinction

retaliatory killings 540. See persecution; See also persecution

rhinoceros

- botfly relationship 275

dehorning of 203

dispersal 379

extinct subspecies 223, 268

globalisation 428

northern white (Ceratotherium simum cottoni) 414–417

population declines 230

southern white (Ceratotherium simum

simum) 285, 379

rinderpest virus 98

Rio Summit 431

riparian zones, connectivity 396–397

rivers, restoration 402

rivet-popper hypothesis 96

roads

habitat fragmentation 138, 472

habitat loss 144–145

sustainable development 533

wildlife crossings 533–534

robust conservation 565–567

rock art 13

Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) 452

sacred spaces (and sacred species) 30–32, 146–147

Sahel ungulates, decline of 261

sandfish, Clanwilliam (Labeo seeberi) 386–387

Sapo National Park (Liberia) 136, 138

scavengers, value 109–112

schistosomiasis/bilharzia 149, 242

scientific values 112–113

scuba diving 114–115

seabirds

bycatch 221–222

invasive species 233–235

seahorse, Knysna (Hippocampus capensis) 186

sea level rise 176, 187

seascape connectivity. See connectivity

seasonal drylands

loss 153, 156

restoration 360–361

sea turtles

bycatch 317

conservation 303, 305

head-starting 393

seed banks

depletion of natural 153, 343

ex situ conservation 410

seed dispersal 102, 140

seed scarification 102

self-organised actions 565–567

sensitivity analysis 317

sentinel species 106

Serengeti Ecosystem (Tanzania) 351–353

sex ratios 184, 192, 281

shade-grown crops 527–528, 530

Shamwari Private Game Reserve (South Africa) 41

sharks, value 115

shifting baseline syndrome 337

shifting cultivation 142

shipping

invasive species 232

oil pollution 208–209

whale collisions 402, 533

sink populations 395

skills shortages 51–52

slash-and-burn agriculture 142–143

SLOSS (Single Large Or Several Small) debate 484

SMART (conservation software) 448

SMART goals 10–11

snail, Aldabra banded (Rhachistia aldabrae) 182–183

social

justice 5, 13, 524

media 573

organisation (in wildlife) 388

Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) 4, 573–574

Society for Ecological Restoration (SER) 362

soft releases 392

soil

conserving quality 100

organisms 101, 339

pollution 213–214

quality regulation 101

solar power 381, 555, 560–561

source populations 395

speciation 26, 64–65, 72–73

species

- area relationship 134–135

definition 64

distribution 82, 85

distribution models (SDM) 382–383, 404

diversity 62–65, 79–80, 83–84

identifications 72–74, 77, 81

lists 64

naming 62–63

number 81–82

redundancy 96–97

richness 80

spiritual ecology 12

stepping stone habitats 401

stochasticity

demographic 281–282

environmental 282–283

stop-over sites (migrations) 401

studbooks 411

sublethal impacts 181, 205, 340

Sub-Saharan Africa, definition xxvii

subsidies

conservation 438

perverse 121–122, 564

sustainable agriculture 526, 531

substitute species 383

succession 71

superorganism 96

supplemental feeding 380, 385

surveys. See monitoring

sustainable agricultural intensification 526–527

sustainable development 533–536, 556–558

symbiotic relationships. See biological interactions

systematic conservation planning 474–476, 478

Table Mountain National Park MPA (South Africa) 461

Tana River Delta (Kenya) 151

tax incentives 438

taxonomic databases 64

taxonomists 62

temperature. See also climate change; See also climate change

biomes 70

climate change 174–175

lapse rates 178

species distributions 69

termites

ecosystem engineers 97

traditional ecological knoweldge (TEK) 381

terrestrial ecosystems

biomes 24–25

climate change 178–179, 181–184

connectivity 396–397, 401, 403

The Nature Conservancy (TNC) 563

theory of island biogeography 134–135, 483

thermal shock 216

threat assessments. See IUCN Red Lists

threatened species

assessment gaps 273–274

characteristics 274–275

definition 271–272

management 376, 378, 380–388, 390–398, 400–413, 415–417

primary threats 328

trade. See CITES

toad, Kihansi spray (Nectophrynoides asperginis) 407

traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) 381, 436

traditional medicine impact 223

traditional peoples. See also customary laws; See also customary laws

rights 37, 436

working with 516–520

tragedy of the commons 121

transfrontier conservation areas (TFCA) 38–40, 398–400, 493

transient ecosystems 395

translocations

amphibians 407

approaches 384

considerations 384–388, 391–394

failed 388, 394

fish 269–270

need 384

predators 286–287, 389–390

treaties. See laws, international

tribal peoples. See traditional peoples

trophic

asyncrony 182–183

cascades 98

levels 99, 340–341

trophy hunting 46, 567

Tsitsikamma forest (South Africa) 33

turtle excluder devices (TED) 305

umbrella species 471

United Nations

Climate Change Conference 167

Educational, Scientific, and Cultural

Organisation (UNESCO) 432–433

Environmental Programme (UNEP) 430, 432, 562

unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 558–559

unsustainable development 532–533, 556

urban areas

conservation 521–522

ecosystem restoration 357, 359

protected areas 523–525

urban heat island effect 217

Virunga National Park (DRC) 7, 28, 34

voluntary transactions 121

volunteer-based ecotourism 115

volunteers. See citizen science

vultures

poisoning 230

population declines 110–112

supplemental feeding 380, 385

value 109

W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) Complex (West Africa) 486

water

conserving quality 100–101

cycling 338–339

management 101–102

pollution 207–211

weak governance/institutions 47

wealth, consumption 2, 157–159

weather forecasting 173

welwitschia (Welwitschia mirabilis) 34–35

wetlands

conserving water/soil quality 100

laws 433

loss 149

pollution 208

restoration 359, 402

value 149

whales

ecotourism 375

southern right (Eubalaena australis) 375

threats 402, 533

whistle-blowing 450

wilderness areas

conservation priority 472

traditional people 516

wildlife

corridors. See connectivity crossings 533–534

farming 451, 565

tracking 336–337, 381–382

Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) 303, 305, 475–476

Wildlife Direct (Kenya) 450

wildlife trade. See also illegal wildlife trade

elephants. See elephants

globalisation 428–429

illegal . See illegal wildlife trade live animals 224–225

sanctions 451

sustainable 452

threatened species. See CITES

traditional medicine 223

wildlife trade . See also illegal wildlife trade

wilful ignorance 574

wind power 560–561

W National Park (West Africa) 493

Working for Water (South Africa) 346

Working on Fire (South Africa) 342–343

World Bank 562

World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) 432

World Heritage Sites 432–433

World Parks Congress 37, 40

World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF) 487, 489

Zakouma National Park (Chad) 444, 446, 447

zoning 486, 490, 491

Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS) 408

Zoological Society of London (ZSL, UK) 575

zoos. See ex situ conservation

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