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The Human Face of Radiocarbon

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Zoï Tsirtsoni

Greek Eastern Macedonia

Chapter 16. Kryoneri, Nea Kerdyllia: a settlement of the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age on the lower Strymon valley, Eastern Macedonia

Dimitria Malamidou

Texte intégral

The site and its location2

  • 2 Text translated from Greek by Nicola Wardle-Hunter.

1The prehistoric settlement of Kryoneri occupies the south slope of a low hill (about 20-25 m above sea level), in the foothills of Mt Kerdyllion, west of the Strymon river (fig. 1: no. 37). The limits of the prehistoric settlement can be estimated by the extent of anthropogenic deposits on the hill, as shown on the topographic map (fig. 2). A substantial amount of the archaeological deposits on the east side of the hill have been removed by the construction of the Thessaloniki-Nigrita secondary road. Given that in the area east of the road there are no archaeological deposits in situ but only thin wash levels, we can assume that the total area of the settlement was not larger than 0.3‑0.4 ha.

  • 3 Lespez et al. 2004.
  • 4 Fotiadis 1985.
  • 5 Perissoratis & Mitropoulos 1989.
  • 6 Todorova et al. 2007.

2To the southeast of the site there are still fresh water springs from which the toponym “Kryoneri” is derived. These springs also existed in the prehistoric period and probably fed a small shallow marshy lake, as shown by geomorphological studies3. The Kastrolakkas, a torrent to the southwest of the hill, almost certainly flowed continuously during this period. The low hills stretching out to the west of the site are in a zone of fertile neogene soils, which would have been perfect for cultivation and pasture4. Mt Kerdyllio, which was then more forested, provided opportunities for hunting and for gathering nuts and berries. The distance from the sea is today no more than 5 km, probably about the same as in the Neolithic period5. Fish bones and sea shells indicate the use of marine resources by the inhabitants of the settlement. Dominating the region is the river Strymon, which forms a natural communication route between the Aegean sea and the Balkan hinterland. This river route played an important role in the distribution and exchange of commodities, crafts and ideas from the prehistoric period until historical times6.

  • 7 Grammenos & Fotiadis 1980; Fotiadis 1985; Grammenos 1991.
  • 8 Poulios 2000; Tolia-Christakou 2008.
  • 9 Samartzidou 1987, p. 335.

3The lower Strymon valley (or Serres plain) is scattered with prehistoric settlements, identified through non-systematic surveys. The majority of them lie in the area to the east of the Strymon7, while there are considerably fewer to the west of the river8 (see fig. 1). This distribution reflects perhaps the fact that west of the river the terraces of the neogene soils, thought to be more suitable for settlement during the Neolithic, are much narrower. It could also be attributed to the fact that, west of the Strymon, Neolithic settlements are on low hills in the foothills of the mountains and do not take the typical form of a toumba; consequently they are more difficult to locate. One such case is illustrated by the settlement of Kryoneri, which was first discovered in 19879.

Fig. 1Map of Eastern Macedonia with the Neolithic settlements.
1: Paradeisos; 2: Kastri; 3: Limenaria; 4: Polystylo; 5: Dikili Tash; 6: Eleftheroupoli; 7: Kalamonas; 8: Kalambaki; 9: Doxato; 10: Kefalari; 11: Adriani; 12: Kallifytos; 13: Arkadikos Drama; 14: Xeropotamos; 15: Mylopotamos; 16: Petroussa; 17: Maaras-Angitis Sources; 18: Kali Vrysi; 19: Megalokambos; 20: Sitagroi; 21: Mavrolefki; 22: Symvoli; 23: Angista R.S.-Paliokostra; 24: Nea Bafra; 25: Aïri Baïri; 26: Dimitra; 27: Fidokoryfi; 28: Mikro Souli; 29: Moustheni; 30: Podochori; 31: Loutra Eleftheron; 32: Akropotamos; 33: Kokkinochori; 34: Galepsos; 35: Ofrynio; 36: Hill 133; 37: Kryoneri; 38: Kastanochori; 39: Zervochori; 40: Tholos; 41: Toumba; 42: Pentapoli; 43: Agio Pnevma; 44: Fakistra Chryssou; 45: Chrysso R.S.; 46: Vergi; 47: Strymoniko; 48: Promachon-Topolnitsa; 49: Katarraktes-Sidirokastro.

  • 10 Malamidou 1997a; Malamidou 2007. The excavation was funded by the Ministry of Public Works.
  • 11 Lazaridis 1964 and 1965.
  • 12 Grammenos 1997.
  • 13 Tolia-Christakou & Siopi 2008.
  • 14 See Siros & Miteletsis, chapter 17 in this volume, with all previous references.
  • 15 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki et al. 1996b; Koukouli-Chrysanthaki et al. 2007.

4Excavation of the settlement was conducted in 1996 and 1997 as a rescue operation before the local road was widened10. Despite the great potential offered by the wider area for the exploration of the Neolithic period, few settlements have been excavated systematically. The excavation, therefore, of the settlement at Kryoneri, despite its rescue character, provides the opportunity to address many issues concerning the Neolithic period in the Serres plain. The nearest Neolithic settlement excavated so far is that of the so-called “Hill 133”, on the other side of the river, 5 km away as the crow flies (fig. 1: no. 36)11. The well known settlement of Dimitra is located about 20 km away to the northeast (fig. 1: no. 26)12. Small scale excavations have been conducted recently at the site of Agio Pnevma, located in approximately the centre of the valley (fig. 1: no. 43)13, as well as at the Katarraktes-Sidirokastro cave, on its northern edge (fig. 1: no. 49)14. A longterm systematic excavation has been conducted at Promachon-Topolnitsa, located in the middle Strymon valley, on the frontier with Bulgaria (fig. 1: no. 48)15.

Fig. 2Topographical plan of the site with the trenches excavated.

Fig. 3Recording of the long section.

Fig. 4Kiln-like structure dug into the natural soil (LN I).

The excavation and the general occupation sequence

  • 16 As defined in Northern Greece by Sitagroi phases I-III (Renfrew et al. 1986), Dikili Tash I-II (Tre (...)

5The almost vertical cut, about 50 m long, made by the road construction work across the width of the hill, has been recorded in detail and provided a clear picture of the stratigraphy of the site (fig. 3). The deposits reached a maximum thickness of 3‑3.5 m in the central part, getting less thick towards the edges. The greatest part of these deposits, up to 3 m, belongs to the Late Neolithic16 and lies immediately above bedrock. According to the finds in this long section, deposits of Early Bronze Age date lay immediately above the Neolithic levels. They seem to occupy however a smaller area on the top of the hill and their thickness does not exceed half a metre.

  • 17 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1996.

6The pottery of the lowest levels, as seen in the long cross section, immediately above the natural soil, includes black burnished ware with rippled or black-topped decoration, as well as brown-on-cream ware, but without any “Akropotamos style” motifs. These pottery categories, according to the established chronology for the region, can be placed in an advanced phase of the Late Neolithic I period, at the end of the 6th-early 5th millennium BC17. It is difficult to determine accurately the thickness of the deposits which should be attributed to this phase, but they should not exceed one metre. This means that the larger part of the deposits recorded in the long cross section belong to Late Neolithic II; the characteristics of the latter will be described in greater detail below.

7During the rescue excavation that followed we were able to thoroughly investigate the archaeological deposits in the part of the settlement that was going to be sacrificed for the widening of the road. In this area, trenches I to IV were investigated (see fig. 2). Next in priority was the excavation of building remains in the central part of the settlement, in trenches V and VI. The aim here was the investigation of intra-site occupation levels and the study of the stratigraphical sequence. The southern edges of the settlement were explored through trenches VII and VIII.

The remains of Late Neolithic I

  • 18 Rice 1987, p. 14-15.

8A peculiar structure and a pit excavated on the east side of the hill belong to the first occupation period (LN I). The structure has the shape of a cylindrical pit with a flat floor, about 1 m in diameter, cut into the natural soil (fig. 2: K; 4). On its east side, level with the base, is an opening (width 40 cm) which was blocked with stone and earth. The walls, the bottom and the opening, all have marked traces of firing, while on its floor, especially in the area around the opening, there were quantities of charred wood fragments and ash. This type of structure can be interpreted, on the basis of ethnographic parallels, as an early type of potter’s kiln built into the hill’s slope18. Beside this structure, at a slightly lower level, a pit (Λ4) was excavated (fig. 5). It was filled with fragments of broken pottery, daub fragments and bones, all of which were burnt. The fill contained also plenty of charcoal fragments and ash.

Fig. 5Kiln-like structure on the background and nearby pit (Λ4).

9The pottery suggests a Late Neolithic I date for both the pit and the kiln. This has been confirmed by two 14C samples (DEM-789 and DEM-1044), dated to the second half of the 6th millennium BC (table 1). It is difficult to determine whether these two structures were located inside or outside the settlement, because of changes in the settlement’s topography due to the removal of part of the hill during the road construction work.

  • 19 Samartzidou 1987, p. 335.

10It appears that an isolated pit, which was discovered during the excavation of the Hellenistic cemetery of Amphipolis at Kastrolakkas, about 1 km away from the settlement of Kryoneri, could be connected to this early phase19. This pit (fig. 6), cut into the natural soil, was cylindrical, with a diameter of 2 m and a depth of 0.70 m, and contained traces of burning, a flint blade, a stone axe, a copper bead, bones and pottery fragments, including black-topped and brown-on-cream ware. It would be interesting to investigate further the type of human activity represented by this feature.

Table 1Available 14C dates from Kryoneri.

Fig. 6Pit with LN I material in the Hellenistic cemetery of Kastrolakkas.

Fig. 7Trench V, Late Neolithic II habitation level.

The Late Neolithic II

11The second phase of the Late Neolithic (LN II) is the major occupation phase at Kryoneri, represented by the thickest deposits and the greatest extent of settlement.

12Building remains from this period were investigated in trenches V and VI. In trench V the LN II occupation level lies immediately beneath the Early Bronze Age levels. Part of the interior of a building was excavated. This building had a floor made of whitish clay, a hearth with three successive floors, and a storage pit near the hearth (fig. 7). Several ceramic vessels and stone and bone tools were found on the floor surface and in the pit. A vessel was found inside the pit (this is actually the base of a pithoid jar re-used as a bowl), along with a grinding stone and a slab bearing traces of ochre (fig. 8). Directly below this building layer, in the east section of the trench, another Late Neolithic II destruction layer containing the debris of a wattle-and-daub structure was revealed but not fully excavated.

  • 20 Malamidou 1999.

13Late Neolithic II strata were also uncovered in the smaller trench VI, which was opened to the east of trench V, at a lower level, in order to investigate the slightly earlier layers of occupation. Successive floors and rows of post holes were partly revealed, as well as a storage pit, whose walls had been plastered with clay (fig. 9)20. Due to the small extent of the trench it was not possible to identify any ground plan. The limited financial resources of the rescue project did not permit excavation to continue to deeper levels in this area either.

Fig. 8Quernstone, vase and slab with traces of red ochre found in a storage pit near a hearth in a LN II habitation level (h. of vessel 15 cm).

Fig. 9Trench VI, part of a floor and storage pit.

Fig. 10Trench VII, structure with stones and compacted clay at the edge of the settlement.

Fig. 11Trenches III‑IV, intersecting rubbish pits.

  • 21 Structures which have been interpreted as terrace walls have been found at the settlement of the en (...)
  • 22 Such structures must have existed at Dikili Tash but have not been found in situ; see Darcque et al (...)

14The limits of the settlement, at least in the Late Neolithic II period according to the finds, were explored at the southern edge of the anthropogenic deposits in trenches VII and VIII (fig. 2). The location of these trenches was dictated by the traces visible both on the surface of the hill and in the long stratigraphical section. The settlement’s boundaries seem to be marked by concentrations of stones bonded with compacted red clay, intentionally packed between and above the stones (fig. 10). A sort of terrace was created in this way, which probably had a practical character in supporting the built space of the settlement21. We can not exclude that these concentrations of stones are the remains of some broad wall which would have served as circuit wall22, having at the same time the symbolic character of a boundary distinguishing the interior and exterior of the settlement.

  • 23 Malamidou & Papadopoulos 1993, p. 562; Malamidou 1999; Papadopoulos & Malamidou 2008, and 2012b.
  • 24 Pappa 1996; Pappa & Besios 1999.

15Late Neolithic II material was also revealed in trenches I‑IV. A cluster of pits with cylindrical or oval shape were excavated in these trenches. The pits were either isolated or interconnected, with different depths and diameters (fig. 11). All of them were filled with grey soil with a large quantity of ash, food remains, household waste, abundant pottery and small finds of various types. The excavation removed the complete archaeological deposit to bedrock, since these trenches were located in the part of the settlement which had to be sacrificed for the widening of the road (supra); we therefore have a complete picture of the character and arrangement of these pits. They appear to have originally been dug for the extraction of clay to be used as building material, and then served as rubbish pits for different lengths of time. Due to the alteration of the original form of the site by the road construction work, it is difficult to understand whether they were within the boundaries of the settlement or were located immediately outside them. The use of pits as rubbish dumps outside the inhabited area has been noted at the Neolithic settlement of Limenaria on Thasos23. The interpretation of the present pits as part of a ditch, as is the case at Makrygialos24, is not completely satisfactory, given the existence of several pits which are isolated.

Fig. 12Two-handled vessel with black-on-red decoration (h. 19.5 cm).

Fig. 13Four-legged necked bowl with black-on-red decoration (h. 20 cm).

Fig. 14Open bowl with black-on-red decoration (h. 29.1 cm).

Fig. 15Pot-stand with black-on-red decoration.

Fig. 16Bowl with brown-on-cream decoration.

  • 25 Cf. Evans 1986; Demoule 2004.

16The greatest proportion of pottery in the Late Neolithic II phase is black-on-red ware, in quantities that represent almost 60% of the decorated pottery (fig. 12‑15). Brown-on-cream wares with solid curvilinear motifs also occur (fig. 16; 17). This category accounts for about 15% of the decorated pottery, about the same proportion as that with graphite decoration. The latter is mainly used for bowls of various types, while closed shapes such as the askos occur as well (fig. 18; 19). Incised, impressed, channelled or plastic decoration occurs with lesser frequency, on dark-surface vessels25, while non decorated vases of various types are also common (fig. 20).

17Radiocarbon dating of charcoal samples from the deposits of trench VI give calibrated dates in the second half of the 5th millennium BC (table 1: DEM-779, DEM-1045, Lyon-6028). A similar calibrated date comes from a charcoal sample from an isolated pit (Λ2) filled with household rubbish, including pottery of the Late Neolithic II (DEM-780).

Fig. 17Sherds with brown-on-cream decoration.

Fig. 18Fragments of graphite-painted open bowls (max. width 17 cm).

Fig. 19Graphite-painted askos.

Fig. 20Undecorated one-handled bowl (h. 7.5 cm).

  • 26 Papadimitriou & Tsirtsoni 2010.
  • 27 Mylona 1997; Cantuel 2010; Theodoropoulou 2007; Bökönyi 1986; Yannouli 1994.

18The general picture of the settlement at Kryoneri throughout the Late Neolithic and especially during the second phase (LN II), is that of a flourishing farming society, similar to that of neighbouring settlements in the Strymon valley, the plain of Drama and the wider Balkan region26. Its inhabitants cultivated cereals and pulses, but also gathered fruits and seeds that nature provided. They bred flocks of sheep and goat, and herds of pigs and cattle. The bones of wild animals and birds occur in greater numbers here in comparison to other excavated settlements in the area. The number of sea shells and bones of fish, both sea and fresh water, is also proportionally bigger compared to neighboring settlements. This fact suggests perhaps that the Neolithic inhabitants of Kryoneri spent more time hunting and fishing than their neighbours27. Thus, this settlement differs slightly from the model suggested on the basis of current research for the Neolithic way of life in the area. Its location, close to the sea and river, may have influenced the subsistence practices of its inhabitants. It would be interesting to examine this hypothesis in conjunction with the other finds from the settlement, and perhaps with the results of some future excavation at other settlements in the coastal areas of Eastern Macedonia.

  • 28 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki et al. 1996a.
  • 29 Dandrau 1997; Martinez 1999; Prévost-Dermarkar 2002.
  • 30 In collaboration with Dr V. Lambropoulos, Department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Ar (...)

19Despite the fact that the area excavated at Kryoneri is not large and no clear ground plan is available, the settlement appears to consist of densely packed buildings, just as occurs on toumba settlements in Macedonia28. The basic building material was timber and clay. The examination of the building material allows us to suggest variations in the choice of the kind of clay and its preparation (e.g. the addition of suitable temper), according to the type of construction and its requirements for plasticity, heat or water resistance29. In this way it has been possible to separate the fragments of organic-tempered building clay (daub) into those which most probably came from walls, others which came from the roof, as well as fragments of floors from internal spaces, and floors from hearths or ovens. The chemical and microscopic analysis of a large number of samples of building material has confirmed to a large extent the macroscopic identifications30. The results of excavation have provided a general view of the spatial organisation of the settlement with small houses, where activities such as food preparation, preparation of ochre, lithic industries (flint cores) and small scale storage (domestic storage) in vessels and clay-lined pits took place.

  • 31 Renfrew et al. 1986, pl. XLVIII: 2.
  • 32 Malamidou 2007, p. 302, fig. 11.

20Several anthropomorphic and animal figurines, as well as furniture models, aside from the practical or symbolic meaning, enliven the attempt to reconstruct a picture of life in the settlement. Female figurines, with emphasised sexual characteristics, either upright or modelled seated as a single piece on a four-legged chair, are the most common types31. Details of facial features vary from highly schematised to more naturalistic (fig. 21). Some have incised decoration, or painted decoration in black-on-red (fig. 22). There are a large number of clay models of vessels and furniture, such as chairs, but the model of a tree with traces of white paint on it is a rarity (fig. 23). The presence of clay stamps (“pintaderas”) with incised linear motifs, similar to those from other Neolithic settlements in Macedonia and Thrace, must also be mentioned32.

  • 33 The objects from Kryoneri are made from pure copper, as shown by the analysis of some of them under (...)

21The tool kit of the inhabitants of Kryoneri included various types of flint blades (fig. 24), scrapers and arrowheads. Cores and debris of both flint and quartz were also found in domestic contexts and in the rubbish pits, a fact which justifies the assumption of in-site manufacture of chipped stone tools. Groundstone tools, such as axes, polishers and hammerstones, are well represented, and include several unfinished examples, very important for the study of their manufacture. Grinding stones and slabs are commonly found as much within the settlement as in the rubbish dumps. Bone tools are represented by needles, awls and spatulas (fig. 25). A significant number of tools are made from antler. Copper artefacts are also present, though less common; these are usually rings or square-sectioned needles (fig. 26)33. Finally, there is an abundance of clay objects which are associated with weaving, such as clay loomweights and spindlewhorls, frequently with incised decoration (fig. 27).

Fig. 21Clay figurine heads.

Fig. 22 - Part of a clay figurine depicting a seated woman with black-on-red decoration.

Fig. 23Clay model of a tree (h. 2.5 cm).

Fig. 24Chipped stone tools.

Fig. 25Bone tools (h. of the longest 9 cm).

  • 34 Kyparissi-Apostolika 2001, p. 73-84.

22Jewellery consists predominantly of beads of bone and stone, or amulets made of sea shell (fig. 28). There are also several examples of bracelets fashioned from Spondylus gaederopus, along with complete shells of this species (fig. 29), which would have arrived at the settlement as raw material. The contribution of such raw materials exchange networks to the development and prosperity of Neolithic communities in the Balkans has frequently been discussed34.

Fig. 26Copper tools.

Fig. 27Clay tools.

Fig. 28Shell ornaments.

Fig. 29Bracelets and shells of Spondylus gaederopus; the bigger, unworked shell measures 10 cm.

  • 35 Malamidou 2003.
  • 36 Malamidou 2005, 2010, 2011; Malamidou et al. 2006.
  • 37 Weisshaar 1979; Weisshaar 1989, p. 385-392.
  • 38 Malamidou 2005, 2011; Malamidou et al. 2006.

23The pottery vessels played their own role in communication networks between regions but also between the individual settlements. The settlement of Kryoneri was one of those which took part in a wide distribution network of Late Neolithic II black-on-red pottery35. As established from recent research, this ware belongs to a distinctive pottery tradition which results from specific choices in its production process36. Eastern Macedonia is the region where this pottery tradition is most marked. The particular “recipe” is indeed very common at sites in the southern part of the Strymon valley and the Drama plain, while it is less frequent in Thrace, in Bulgaria or in Central and Western Macedonia. The furthest south that this product has been identified is at Pefkakia in Thessaly: it was recognised as an import in the first place37 and proven by chemical analysis to fit into one of the four chemical groups of black-on-red production of Eastern Macedonia38.

  • 39 Malamidou et al. 2006; Kilikoglou et al. 2007.

24At Kryoneri, this ceramic “recipe” is represented by a wide variety of vessel shapes, such as open and restricted bowls with conical or flat bases (fig. 14), as well as bowls with cylindrical feet (fig. 13), two-handled necked jars (fig. 12), and also quite large pithoid vessels and “pot-stands” with very thick walls (fig. 15). Furthermore, as shown by the technological and morphological analysis which allowed distinguishing the technological microtraditions, Kryoneri belongs to one of the two most prolific production zones of black-on-red pottery in Eastern Macedonia. Indeed, the chemical composition of samples coming from the region’s most distant parts, like Paradeisos, near the Nestos mouth, and Kastri on Thasos, as well as from Pefkakia in Thessaly, corresponds to the chemical groups of these two production zones. The samples from Pefkakia in particular, come almost certainly from the zone to which Kryoneri belongs39.

Fig. 30Trench V, a jar with animal bones in situ in an EBA layer.

25Fig. 31Jar with finger impressions around the rim (h. 38 cm).

Fig. 32Trench V, bowl containing shells in an EBA layer.

Fig. 33Bowl with channelled decoration (h. 13 cm).

Fig. 34One-handled cup with spout (h. 7 cm).

The Early Bronze Age

  • 40 As defined in Northern Greece by Sitagroi phases IV-V, Dikili Tash III and Pentapolis I-II (Sherrat (...)

26The Early Bronze Age40 is represented in the settlement by small deposits on the highest part of the hill and by a few finds in the rubbish pits. The stratigraphy in the large cross section showed indeed that the deposits from the Early Bronze Age are more restricted than those of the Neolithic period and did not exceed half a metre in depth (see supra, and fig. 3).

27EBA house remains have only been found in situ in trench V, immediately below the surface. Two occupation layers have been identified; they lie on top of the Neolithic levels, without any traces of abandonment or break in occupation. The first level, with loose consistency but characteristic EBA finds, appears immediately above the last Neolithic layer. Features include a rubbish pit, scattered remains of daub from walls, and an open pithoid vessel which contained animal bones (fig. 30; 31). A bowl on the floor containing sea shells probably represents the remains of some meal (fig. 32; 33). The next EBA level, immediately below the surface, is heavily disturbed. It includes a small hearth built with stones and scattered pottery, amongst which a small spouted bowl stands out (fig. 34). Fragments of EBA pottery have also been found occasionally in the upper layers of some pits in trenches I‑IV.

  • 41 Sherratt 1986; Malamidou, forthcoming.

28The pottery which is attributed to the Early Bronze Age is characterised by poorly finished dark surfaces and little, if any, incised, impressed or grooved decoration. The open pithoid jar with finger-impressions on the rim (fig. 31), the open bowl with channelled decoration (fig. 33) and the small one-handled spouted bowl from EBA strata in trench V (fig. 34), are typical EBA vase forms41.

29Unfortunately no charcoal samples from the occupation layers in trench V were suitable for radiocarbon dating. Trench III provided two 14C dates, from rubbish contexts with no clear stratigraphy: one (table 1: DEM-790) is placed at the end of the 4th millennium BC, but has a very wide margin of error, and the second (Lyon-6029) is placed at the second half of the 3rd millennium BC, which corresponds to the advanced Early Bronze Age II‑III in Eastern Macedonia.

Conclusions

30Kryoneri is a Neolithic settlement combining a wealth and variety of objects, the analysis of which provides important information about the sources of raw material and techniques of manufacture. It also offers details of the development of the Neolithic way of life and the exchange networks, by means of which relationships between settlements in the wider geographical region were established. It appears from the finds and absolute chronology that this site is one of the many in Northern Greece that were abandoned at the end of the 5th millennium BC. What followed after this dynamic phase, with its outward-looking contacts and production of a wide variety of objects of specialised technological and morphological character? No hiatus is perceivable in the stratigraphy. Judging from the excavation results alone, one would assume that occupation levels with Early Bronze Age cultural features follow on immediately from the Neolithic levels below. Nevertheless the larger part of the 4th millennium is absent from the radiocarbon date series. The two new 14C dates, which have been added thanks to the “Balkans 4000” project to the series of six dates that existed already, confirm this initial picture.

31The re-examination of the finds of the settlement of Kryoneri in light of the questions considered by the “Balkans 4000” project, should contribute to the general discussion, whereas the latter should, in its turn, allow a better understanding of the history of this site. The combination of both will in any case shed light on the human presence in the Serres plain and also within the Balkans in general.

Notes

2 Text translated from Greek by Nicola Wardle-Hunter.

3 Lespez et al. 2004.

4 Fotiadis 1985.

5 Perissoratis & Mitropoulos 1989.

6 Todorova et al. 2007.

7 Grammenos & Fotiadis 1980; Fotiadis 1985; Grammenos 1991.

8 Poulios 2000; Tolia-Christakou 2008.

9 Samartzidou 1987, p. 335.

10 Malamidou 1997a; Malamidou 2007. The excavation was funded by the Ministry of Public Works.

11 Lazaridis 1964 and 1965.

12 Grammenos 1997.

13 Tolia-Christakou & Siopi 2008.

14 See Siros & Miteletsis, chapter 17 in this volume, with all previous references.

15 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki et al. 1996b; Koukouli-Chrysanthaki et al. 2007.

16 As defined in Northern Greece by Sitagroi phases I-III (Renfrew et al. 1986), Dikili Tash I-II (Treuil 1992), Dimitra I-II (Grammenos 1997), and dated between 5400/5300 and 4000/3900 BC (Andreou et al. 1996; Papadimitriou & Tsirtsoni 2010).

17 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki 1996.

18 Rice 1987, p. 14-15.

19 Samartzidou 1987, p. 335.

20 Malamidou 1999.

21 Structures which have been interpreted as terrace walls have been found at the settlement of the end of the Middle Neolithic at Limenaria, see Malamidou & Papadopoulos 1993, p. 560; Papadopoulos & Malamidou 2008, 2012b.

22 Such structures must have existed at Dikili Tash but have not been found in situ; see Darcque et al. 2015; Tsirtsoni, chapter 15 in this volume.

23 Malamidou & Papadopoulos 1993, p. 562; Malamidou 1999; Papadopoulos & Malamidou 2008, and 2012b.

24 Pappa 1996; Pappa & Besios 1999.

25 Cf. Evans 1986; Demoule 2004.

26 Papadimitriou & Tsirtsoni 2010.

27 Mylona 1997; Cantuel 2010; Theodoropoulou 2007; Bökönyi 1986; Yannouli 1994.

28 Koukouli-Chrysanthaki et al. 1996a.

29 Dandrau 1997; Martinez 1999; Prévost-Dermarkar 2002.

30 In collaboration with Dr V. Lambropoulos, Department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art of the TEI Athens.

31 Renfrew et al. 1986, pl. XLVIII: 2.

32 Malamidou 2007, p. 302, fig. 11.

33 The objects from Kryoneri are made from pure copper, as shown by the analysis of some of them under the electron-scanning microscope by Dr Y. Maniatis at the Laboratory of Archaeometry of the NCSR Demokritos.

34 Kyparissi-Apostolika 2001, p. 73-84.

35 Malamidou 2003.

36 Malamidou 2005, 2010, 2011; Malamidou et al. 2006.

37 Weisshaar 1979; Weisshaar 1989, p. 385-392.

38 Malamidou 2005, 2011; Malamidou et al. 2006.

39 Malamidou et al. 2006; Kilikoglou et al. 2007.

40 As defined in Northern Greece by Sitagroi phases IV-V, Dikili Tash III and Pentapolis I-II (Sherratt 1986; Treuil 1992; Grammenos 1981). This period dates between 3300/3200 and 2300/2200 BC (Manning 1995; Andreou et al. 1996; Malamidou 1997b).

41 Sherratt 1986; Malamidou, forthcoming.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 1Map of Eastern Macedonia with the Neolithic settlements. 1: Paradeisos; 2: Kastri; 3: Limenaria; 4: Polystylo; 5: Dikili Tash; 6: Eleftheroupoli; 7: Kalamonas; 8: Kalambaki; 9: Doxato; 10: Kefalari; 11: Adriani; 12: Kallifytos; 13: Arkadikos Drama; 14: Xeropotamos; 15: Mylopotamos; 16: Petroussa; 17: Maaras-Angitis Sources; 18: Kali Vrysi; 19: Megalokambos; 20: Sitagroi; 21: Mavrolefki; 22: Symvoli; 23: Angista R.S.-Paliokostra; 24: Nea Bafra; 25: Aïri Baïri; 26: Dimitra; 27: Fidokoryfi; 28: Mikro Souli; 29: Moustheni; 30: Podochori; 31: Loutra Eleftheron; 32: Akropotamos; 33: Kokkinochori; 34: Galepsos; 35: Ofrynio; 36: Hill 133; 37: Kryoneri; 38: Kastanochori; 39: Zervochori; 40: Tholos; 41: Toumba; 42: Pentapoli; 43: Agio Pnevma; 44: Fakistra Chryssou; 45: Chrysso R.S.; 46: Vergi; 47: Strymoniko; 48: Promachon-Topolnitsa; 49: Katarraktes-Sidirokastro.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-1.jpg
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Légende Fig. 2Topographical plan of the site with the trenches excavated.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-2.jpg
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Légende Fig. 3Recording of the long section.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-3.jpg
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Légende Fig. 4Kiln-like structure dug into the natural soil (LN I).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-4.jpg
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Légende Fig. 5Kiln-like structure on the background and nearby pit (Λ4).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-5.jpg
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Légende Table 1Available 14C dates from Kryoneri.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-6.jpg
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Légende Fig. 6Pit with LN I material in the Hellenistic cemetery of Kastrolakkas.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-7.jpg
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Légende Fig. 7Trench V, Late Neolithic II habitation level.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 64k
Légende Fig. 8Quernstone, vase and slab with traces of red ochre found in a storage pit near a hearth in a LN II habitation level (h. of vessel 15 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-9.jpg
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Légende Fig. 9Trench VI, part of a floor and storage pit.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-10.jpg
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Légende Fig. 10Trench VII, structure with stones and compacted clay at the edge of the settlement.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-11.jpg
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Légende Fig. 11Trenches III‑IV, intersecting rubbish pits.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-12.jpg
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Légende Fig. 12Two-handled vessel with black-on-red decoration (h. 19.5 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Légende Fig. 13Four-legged necked bowl with black-on-red decoration (h. 20 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 24k
Légende Fig. 14Open bowl with black-on-red decoration (h. 29.1 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 92k
Légende Fig. 15Pot-stand with black-on-red decoration.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-16.jpg
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Légende Fig. 16Bowl with brown-on-cream decoration.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-17.jpg
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Légende Fig. 17Sherds with brown-on-cream decoration.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-18.jpg
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Légende Fig. 18Fragments of graphite-painted open bowls (max. width 17 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-19.jpg
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Légende Fig. 19Graphite-painted askos.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-20.jpg
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Légende Fig. 20Undecorated one-handled bowl (h. 7.5 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-21.jpg
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Légende Fig. 21Clay figurine heads.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-22.jpg
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Légende Fig. 22 - Part of a clay figurine depicting a seated woman with black-on-red decoration.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-23.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 28k
Légende Fig. 23Clay model of a tree (h. 2.5 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-24.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Légende Fig. 24Chipped stone tools.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-25.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 16k
Légende Fig. 25Bone tools (h. of the longest 9 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-26.jpg
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Légende Fig. 26Copper tools.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-27.jpg
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Légende Fig. 27Clay tools.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-28.jpg
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Légende Fig. 28Shell ornaments.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-29.jpg
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Légende Fig. 29Bracelets and shells of Spondylus gaederopus; the bigger, unworked shell measures 10 cm.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-30.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 12k
Légende Fig. 30Trench V, a jar with animal bones in situ in an EBA layer.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-31.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 52k
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-32.jpg
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Légende Fig. 32Trench V, bowl containing shells in an EBA layer.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-33.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 44k
Légende Fig. 33Bowl with channelled decoration (h. 13 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-34.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 20k
Légende Fig. 34One-handled cup with spout (h. 7 cm).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/526/img-35.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 19k

Auteur

Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports, Ephorate of Antiquities of Kavala-Thasos.

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