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The Human Face of Radiocarbon

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Zoï Tsirtsoni

Table of illustrations

Texte intégral

Chapter 1

Fig. 1 – Map of present-day Greece and Bulgaria with the sites mentioned in the text

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Table 1 – Comparative chronology of the Neolithic/Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Early Bronze Age period in Greece and Bulgaria; state of research prior to the “Balkans 4000” project (various sources). Grey areas represent broadly claimed hiatuses in occupation

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Fig. 2 – Map with the sites dated by the “Balkans 4000” project

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Table 2 – Profile of the sites dated in the frame of the “Balkans 4000” project

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Chapter 2

Fig. 1 – The calibration curve in the last 8000 years. The radiocarbon age in BP is plotted on the vertical axis versus the calibrated age in calendar years (BC or AD) [Reimer et al. 2009]

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Fig. 2 – Typical age calibration of a sample (DEM-2095) performed with the calibration program OxCal v4.2.3 using the IntCal09 dataset (Reimer et al. 2009)

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Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates conducted in the frame of the “Balkans 4000” project

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Chapter 3

Fig. 1 – Smyadovo, geodetic plan of the prehistoric cemetery

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Fig. 2 – Smyadovo, burial no. 3. 1: general photo; 2, 3: details; 4: drawing; 5-7: beads; 8, 9: copper bracelet

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Fig. 3 – Smyadovo burial no. 8. 1: general photo; 2: drawing; 3, 4: beads in situ, details; 5: stone shaft-hole axe; 6, 8: ceramic vessels; 7: stone beads after removal

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Fig. 4 – Smyadovo, burial no. 13. 1: photo; 2: drawing; 3: stone shaft-hole axe; 4: detail

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Fig. 5 – Smyadovo, burial no. 18. 1: photo; 2: drawing; 3: ceramic vessel; 4, 5: details of the ceramic vessel

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Fig. 6 – Smyadovo, burial no. 20. 1: general photo; 2: drawing; 3-5: details; 6-9: silver hair-rings from 20C-20D; 10: a necklace made from Dentalium beads and three silver hair-rings from 20D; 11: bronze dagger (?) from 20E; 12, 13: ceramic vessels

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Fig. 7 – Smyadovo, burial no. 24. 1: photo (view from east); 2: drawing, with skeletons A-C; 3: photo of the pit’s section A-A1; 4: drawing of the section A-A1: yellow colour represents loess, brown is yellow-brownish soil, black are dark-black lumps of daub, and red are rusty-colored lumps of daub

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Fig. 8 – Smyadovo, burial no. 27. 1: photo; 2: drawing; 3, 4: ceramic vessel no. 2 (bowl); 5: ceramic vessel no. 1 (biconical pot); 6, 7: ceramic vessel no. 3 (jug); 8: detail, showing the three vessels in situ

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Chapter 4

Fig. 1 – Settlement mound no. 1 near the village of Kosharna. Plan of the area excavated in 2007-2009

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Fig. 2 – Plan of building level I

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Fig. 3 – Pit 1, cross-sections

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Fig. 4 – Animal skeletons from pit 1. 1: roe deer; 2: dog; 3: lamb

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Fig. 5 – Pit 1. Ceramic vessels, 2.50-4.50 m

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Fig. 6 – Trench A. Stone concentration and skeleton of a bull, at 3.30 m

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Fig. 7 – Building level III

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Fig. 8 – Building level III, house 2, eastern wall and the screen-wall

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Fig. 9 – House 2, clay wall and ceramic vessels

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Fig. 10 – Spondylus fragments and flint blades in a vessel from house 2

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Fig. 11 – Building level III, detail of the structure built on top of house 2

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Fig. 12 – Building level III, infant burial

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Fig. 13 – Building level III, infant burial. 1: reconstruction; 2: ceramic vessel found near the skeleton

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Chapter 5

Fig. 1 – Bezhanovo-Banunya, topographical plan (author: P. Zidarov, NBU)

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Fig. 2 – The Banunya (Borunya) locality, view from the southwest

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Fig. 3 – Layer of small limestone pieces (northern part), related to the Bronze Age structures

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Fig. 4 – General plan of the excavated area

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Fig. 5 – Corner of the wall base of a house from building level I

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Fig. 6 – Detail of the floor of house 7 (building level II)

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Fig. 7 – Building level II, house 1: the screen wall, the oven and part of the burnt floor after its cleaning and partial removal

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Fig. 8 – Building level II, house 3: layer of debris with remains of the eastern wall

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Fig. 9 – House 1 during excavation

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Fig. 10 – Ceramic vessel deformed by the fire, house 4 (building level III)

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Fig. 11 – Part of the burnt floor of house 4

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Fig. 12 – Pottery from Bezhanovo, building level II. 1-12: house 7; 13-24: house 2

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Fig. 13 – Pottery from building level II. 1-8: house 1; 9-14: house 3; 15, 16, 18: house 6; 17, 19: house 5

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Fig. 14 – Ceramic vessels from house 2

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Fig. 15 – Ceramic vessels from house 6

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Fig. 16 – Pottery from Bezhanovo. 1-5, 8-17: unstratified; 6-7: building level II, house 1; 18-20: building level I

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Fig. 17 – Sherds with painted decoration (without stratigraphy)

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Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from Bezhanovo

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Chapter 6

Fig. 1 – Map of Northwestern Bulgaria and the location of the Borovan-Ezeroto prehistoric site, Vratsa region

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Fig. 2 – The Ezeroto locality near the village of Borovan

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Fig. 3 – Pottery from the Early Chalcolithic layer

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Fig. 4 – Pottery from the Early Chalcolithic layer

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Fig. 5 – Pottery from the Early Chalcolithic layer

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Fig. 6 – Plan of the features of the Final Chalcolithic in the southern sector

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Fig. 7 – Final Chalcolithic layer, detail: floor of a thermal structure and group of low-fired loom weights and ceramic sherds

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Fig. 8 – Final Chalcolithic layer, detail: horseshoe-shaped platform with a grinding stone

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Fig. 9 – Final Chalcolithic layer, detail: fragmented grain-storage vessel, secondarily fired

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Fig. 10 – Pottery from the Final Chalcolithic layer

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Fig. 11 – Pottery from the Final Chalcolithic layer

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Fig. 12 – Pottery from the Final Chalcolithic layer

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Table 1 – Radiocarbon (AMS) dates from the Final Chalcolithic layer

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Table 2 – Radiocarbon (AMS) date from the EBA layer

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Fig. 13 – Early Bronze Age pottery from Borovan-Ezeroto

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Fig. 14 – Early Bronze Age pottery from Borovan-Ezeroto

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Fig. 15 – Early Bronze Age pottery from Borovan-Ezeroto

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Fig. 16 – Early Bronze Age pottery from Borovan-Ezeroto

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Fig. 17 – Magnetometric plan of the Borovan-Ezeroto site

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Chapter 7

Table 1 – Tell Karanovo, Central Area. List of the radiocarbon dates from the Late Copper Age and Early Bronze Age layers

128

Fig. 1 – Tell Karanovo. Plan of the excavated areas

129

Fig. 2 – Tell Karanovo, the 2011 trench. Photo of the eastern profile in square K16/III

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Fig. 3 – Tell Karanovo, the 2011 trench. Line drawing of the eastern profile in square K16/III

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Fig. 4 – Tell Karanovo, the 2011 trench. Ceramic sherds from the Late Copper Age layer. Karanovo VI culture, IIIc phase

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Fig. 5 – Tell Karanovo, the 2011 trench. Ceramic sherds, an antler hoe, and a leg of a ceramic figurine from the Late Copper Age layer. Karanovo culture VI, IIIc phase

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Fig. 6 – Tell Karanovo, the 2011 trench. Late Copper Age ceramic sherds from the so-called “gap” layer. Karanovo culture VI, IIIc phase

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Fig. 7 – Tell Karanovo, the 2011 trench. Ceramic sherds. Early Bronze Age, Ezero A phase

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Chapter 8

Fig. 1 – Geodesic plan of the northern part of Tell Karnobat (author Atanas Kamenarov)

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Fig. 2 – The trench in the northern part of the tell, view from south

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Fig. 3 – Square 2, level I

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Fig. 4 – Square 1, level II; view from south

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Fig. 5 – Square 2, level IV; base of a hearth

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Fig. 6 – Square 2, levels IV and V; view from west

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Fig. 7 – Plan of squares 2 and 3; levels IV, V and VI

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Fig. 8 – Square 3, level VI; destroyed base of an oven and burnt house debris

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Fig. 9 – Squares 3 and 2, view from north

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Fig. 10 – Square 2, southern section

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Fig. 11 – “Ritual” artifacts and tools from Tell Karnobat. 1: clay anthropomorphic figurine; 2: fragment from a clay cult table; 3: three-edged bone figurine (made from a foot bone); 4: fragment of a clay artifact; 5: clay “grain-model”; 6: clay spindle whorl; 7: perforated knucklebone; 8: stone axe; 9: stone circle; 10: antler tool

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Fig. 12 – Chalcolithic pottery

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Fig. 13 – Chalcolithic pottery

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Fig. 14 – Bronze Age pottery

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Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from Tell Karnobat

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Fig. 15 – Radiocarbon dates from tell Smyadovo. A: Diagram with the calibrated 14C dates from the settlement and the date Lyon-6000 from Karnobat; B: Stratigraphic development of the conventional radiocarbon dates (1σ), Smyadovo building, levels VII-II

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Chapter 9

Fig. 1 – Aerial photo of Tell Yunatsite and the surrounding area (view from the east)

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Fig. 2 – Early Chalcolithic layers extending beyond the present outlines of the mound (trench in the southern periphery of the site)

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Fig. 3 – A layer of stones which were part of the construction of the earthen protective wall

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Fig. 4 – Reconstruction of the fortification system of the Late Chalcolithic settlement

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Fig. 5 – Clay platform with ceramic vessels and debris which had fallen and remained in a vertical position in the empty space beneath it; belongs to the latest Chalcolithic building level

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Fig. 6 – Ceramic vessel with graphite-painted and red-crusted decoration from the latest Chalcolithic building level

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Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from samples analyzed in the Laboratory of the Institute of Geography at the Russian Academy of Sciences (ИГАН)

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Table 2 – Radiocarbon dates from samples analyzed in the Lyon laboratory within the framework of the “Balkans 4000” project

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Chapter 10

Fig. 1 – Map of the area with the sites mentioned in the text

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Fig. 2 – Views of the site. 1: rocks in the northwest part of the small plateau where is established the settlement; 2: view from north-northwest to the Mesta valley; 3: southeast slope of the elevation; 4: northeast slope

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Fig. 3 – Topographical map and plan of the trenches

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Fig. 4 – Plans and section of the main trenches. 1: trench 2; 2: trench 4

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Fig. 5 – 1: trench 2, view of the area before excavation; 2: trench 4, view from southeast

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Fig. 6 – Dolno Dryanovo, Final Chalcolithic pottery. 1: from trench 2; 2, 4-6: from trench 4; 3: from trench 6

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Fig. 7 – Dolno Dryanovo, Final Chalcolithic pottery. 1: from trench 4; 2: from trench 2; 3, 4: from trench 6

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Fig. 8 – Pottery with combination of graphite-painted and red-crusted decoration. 1: from trench 6; 2: from trench 2

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Fig. 9 – Rounded bowls, with and without graphite-painted decoration. 1: from trench 6; 2, 4-7: from trench 2; 3: from trench 4

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Fig. 10 – S-shaped vessels. 1: from trench 4; 2-4, 7, 8: from trench 6; 5, 6: uncertain context

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Fig. 11 – S-shaped vessels. 1, 3, 7, 13: from trench 2; 4-6, 8, 9: from trench 4; 2, 12: from trench 6; 10, 11: uncertain context

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Fig. 12 – Vessels with combination of graphite-painted, crusted and “pseudo-corded” decoration. 1, 2, 4: from trench 6; 3: from trench 4; 5: from trench 2; 6: uncertain context

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Fig. 13 – Cup, pedestal and base fragments, and lids. 1, 2: from trench 2; 3, 5, 6: from trench 4; 4: from trench 6

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Fig. 14 – Sherd with stamped decoration (“false-corded”) and wiped-off graphite lines; from trench 4

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Fig. 15 – Small objects from clay. 1: fragment of an anthropomorhic figurine (?); 2: loom-weight from trench 2; 3: loom-weight (stray find from the southeast slope)

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Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from Dolno Dryanovo

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Table 2 – Proposal of synchronization of the Late-Final Chalcolithic phenomena in the Southeast Balkans

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Chapter 11

Fig. 1 – Tatul, general view from the north

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Fig. 2 – 2.1: map of the Eastern Rhodopes with the Late Chalcolithic and Final Chalcolithic sites mentioned in the text; 2.2: Tatul, an orthophoto image

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Fig. 3 – Excavation in square F4. 1: concentration of pottery, stones and animal bones under the burnt debris; 2: ceramic vessel fragmented in situ with a cattle bone inside

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Fig. 4 – Field drawings from square F4. 1: Final Chalcolithic burnt building debris, the upper level; 2: concentration of pottery sherds, stones and animal bones under the burnt debris; 3: section of the Final Chalcolithic layer in sq. F4

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Fig. 5 – Final Chalcolithic pottery

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Fig. 6 – Final Chalcolithic pottery

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Fig. 7 – Final Chalcolithic pottery

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Fig. 8 – Final Chalcolithic pottery

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Fig. 9 – Final Chalcolithic pottery

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Fig. 10 – Final Chalcolithic pottery

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Fig. 11 – Final Chalcolithic pottery (1-3), spindle whorls (4-7) and a loom-weight (8)

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Fig. 12 – Flint arrowheads

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Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from Tatul

205

Chapter 12

Fig. 1 – Map of the Eastern Rhodope Mountains and the location of the Chalcolithic sites along the Varbitsa River. 1: Varhari; 2: Tell Sedlare; 3: Tell Podkova; 4: Orlitsa

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Fig. 2 – The site, general view from north

210

Fig. 3 – General plan of the Orlitsa site

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Fig. 4 – House 1, general view from the west at the level of the destruction of the second floor

212

Fig. 5 – House 1, remains of the western wall (view from the north)

212

Fig. 6 – House 1, charred wooden planks in the northern room

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Fig. 7 – House 1, charred wooded planks plastered with clay and concentration of stones at the northern end

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Fig. 8 – Schematic reconstruction of house 1, N-S section. A: farm place; B: corridor; C: living place

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Fig. 9 – Building 2, southwestern part; level with debris (view from south)

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Fig. 10 – Building 2, southwestern part; the floor (after the removal of the pieces of fired daub)

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Fig. 11 – House 3, plan of the destruction level (scale 1/75)

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Fig. 12 – House 5, plan of the lower level (scale 1/75). A: burnt beams, remains of a veranda; B: stones from the central part of the northern wall; C: row of burnt posts in the eastern wall; D: stone facility in the southwestern corner

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Fig. 13 – House 5, the northwestern part. The upper level of the debris, concentrations of stones and pieces of fired daub

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Fig. 14 – House 5, the northern wall

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Fig. 15 – House 5, the eastern wall

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Fig. 16 – House 5, the eastern wall; a detail: charred wooden posts

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Fig. 17 – House 5, the southern room

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Fig. 18 – House 5, remains of veranda in front of the northern wall (detail: vertical beam supporting the veranda)

219

Fig. 19 – House 6, plan (scale 1/100)

220

Fig. 20 – House 6, view from north

220

Fig. 21 – House 6, the apse: debris

220

Fig. 22 – Small finds (scale 1/3)

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Fig. 23 – Pottery shapes from the Orlitsa site, plates (scale 1/4)

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Fig. 24 – Pottery shapes from the Orlitsa site, bowls and jars (scale 1/4)

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Fig. 25 – Pottery shapes, bowls (scale 1/4)

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Fig. 26 – Pottery shapes, cups and jugs (scale 1/4)

226

Fig. 27 – Decoration of the pottery (scale 1/4)

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Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from Orlitsa

228

Chapter 13

Fig. 1 – The Varhari site, topographic map of the region; scale 1/5000 (drawing: A. Kamenarov)

232

Fig. 2 – Chart of the bed of road I-5 connecting the town of Kardzhali and the Makaza Pass

233

Fig. 3 – Sections (drawings: A. Kamenarov)

233

Fig. 4 – General plan of the excavated area (2009-2010 seasons)

234

Fig. 5 – Alluvial layer of sand and pebbles on top of the cultural deposits

235

Fig. 6 – Dug-in feature 24 during the excavation; southern border

235

Fig. 7 – General view of the northern sector. Complex I and the space between complexes I and II

235

Fig. 8 – Complex II, grain storages at the bottom of dug-in feature 35

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Fig. 9 – Complex II, foundation of the northern wall

237

Fig. 10 – Complex III, the ground part

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Fig. 11 – Plan of complexes IV and V

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Fig. 12 – Southern sector, complex VIII

238

Fig. 13 – Complex X, the southern section along line 44 (squares C-G)

238

Fig. 14 – Stone beads in various stages of completion and flint micro-borers for hole-making

240

Fig. 15 – Complex IV, dug-in feature 34b; concentration of carbonized grains

240

Fig. 16 – Ceramic vessels: plates (scale 1/4)

241

Fig. 17 – Ceramic vessels: plates and bowls (scale 1/4)

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Fig. 18 – Ceramic vessels: bowls and jars (scale 1/4)

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Fig. 19 – Ceramic vessels: jugs, potstands, and other diagnostic sherds (scale 1/4)

244

Fig. 20 – Ceramic vessels, “altars” and other artifacts (scale 1/3)

245

Fig. 21 – Anthropomorphic figurines (scale 1/3)

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Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from Varhari

247

Chapter 14

Fig. 1 – Trigrad, Yagodina area. 1: Trigrad gorge near the Haramiiska Cave (photo: N. Todorova); 2: Panoramic view to the north of Yagodina village (photo: G. Spasov); 3: Buynovo gorge, view from the top of Sveti Iliya peak north of Yagodina village (photo: G. Spasov)

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Fig. 2 – Map of the main Late/Final Chalcolithic sites in the area; larger circles mark sites known by excavations, small circles mark sites known only by field surveys or limited trial trenches

250

Fig. 3 – Yagodina Cave, plan of the excavated area 1965-1966 (author of the field drawing: M. Deyanova)

252

Fig. 4 – Yagodina Cave, stratigraphic sequence documented in the anteroom, excavations 1965-1966 (author of the field drawing: M. Deyanova)

252

Fig. 5 – Yagodina Cave, structures from the second occupational level. 1, 2: hearth installations, excavations 1965-1966 (author of the field drawing: M. Deyanova); 3: pottery kiln, excavation 1984 (author of the field drawing: M. Avramova)

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Fig. 6 – Yagodina Cave, main pottery shapes

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Fig. 7 – Yagodina Cave, bowls. 1-9: first occupational level; 10-20: second occupational level

257

Fig. 8 – Yagodina Cave, bowls. 1-2, 4, 6-10: first occupational level; 3, 5: without secure stratigraphic context

258

Fig. 9 – Yagodina Cave, deep bowls and jars. 1-4, 9-10: first occupational level; 5-8: second occupational level

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Fig. 10 – Yagodina Cave, cups ans jars. 1-3, 6-11, 13-14: first occupational level; 4-5: second occupational level; 12, 15: without secure stratigraphic context

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Fig. 11 – Yagodina cave, vessels with graphite and crusted decoration; first occupational level

261

Fig. 12 – Yagodina cave. 1, 2: potsherds with analogs in Thessalian complexes; 3-6: pottery with crusted decoration, second occupational level

261

Fig. 13 – Yagodina cave, small finds. 1-9: spindle whorls; 10-12: loom-weigths

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Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from Yagodina in the framework of the “Balkans 4000” project

266

Chapter 15

Fig. 1 – Aerial view of the Dikili Tash tell, in the early 1990s (photo: Ch. Tsouroukidis)

272

Fig. 2 – Topographical plan of the works conducted until 2010; are shown the areas where LN II and/or EBA deposits have been investigated

273

Fig. 3 – Diagram OxCal with the available 14C dates for LN II levels until 2008 (calibrated at 2σ)

276

Fig. 4 – Schematic plan of houses in sector 6

279

Table 1 – 14C dates from samples collected in sector 6 during the 2008 work

279

Table 2 – All available 14C dates from House 1 up to 2012

280

Fig. 5 – General view of House 1, to the northeast, at the end of the 2010 campaign (photo: P. Darcque)

280

Fig. 6 – Grindstone and concentration of bitter-vetch to the south of oven 6-015 (photo: P. Darcque)

281

Fig. 7 – Vessels in situ in front of oven 6-015; the surrounding sediment contained great quantities of charred grape pips (photo: P. Darcque)

281

Fig. 8 – Group of vessels next to a fallen wall fragment to the east of the room (photo: P. Darcque)

281

Fig. 9 – Modelled diagram with the 14C dates from House 1, using the program RenDateModel (© CNRS-Iramat). Two versions are proposed: in version (a) only two “events” are distinguished, one with all charcoals (presumably dating the construction and use of the house) and one with seeds (dating the destruction); in version (b) we introduce the possibility of a third “event” (reoccupation) represented by the two late charcoals

282

Fig. 10 – Part of the EBA remains on top of the LN II House 1 (zenithal photo: Chr. Gaston)

283

Fig. 11 – EBA I “dippers” (photo: F. Bourguignon; drawing: R. Douaud)

284

Fig. 12 – EBA I “incense burner” (photo: F. Bourguignon; drawing: S. Monnet)

284

Fig. 13 – EBA I conical bowl (photo: Ph. Collet-EFA©; drawing: R. Docsan)

284

Fig. 14 – Some of the vessels found in House 1 (photos: Ph. Collet-EFA©; drawings: R. Docsan, R. Douaud)

285

Fig. 15 – More vessels from House 1 (drawings: R. Douaud)

286

Fig. 16 – Vessels from the other houses of sector 6. a: brown-on-cream painted pot from the area of Houses 2-3, h. 10 cm; b: globular pot with ranges of impressions, h. 15 cm; c: graphite-painted askos from House 4, h. 12.5 cm; d: incised jar from House 3, h. 74 cm (photos: a, Ph. Collet-EFA©; b and d, St. Stournaras; drawing of c: I. Vajsov)

287

Fig. 17 – Two-handled globular bowl with incised and red-crusted decoration (photo: P. Darcque; drawing: R. Douaud)

289

Fig. 18 – Graphite-painted “Kritsana bowl” (photo: P. Darcque; drawing: R. Douaud)

289

Fig. 19 – Fragments of a gray-polished globular bowl with beaded rim (photo: Ph. Collet-EFA©; drawing: R. Douaud)

289

Fig. 20 – Fragment of a two-handled bowl with incised decoration (photo: Ph. Collet-EFA©; drawing: R. Docsan)

289

Table 3 – 14C dates from samples collected in Sector 2 (including cores C5 and C6)

290

Fig. 21 – Northern (CC’) and eastern (FF’) profile of sector 2 (drawing: V. Anagnostopoulos, C. Germain-Vallée; “inking”: R. Douaud)

292

Fig. 22 – Fragment of an S-profile bowl from sector 2, locus 2-002, with graphite-painted decoration and remains of red paint applied after firing (“crust”) on the rim (drawing: R. Docsan)

293

Fig. 23 – Four-legged vessel with incised and red-crusted decoration (photo: Ph. Collet-EFA©; drawing: R. Docsan)

293

Fig. 24 – The stones of locus 2-001, view to the east (photo: P. Darcque)

294

Fig. 25 – Fragments of graphite-painted vessels from locus 2-001 (drawings a, c: R. Docsan; b: S. Eliès)

294

Fig. 26 – The successive stone-beds (loci) 2-007 and 2-008 (photo: P. Darcque)

295

Fig. 27 – Bowl fragments from the interface between the last LN II and the first EBA deposits in sector 2. a-c: with incised decoration on the belly; d: with flat prominence on the rim (drawings: R. Docsan)

296

Chapter 16

Fig. 1 – Map of Eastern Macedonia with the Neolithic settlements. 1: Paradeisos; 2: Kastri; 3: Limenaria; 4: Polystylo; 5: Dikili Tash; 6: Eleftheroupoli; 7: Kalamonas; 8: Kalambaki; 9: Doxato; 10: Kefalari; 11: Adriani; 12: Kallifytos; 13: Arkadikos Drama; 14: Xeropotamos; 15: Mylopotamos; 16: Petroussa; 17: Maaras-Angitis Sources; 18: Kali Vrysi; 19: Megalokambos; 20: Sitagroi; 21: Mavrolefki; 22: Symvoli; 23: Angista R.S.-Paliokostra; 24: Nea Bafra; 25: Aïri Baïri; 26: Dimitra; 27: Fidokoryfi; 28: Mikro Souli; 29: Moustheni; 30: Podochori; 31: Loutra Eleftheron; 32: Akropotamos; 33: Kokkinochori; 34: Galepsos; 35: Ofrynio; 36: Hill 133; 37: Kryoneri; 38: Kastanochori; 39: Zervochori; 40: Tholos; 41: Toumba; 42: Pentapoli; 43: Agio Pnevma; 44: Fakistra Chryssou; 45: Chrysso R.S.; 46: Vergi; 47: Strymoniko; 48: Promachon-Topolnitsa; 49: Katarraktes-Sidirokastro

300

Fig. 2 – Topographical plan of the site with the trenches excavated

301

Fig. 3 – Recording of the long section

302

Fig. 4 – Kiln-like structure dug into the natural soil (LN I)

302

Fig. 5 – Kiln-like structure on the background and nearby pit (Λ4)

303

Table 1 – Available 14C dates from Kryoneri

304

Fig. 6 – Pit with LN I material in the Hellenistic cemetery of Kastrolakkas

304

Fig. 7 – Trench V, Late Neolithic II habitation level

304

Fig. 8 – Quernstone, vase and slab with traces of red ochre found in a storage pit near a hearth in a LN II habitation level (h. of vessel 15 cm)

305

Fig. 9 – Trench VI, part of a floor and storage pit

305

Fig. 10 – Trench VII, structure with stones and compacted clay at the edge of the settlement

306

Fig. 11 – Trenches III-IV, intersecting rubbish pits

306

Fig. 12 – Two-handled vessel with black-on-red decoration (h. 19.5 cm)

307

Fig. 13 – Four-legged necked bowl with black-on-red decoration (h. 20 cm)

307

Fig. 14 – Open bowl with black-on-red decoration (h. 29.1 cm)

307

Fig. 15 – Pot-stand with black-on-red decoration

308

Fig. 16 – Bowl with brown-on-cream decoration

308

Fig. 17 – Sherds with brown-on-cream decoration

309

Fig. 18 – Fragments of graphite-painted open bowls (max. width 17 cm)

309

Fig. 19 – Graphite-painted askos

309

Fig. 20 – Undecorated one-handled bowl (h. 7.5 cm)

309

Fig. 21 – Clay figurine heads

311

Fig. 22 – Part of a clay figurine depicting a seated woman with black-on-red decoration

311

Fig. 23 – Clay model of a tree (h. 2.5 cm)

311

Fig. 24 – Chipped stone tools

311

Fig. 25 – Bone tools (h. of the longest 9 cm)

311

Fig. 26 – Copper tools

312

Fig. 27 – Clay tools

312

Fig. 28 – Shell ornaments

312

Fig. 29 – Bracelets and shells of Spondylus gaederopus; the bigger, unworked shell measures 10 cm

312

Fig. 30 – Trench V, a jar with animal bones in situ in an EBA layer

313

Fig. 31 – Jar with finger impressions around the rim (h. 38 cm)

313

Fig. 32 – Trench V, bowl containing shells in an EBA layer

313

Fig. 33 – Bowl with channelled decoration (h. 13 cm)

314

Fig. 34 – One-handled cup with spout (h. 7 cm)

314

Chapter 17

Fig. 1 – View of the rockshelter from the north

318

Fig. 2 – General plan of the cave with the excavation grid

318

Fig. 3 – Ground plan of the remains of the first (upper) prehistoric phase, with buildings A1 (to the south) and A2 (to the northeast). Chart 1: floor; 2: floor exposed to high temperature; 3: disturbed floor; 4: elements from clay superstructure; 5: wall; 6: charred post/posthole; 7: clay structure; 8: destruction layer; 9: stones; 10: pottery; 11: pit/disturbance

320

Fig. 4 – Destruction layer of the upper prehistoric phase (phase A)

321

Fig. 5 – Building A1

321

Fig. 6 – Building A1, detail of the eastern wall

321

Fig. 7 – Pottery from building A1

322

Fig. 8 – Building A2

322

Fig. 9 – Finds from building A2

322

Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from “Katarraktes Cave” Sidirokastro

324

Fig. 10 – Ground plan of the remains of the second (lower) prehistoric phase, with buildings B1, B2 (to the south) and B3 (to the north). Chart 1: floor; 2: raised floor; 3: elements from clay superstructure; 4: thin wooden structural elements; 5: charred post/posthole; 6: wall; 7: foundation trench; 8: destruction layer; 9: stones; 10: pottery; 11: pit/disturbance

326

Fig. 11 – Destruction layer of the second (lower) prehistoric phase (phase B)

326

Fig. 12 – Pottery from the area east of buildings B1 and B2

326

Fig. 13 – Phase B, finds from building B1

328

Fig. 14 – Phase B: finds from building B2

329

Fig. 15 – Building B3

330

Fig. 16 – Phase B, finds from building B3

330

Fig. 17 – Building B4, floor level

331

Fig. 18 – Phase B, pottery from building B4

332

Fig. 19 – Building B4, floor level

333

Fig. 20 – Phase B, pottery from the area of the platform (building B4?)

334

Fig. 21 – Phase B, stone and clay tools from the area of building B4

334

Fig. 22 – Late Neolithic II graphite-painted vessel

336

Fig. 23 – Finds from chamber B

337

Chapter 18

Fig. 1 – Map of prehistoric sites of Thasos

340

Fig. 2 – Limenaria, Konstantinidis plot, post-framed houses

340

Fig. 3 – Limenaria, Konstantinidis plot, pits and well

341

Fig. 4 – Limenaria, LN I black-topped bowl, h. 17 cm

341

Fig. 5 – Limenaria, Markoulis plot, pit with FN pottery

341

Fig. 6 – Limenaria, Markoulis plot, FN pottery with crusted and graphite paint

342

Fig. 7 – Limenaria, Markoulis plot, FN bowl with incised and graphite decoration

342

Fig. 8 – Kastri, general view from NW

343

Fig. 9 – Kastri, view of sector I

343

Fig. 10 – Kastri, square 1. a: Neolithic level; b: black-topped vessel found in situ in square 1, h. 6.5 cm

344

Fig. 11 – Kastri, painted pottery of “Akropotamos” type

344

Fig. 12 – Kastri, buildings and enclosure@ on the NW edge of the settlement

344

Fig. 13 – Kastri, black-on-red pottery

345

Fig. 14 – Kastri, polychrome pottery

345

Fig. 15 – Kastri, graphite-painted pottery

345

Fig. 16 – Kastri, pottery with graphite-painted and crusted decoration.

345

Fig. 17 – Kastri, pottery with crusted decoration

346

Fig. 18 – Kastri, pottery with incised and crusted decoration

346

Fig. 19 – Kastri, incised pottery

346

Fig. 20 – Kastri, grooved and painted pottery

347

Fig. 21 – Kastri, pottery with impressed and graphite-painted decoration.

347

Fig. 22 – Kastri, one of the group of vessels found in square 2 (h. 22.4 cm)

347

Table 1 – Earliest available 14C dates from Kastri

348

Table 2 – 14C dates from the last destruction layers at Kastri

348

Fig. 23 – Agios Antonios, FN pottery with pink crusted decoration

349

Fig. 24 – Agios Ioannis, EBA I pottery

350

Fig. 25 – Limenaria, Lemonidis plot, EBA II bowl with incised decoration (h. 15 cm)

350

Fig. 26 – Limenaria, Lemonidis plot, building remains

350

Fig. 27 – Agios Antonios, EBA II bowl with incised decoration

352

Fig. 28 – Agios Antonios, buildings of the EBA II period

352

Fig. 29 – Skala Sotiros, stone enclosure (excavation 1989-1990)

353

Fig. 30 – Skala Sotiros, stone enclosure (excavation 2001)

353

Fig. 31 – Skala Sotiros, anthropomorphic stele (menhir) in situ

353

Fig. 32 – Skala Sotiros, destruction layer of phase III

354

Fig. 33 – Skala Sotiros, phase III vessels. a: 14 cm; b: 15 and 14 cm respectively; c: 15 cm (at the handle); d: 14 cm (at the sprout); e: 27 cm

355

Fig. 34 – Skala Sotiros, stone building foundations in the open settlement

355

Chapter 19

Fig. 1 – Map of the prehistoric sites in the Eastern Thessalian plain. The maximum extent of the Lake Karla (Boebeis) is shown, and next to it the site of Palioskala (big red dot)

362

Fig. 2 – Palioskala. Aerial photo of the prehistoric settlement from northwest; in the background is Mountain Mavrovouni, on the right side the restored lake Karla

362

Fig. 3 – Palioskala. Aerial photo of the settlement

363

Fig. 4 – The outer circuit wall in the southeastern part of the settlement, view from northeast

364

Fig. 5 – Circuit wall and entrance, view from the east

364

Fig. 6 – Remains of buildings, from south

365

Fig. 7 – Rectangular building, view from east

365

Fig. 8 – Thermal structure

365

Fig. 9 – The “central building”, view from west

366

Fig. 10 – Square buildings, view from west

366

Fig. 11 – Storage jar, h. 52 cm

368

Fig. 12 – Storage jar, h. 35 cm

368

Fig. 13 – Fragments of storage jars with plastic decoration

369

Fig. 14 – Red-slipped bowl

369

Fig. 15 – Fragments of rolled rims bowls

369

Fig. 16 – Squat globular vessel, h. 13 cm

369

Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from contexts assigned to the Final Neolithic and transitional periods

371

Fig. 17 – Chipped stone tools from flint

372

Fig. 18 – Ornaments from Spondylus gaederopus shell and stone

372

Fig. 19 – Figurines; h. (from top left to bottom right): 9 cm; 10.5 cm; 6.5 cm; 6.4 cm; 3.5 cm

372

Fig. 20 – Shell pendant

372

Fig. 21 – Clay zoomorphic objects; h.: a. 15 cm; b. 9.8 cm; c. 10.6 cm

372

Fig. 22 – Copper axe

372

Fig. 23 – Vessels shapes: storage vessels and jars

374

Fig. 24 – Vessels shapes: tableware

375

Fig. 25 – Vessels shapes and features

376

Chapter 20

Fig. 1 – Satellite photo of the area around Prodromos

382

Fig. 2 – The mound (magoula) of Agios Ioannis, view from northeast

382

Fig. 3 – Northern profile of the trench, stratigraphy

383

Fig. 4 – Plan of the excavated remains, showing the position of the dated samples

384

Fig. 5 – General view of the excavation from the southwest. In the foreground, the apsidal building

386

Fig. 6 – View of the southern part of the excavation (from the southwest), with remains of a clay-plastered platform

386

Fig. 7 – Sherds from the Bronze Age layer: a, with impressed or incised decoration; b, with plastic decoration

386

Fig. 8 – Grey and black Minyan sherds

387

Fig. 9 – Grey Minyan two-handled cup

387

Fig. 10 – Grey Minyan cup with raised handle

387

Fig. 11 – Jug with matt-painted decoration

387

Fig. 12 – Characteristic vessel shapes from the Bronze Age layer

388

Fig. 13 – Remains of a Neolithic house, with later graves dug in them (grave 2 is not yet revealed completely); view from southwest

389

Fig. 14 – Characteristic vessel shapes from the Neolithic layer

390

Fig. 15 – Neolithic jug with horizontal tubular spout (“feeding bottle”) with red-burnished slip

390

Fig. 16 – Amphora with red-burnished slip and a thick white crust (paint?) on top of it

390

Fig. 17 – Amphora with black-on-red painted decoration

391

Fig. 18 – Neolithic sherds with a decoration of applied human figures

391

Chapter 21

Fig. 1 – Mikrothives. Aerial view of the excavation

396

Fig. 2 – Mikrothives, building D. a: plan of the remains; b: reconstruction

396

Fig. 3 – Mikrothives. Plan of the excavation with the remains of five buildings (A-E)

397

Fig. 4 – Clay “tables” on the floor of two adjacent rooms in building D

398

Fig. 5 – Finds from building C. a: bowl containing 59 flint blades; b: bowl with carbonised acorns

399

Fig. 6 – Pithoid vessels. a: wide-mouthed with applied lugs and incised decoration; b: fragments with rope-like decoration; c: wide-mouthed with applied lugs

400

Fig. 7 – Jar fragment with hole near the base

401

Fig. 8 – Pithoid vessels with vertically set tubular lug handles

402

Fig. 9 – Jars fragments with anthropomorphic relief figures

402

Fig. 10 – Vessels with mat impressions on their bases

402

Fig. 11 – Undecorated bowls. a: hemispherical; b: biconical; c: shallow hemispherical; d: with incurving rim

404

Fig. 12 – Undecorated bowls, with S-profile

405

Fig. 13 – Bowls with or without horizontal tubular handles below the rim

405

Fig. 14 – Bowls with slipped and burnished surface with incised and pointillé decoration (“Bratislava” bowls); spiral motifs, simple or double

406

Fig. 15 – Bowls with slipped and burnished surface with incised and pointillé decoration (“Bratislava” bowls); other motifs

407

Fig. 16 – Bowls with unslipped surface with incised and pointillé decoration

408

Fig. 17 – Bowls with burnished surface and impressed decoration below the rim

408

Fig. 18 – Bowls with dark slipped surface and channelled decoration

408

Fig. 19 – Handleless conical cups

409

Fig. 20 – “Scuttles”

410

Fig. 21 – Handleless conical bowls

410

Fig. 22 – Jug

411

Fig. 23 – Miniature vessels

411

Fig. 24 – Clay spoons.

412

Fig. 25 – Bronze leaf-shaped small daggers (max. length 5.5 cm)

413

Fig. 26 – Tin-plated copper object (length 7.5 cm)

413

Fig. 27 – Stone seal with shallow concentric oval incisions

414

Chapter 22

Table 1 – Examples of proposed subdivisions of the Later Neolithic Stages in Greece, with an example from the Balkans

420

Fig. 1 – Southern Euboea with the location of the cave and the nearby village of Kalyvia

422

Fig. 2 – The entrance of the Agia Triada cave. Photo: Aca Djordjevic

422

Fig. 3 – Excavation works inside the cave. Photo: Aca Djordjevic

422

Fig. 4 – General plan of the excavation trenches (entrance corridor and East Chamber). Drawing: Thodoris Hatzitheodorou

423

Fig. 5 – Feature 1 and anthropomorphic handle below it (corridor), trench 2. Photos: Daisuke Yamaguchi

424

Fig. 6 – Possible representation of the vase with white painted decoration on dark ground with an anthropomorphic handle (trench 2, corridor). Drawing: Aca Djordjevic (scale 1/2)

425

Fig. 7 – Trench 9 (East Chamber). Stratigraphy of east profile. Drawing: Daisuke Yamaguchi

426

Fig. 8 – Layer 7 (balk A, part of trench 8, East Chamber). Paved “floor” of the Late Neolithic II/Final Neolithic with pottery sherds in between or below rocks. Drawing: Aca Djordjevic

427

Fig. 9 – Bone tools and objects from the Late Neolithic I-II layers (corridor). Drawing: Aca Djordjevic (scale 1/2)

429

Fig. 10 – Copper awl, trench 9, layer 10 (East Chamber). Drawing: Aca Djordjevic (scale 1/2)

429

Fig. 11 – Trench 9 (East Chamber). Pit with monochrome pot in situ. Upper part starts from the paved “floor” in layer 7

429

Fig. 12 – Late Neolithic II-Final Neolithic pottery pottery from Agia Triada. 1-5: Lugs-handles, incised-grooved decoration; 6: reconstruction of a scoop; 7-9: pottery with monochrome and plastic (rope) decoration. Drawings: Aca Djordjevic (scale 1/4)

430

Table 2 – Currently available radiocarbon dates from the Agia Triada Cave

432

Fig. 13 – Pattern burnished ware. Drawing: Aca Djordjevic (scale 1/3)

433

Fig. 14 – Late Neolithic bowl with white painted decoration on dark burnished ground. Drawing: Aca Djordjevic (scale 1/3)

433

Chapter 23

Fig. 1 – Map of Southeastern Attica with the Final Neolithic and Early Helladic I sites

438

Fig. 2 – Merenta. EN settlement. Semicircular hut with stone foundation (Hut 5)

439

Fig. 3 – Merenta. Late Neolithic subterranean hut

440

Fig. 4 – Leg of a Late Neolithic rhyton, with burnished surface and incised decoration (preserved h. 11 cm)

441

Fig. 5 – Merenta. Mattpainted bowl from the LN house (preserved h. of bowl 9 cm, foot 10 cm)

441

Fig. 6 – Merenta. Final Neolithic subterranean chambers, Cluster A

442

Fig. 7 – Merenta. Final Neolithic subterranean chambers, Cluster B

442

Fig. 8 – Merenta. Final Neolithic red-burnished conical bowl (h. 10 cm)

444

Fig. 9 – Merenta. Final Neolithic jar with applied decoration on the belly (preserved h. 25 cm)

444

Fig. 10 – Merenta. Neck of a Final Neolithic jar with small perforated lug in the interior (on the rim)

444

Fig. 11 – Merenta. EH I deep bowl (h. 25 cm)

445

Fig. 12 – Merenta. EH I vessels of Cycladic character. a: cylindrical pyxis (h. 13 cm); b: small collared pot (amphoriskos) with incised decoration (h. 6 cm)

445

Fig. 13 – Merenta. EH I assymetrical open vessel with row of holes under the rim and mat impression on the base

446

Fig. 14 – Merenta. FN figurine from Cluster B chambers

446

Fig. 15 – Fragments of litharge “bowls” from Merenta (FN/EH I period)

446

Fig. 16 – Merenta. Pottery from the apsidal building of the end of EH II. a: globular pot, dark-on-light painted (h. 7 cm); b: spouted pot, red-brown burnished (h. 23.5 cm)

450

Chapter 24

Table 1 – Comparative chronology of the Neolithic/Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Early Bronze Age period in Greece and Bulgaria, integrating the results of the “Balkans 4000” project (in bold). Arrows indicate significant movements in the date or duration of some events compared to what was previously acknowledged (cf. chapter 1, table 1). The dotted rectangle marks the area where no new dates were produced

454

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