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The Human Face of Radiocarbon

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Zoï Tsirtsoni

Bulgarian Thrace

Chapter 9. Radiocarbon dates from Tell Yunatsite

Yavor Boyadzhiev et Ioannis Aslanis

Texte intégral

The site and the research3

  • 3 I. Aslanis is the author of the part about the results of the research, the rest of the text is wri (...)

1Tell Yunatsite (also known as “Ploskata Mogila”, which means “the Flat Mound” in Bulgarian) is situated in the Pazardzhik Field, i.e. the western part of the Thracian Plain, 8 km to the west of the modern town of Pazardzhik (42° 13’ 56” N, 24° 15’ 45” E). The Pazardzhik Field is a flat area slanting from west to east 300 to 100 m above sea level (fig. 1). It is enclosed by the Sredna Gora Mountain to the north and northwest, and the Rhodope Mountains to the south and southwest. Both mountains affect the climate in the region, which is transitional-Mediterranean with obvious elements of atmospheric circulation. The winds are gentle and the average annual precipitation is low (ca 500 mm/m2), with the main rainfall in April-June and October-December. Numerous rivers have their sources in the two mountains; they flow through the Pazardzhik Field and run into the Maritsa River, which is the main water source of the Thracian Plain. In the region of Tell Yunatsite the soils are mainly alluvial as a result of the depositional activity of the Topolnitsa River.

2A Roman military road connecting Middle Europe and the Near East (Via Trajana, bridging Singidunum and Constantinople) crossed the Pazardzhik Field in the Roman and the Early Byzantine period. The mound is situated ca 500 m to the north of its road-bed, on a low river terrace on the right bank of the old bed of the Topolnitsa River, near its confluence with the Maritsa River. It is 12 m high (measured from the modern surface) and 100‑110 m in diameter. The recent excavations revealed that the cultural layer at the southern periphery is overlain by later deposits and can be traced down under the modern surface.

  • 4 Katincharov et al. 1995, p. 33‑50.
  • 5 During this period the Russian team was representing the former Soviet Union Academy of Sciences.
  • 6 Information on the results of the recent archaeological campaigns can be found in Boyadzhiev et al. (...)

3The first excavator of the site was V. Mikov who made a trench in 1939. Large scale planned archaeological excavations started in 1976 under the direction of R. Katincharov (Archaeological Institute with Museum, Sofia) and V. Matsanova (Pazardzhik Historical Museum). The excavated area covered approximately 1/3rd of the eastern part of the mound. A Medieval cemetery, a Roman stronghold and a couple of Early Iron Age building levels were documented overlaying a thick Early Bronze Age layer4. The Early Bronze Age layer was excavated from 1983 to 2000, with the participation of a Russian team led of Prof. N.Y. Merpert5. In 2001 the excavations continued under the direction of Y. Boyadzhiev and V. Matsanova. From 2002 to 2011, Tell Yunatsite was excavated by a Bulgarian-Greek team, in the framework of a collaboration between the National Archaeological Institute (Bulgaria), the National Hellenic Research Foundation (Greece) and the Regional Historical Museum of Pazardzhik (Bulgaria). Ass. Prof. Dr Yavor Boyadzhiev (NIAM-BAS) was the Project Director from the Bulgarian side, Dr Ioannis Aslanis (NHRF) was the Project Director from the Greek side, and Stoilka Ignatova (Pazardzhik Museum) was the Deputy Project Director6.

Fig. 1 – Aerial photo of Tell Yunatsite and the surrounding area (view from the east).

Results from the research up to present

  • 7 Full list in Matsanova 2011, p. 24‑19 (there is a printing error in the page numbers).

4The results from the archaeological excavations at Yunatsite have been published extensively. They have been presented so far in 68 articles7; for that reason, only a short summary will be provided here.

  • 8 The difference in the number of the EBA building levels (sixteen or seventeen) in the various publi (...)
  • 9 Tell Yunatsite 2007.
  • 10 Ibid., p. 9.
  • 11 Matsanova 1996, p. 190, fig. 2, 4a, b.
  • 12 Matsanova 1996, p. 194.
  • 13 Aslanis & Boyadzhiev 2008.
  • 14 Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 11‑14.

5The Early Bronze Age deposits were excavated over an area of 11001225 m2 up to 1990. 17 building levels8 were documented with a total thickness varying from 4.30 to 6.50 m9; they are dated as follows: EBA I – building level XVII/XVI‑XV; EBA II – building level XIV‑IX; EBA III – building level VIII‑I10. Each building level is represented by a different number of excavated buildings. As soon as they settled, the EBA people made a palisade, a ditch and “an earthen rampart bearing traces of a palisade”, enclosing the northern part of the mound11. It is believed that the separated space was a residence area or a sacred space12. It was separated until the time of building level XIII. A trench situated in the western part of the mound revealed remains of a stronghold established during the time of XII‑X building levels13. At 100 m to the west of the mound, there was also a multi-layer open-air settlement; the thickness of its cultural layer reaches 2.5 m14.

Fig. 2 – Early Chalcolithic layers extending beyond the present outlines of the mound (trench in the southern periphery of the site).

6In the central part of the tell, which is the most elevated area of the Chalcolithic settlement, the houses related to the earlier EBA building levels rested immediately on top of the remains of the Chalcolithic houses, and sometimes were even slightly dug into them. However, further south, where the Chalcolithic layers slant down, a layer of accumulated fine soil is clearly detectable. Its thickness gradually increases to the south, reaching 40 cm. This layer marks a long break in the occupation of the site between the end of the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the EBA.

  • 15 Matsanova 2000, p. 121‑123; Bouzhilova 2005, p. 106‑122; Zäuner 2011.
  • 16 Todorova & Matsanova 2000.

7The latest building level dating back to the Late Chalcolithic (LC I) was set on fire and the skeletons of people who had died a violent death were discovered among the burnt house debris15. The pottery and the small finds yielded by this building layer show a relationship with the Krivodol culture (fig. 6). Among the pottery there are crusted vessels, decorated with red and yellow pigment16. In contrast to this, the materials yielded by the preceding Chalcolithic building layer, which for the time being is only partially studied on the northern periphery of the excavated area, are typical for the phase III of the Karanovo VI culture.

  • 17 Boyadzhiev et al. 2006b.

8The trenches made in 2006 in search of a prehistoric cemetery revealed Chalcolithic deposits situated 200‑250 m away from the mound in almost all directions (except for the eastern direction where trenches were not made because the ancient bed of the Topolnitsa River was there)17. This preliminary information provides grounds to assume that the mound is an element of a more extensive settlement, covering ca 10 hectares, established in the Early Chalcolithic.

Fig. 3 – A layer of stones which were part of the construction of the earthen protective wall.

Fig. 4 – Reconstruction of the fortification system of the Late Chalcolithic settlement.

9Indeed, it was found in 2007‑2009 that the Early Chalcolithic deposits continue further down under the present ground level of the tell and spread beyond its present borders (fig. 2). A massive earthen wall was built directly on top of the Early Chalcolithic deposits. It was 3.5 m wide at the foundation and seemed to narrow slightly as it went up; its preserved height today is 2.50‑2.80 m. The wall was made of alternating layers of trampled clay and stones (fig. 3; 4). For the time being the excavated length of the wall is 25 m at the southern part of the mound, and it continues in the unexcavated area.

Fig. 5 – Clay platform with ceramic vessels and debris which had fallen and remained in a vertical position in the empty space beneath it; belongs to the latest Chalcolithic building level.

Fig. 6 – Ceramic vessel with graphite-painted and red-crusted decoration from the latest Chalcolithic building level.

10A massive 6 m‑long fired clay platform, with several large stones at both ends, was discovered in the southern edge of the excavated area. At present, the platform with all the clay vessels and debris is in a vertical position (fig. 5). It is excavated down to a depth of 4 m from the level of its upper edge. The archaeological excavations revealed that in this part of the tell there was an empty space, more than 6 m in diameter and 3 m deep, whose northern step-like part rose to the walking level of the settlement.

Radiocarbon dates from the EBA and Late Chalcolithic layers at Tell Yunatsite

11Samples from Tell Yunatsite were analyzed in three laboratories and provided three series of 14C dates.

  • 18 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 155‑157; Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 217‑221.

12The first series of 25 radiocarbon dates for the EBA layer was provided by the Berlin laboratory. 13 building levels yielded radiocarbon dates – levels XV‑III (there are no dates for building levels XII and XIV)18.

* This column reproduces the results as they were presented in the original publication: Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 234, table 1. The values put between brackets correspond to the dates with the maximum probabilities.
** The 2s calibrations are given in order to facilitate comparisons with the dates conducted at Lyon (
table 2), as well as with the other dates presented in this volume.
Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from samples analyzed in the Laboratory of the Institute of Geography at the Russian Academy of Sciences (ИГАН).

  • 19 Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 232‑237.

13The second series of 14C dates came from the laboratory at the Institute of Geography at the Russian Academy of Sciences (ИГАН)19. Four dates are related to the EBA, six to the latest Chalcolithic building level, one to the beginning of the Karanovo VI layer, and one to the Maritsa-Karanovo V culture (table 1). Two radiocarbon dates are related to the layer separating the Late Chalcolithic and the EBA layers.

14The Lyon laboratory provided eight 14C dates within the “Balkans 4000” project. Four of them were made using the conventional method (liquid scintillation, samples with lab codes “Ly-”) and four with the AMS method (samples with double codes “Lyon-/SacA-”). Seven dates are related to the latest Chalcolithic building level and one to the EBA building level XV (table 2).

Table 2 – Radiocarbon dates from samples analyzed in the Lyon laboratory within the framework of the “Balkans 4000” project.

Analysis of the EBA radiocarbon dates

  • 20 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 155‑157; Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 217‑221.
  • 21 The date comes from the mixing of samples from various kinds of charred wood – oak, maple and elm – (...)
  • 22 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 155‑157; Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 219‑220.

15The radiocarbon dates from the Berlin laboratory have already been discussed in detail20. The dates related to building levels XV‑VI fall into the medium-term variation of atmospheric 14C between 2900/2870 and 2500/2470 cal BC. Because of this, and as a result of the influence of the short-term variations, the conventional values of the dates for these building levels are very close to each other (they are clustered between 4150 and 3950 BP) and they sometimes contradict the stratigraphic sequence. Three of the dates provided by the ИГАН laboratory (for building levels VIII‑IX, IX‑X and XVI/XVII‑XV) completely match those from the Berlin laboratory. The date ИГАН-2794: 4380 ± 70 BP is the only one showing a different value. For the time being it is the only date related to the earliest building levels (building levels XVII‑XVI)21. It is also the only date which precedes the medium-term variation between 2900/2870 and 2500/2470 cal BC and indicates that the beginning of the EBA at Tell Yunatsite is earlier than 2900 cal BC. The date Ly-14795: 4280 ± 40 BP provided by the Lyon laboratory also contributes to specifying the beginning of the EBA at the site. It was obtained from grain samples from house 34 and has to be related to the final stage of the functioning of building level XV. The date completely matches the date Bln-3675: 4280 ± 60 BP. It confirms that the end of building level XV is after 2900 cal BC, most probably between 2840 and 2800 cal BC22. Bearing in mind that the archaeological materials yielded by building levels XVII/XVI and XV are very similar and show continuity, it can be suggested that the beginning of building level XVII was most probably shortly before 2900 cal BC, and the end of building level XVI immediately after 2900 cal BC. It is fairly certain that the beginning of the EBA at Tell Yunatsite did not start before 3000 cal BC.

Analysis of the radiocarbon dates related to the end of the Chalcolithic at Tell Yunatsite

  • 23 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 170‑172.
  • 24 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 183‑184.
  • 25 See also the article on Karnobat, supra, chapter 8, p. 153‑154.

16The new series of 14C dates related to the latest Chalcolithic building level at Tell Yunatsite (table 2) allows for a substantial analysis. First, it has to be stated that the new dates completely match the ones already known for the Late Chalcolithic in general, i.e. the Karanovo VI culture23. The dates obtained from samples of charred wood by the traditional method (Ly-14792, Ly-14793, Ly-14794) are especially indicative since they are the most suitable for comparison with dates from other sites. The dates from Tell Yunatsite fall into the range of the conventional dates for the Karanovo VI culture (the Kodzhadermen group in NE Bulgaria inclusively), between 5800 and 5500 BP24. They also match to a great extent the dates obtained from samples from charred wood yielded by the same building level and analyzed in the laboratory at the Institute of Geography at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Two of these dates, ИГАН-2796 and ИГАН-2797, are practically identical with the ones from the Lyon laboratory. The other two dates, ИГАН-2800 and ИГАН-2793, are a little later. However, it has to be taken into consideration that the four ИГАН dates are obtained from samples coming from one and the same house – house 12. The series clearly reveals the considerable differences that can exist between the dates yielded by one and the same building level – in this case even by one and the same house25. The new AMS dates also match the 14C dates available for the Karanovo VI culture. They form a fairly compact group, despite the fact that the samples’ nature is different (charred wood, grains, human bones), and the difference between their average BP values is only 70 years (see table 2). The two series for the Late Chalcolithic building level I (ИГАН and Lyon) cover the range between 5725 ± 40 BP and 5410 ± 70 BP – a time span which practically includes a great part of the dates available for the Karanovo VI-Kodzhadermen and Varna cultures.

17The match between the 14C dates from Tell Yunatsite and the rest of the dates available for the Karanovo VI culture is particularly important, because it is the only long series of dates yielded by one building level (thirteen 14C dates), and it can be definitely related to the end of the culture. The series clearly reveals that the conventional values for the Karanovo VI culture, even those related to its end, are not below 5500 BP (the few dates whose values fall between 5500 and 5400 BP in most of the cases are not related to the final phase of the culture, and apparently have to be related to the short term variations of the concentration of atmospheric 14C). In this case another circumstance has to be emphasized: the samples from which the dates were obtained, which can be divided into two groups.

18The first group comprises samples from charred wood similar to the samples from many other sites. There is some uncertainty with these samples: on one hand, there is the unknown age of the tree they were taken from, and on the other hand, it is not always possible to determine the position of the corresponding sample in the village history and to define whether it was connected with its establishment (in case the wood had been used in the house construction), with certain stages of its development (renovations of the wooden construction, wooden furniture or tools), or with its decline. The latest Chalcolithic building level at Tell Yunatsite (building level I) existed for a long period, as indicated by the numerous consecutive layers of floor plaster and the renovations of some of the houses. Its establishment (i.e. the construction of the houses) has to be related to the date Lyon-5996: 5630 ± 30 BP. The time when the village was destroyed by fire has to be related to Ly-14792: 5610 ± 40 BP, but it cannot be stated whether the charred wood from which the sample was taken had survived from an earlier period. What is crucial in this case is that there are four more dates which certainly mark the moment when the village was destroyed. Three of them were obtained from the bones of people who died when the village was seized and set on fire, and the fourth one was obtained from grains that were most certainly part of the last crop before the settlement’s destruction. The average values of three of the dates are very close (two dates from the Lyon laboratory, from grain and human bones, are identical) – Lyon-5997: 5560 ± 30 BP, Lyon-5999: 5560 ± 45 BP, ИГАН-2943: 5520 ± 160 BP. It is the date ИГАН 2944: 5380 ± 130 BP which differs essentially, but it has a very big standard deviation (including the 5510‑5250 BPinterval with 1σ), the upper limit also being prior to 5500 BP, and thus does not contradict the rest of the dates. The radiocarbon dates from the latest Chalcolithic building level at Yunatsite prove again that the Chalcolithic cultures in Thrace and Northeastern Bulgaria (Karanovo VI-Kodzhadermen-Gumelniţa) perished before those in Northwestern Bulgaria and the Rhodope Mountains (the Krivodol culture) and the related sites (Krivodol, Telish-Redutite, Pipra, Bezhanovo, the Yagodina Cave, Tatul, Dolno Dryanovo, the Haramiiska Dupka Cave), since they yield conventional dates earlier than 5400/5300 BP.

  • 26 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 168‑170.
  • 27 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 171‑173; Boyadzhiev 1998; see also the articles on Tatul (chapter 11), Dolno Dr (...)
  • 28 Todorova 1986, p. 57‑78.
  • 29 Boyadzhiev 1988; Boyadzhiev 1992; Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 167‑173.
  • 30 It is possible that these earlier dates resulted from a volcanic eruption in the neighbouring regio (...)

19The calibrated dates from Tell Yunatsite have to be searched within the interval between 4450 and 4350 cal BC. It is very important that the dates marking the end of the site also fall within this time span. Considering the fact that the dates from the rest of the settlements related to the Karanovo culture also match those from Tell Yunatsite, the end of the Chalcolithic in Thrace has to be put not later than 4350 cal BC according to the calibration curves in use. The 14C dates from the end of Late Neolithic and the Early Chalcolithic suggest that the beginning of the Chalcolithic is at ca 4900‑4850 cal BC26. This means that the entire Chalcolithic period should fit into a time span of 500‑550 years, leaving no more than 200 years (between 4600/4550 and 4400/4350 cal BC) for the Late Chalcolithic cultures – Karanovo VI-Kodzhadermen and Varna. However, such a date seems very improbable from an archaeological point of view. According to the calibrated dates, the duration of the Chalcolithic appears to be two times shorter than what was expected (550 and 1100 years respectively). At the same time, the dates related to the Final Chalcolithic in the Rhodope Mountains, as well as in Western Bulgaria (the Krivodol culture), show that it lasted there until 3900/3800 cal BC27. Therefore the duration of the final stage of the Chalcolithic in Western Bulgaria and the Rhodope Mountains (contemporary to the second half of the Late Chalcolithic Krivodol culture), attested by a low number of sites with a thin layer of deposits (their total thickness does not exceed 1 m), and comprising only two or three building levels, appears to be equal to the duration of the complete Chalcolithic period in the Thracian Plain (the Maritsa and the Karanovo VI cultures), Northeastern Bulgaria (the Polyanitsa and the Kodzhadermen cultures) and the Black Sea littoral (the Hamangia III‑IV/Sava and the Varna cultures), which are represented by ten and sometimes more building levels at settlement mounds such as Racheva Mogila, Bikovo, Hissarlaka (the thickness of the deposits in these sites reaches 8‑9 m)28. This discrepancy between the archaeological data and the results provided by the radiocarbon analyses is due to the calibration of the 14C dates from the end of the Early Chalcolithic: the result of this process is that the dates related to the Late Chalcolithic (not including its final stage) have the same values as the ones related to the Early Chalcolithic29. This artificial ageing is apparently due to local reasons since it is not reflected in the general calibration curves30. As a result, the calibration of the Late Chalcolithic radiocarbon dates (except for those of the final stage) coincide to a great extent with the values of the Early Chalcolithic, therefore shortening the duration of the Late Chalcolithic and shifting its end to an earlier time.

  • 31 This list does not include sites for which 14C dates with values between 5500 and 5400 BP are excep (...)
  • 32 Görsdorf & Boyadzhiev 1996, p. 150‑152.

20It has to be highlighted that conventional 14C dates in the time span between 5450/5400 and 5200 BP are provided by a very small number of sites in Bulgaria31. Dates with similar values were provided only by Krivodol (building levels I and II), Telish-Pipra (building level II) and Telish-Redutite (building levels I and II)32, which, according to the relative chronology, fit into the very short time span between the end of the Karanovo VI-Kodzhadermen and the Varna cultures, and the final stage of the Chalcolithic in the Rhodope Mountains and Western Bulgaria. However, according to the calibration curves, dates with such conventional values correspond to a mid-term variation of ca 350 years – between 4350 and 4000 cal BC – and should be more frequent. It seems that the conventional dates for the Karanovo VI, Kodzhadermen and Varna cultures correspond to the greater part of this period, and they most probably fit in reality between 4550/4500 and 4150/4100 cal BC. The anomaly is not registered, as already said, for the final stage of the Chalcolithic in the Rhodope Mountains and Western Bulgaria.

  • 33 Chapman et al. 2006; Higham et al. 2007; Higham et al. 2008; Reingruber & Thissen 2009; Borić 2009.

21The same anomaly is responsible for the recent discussion of the radiocarbon dates from the Varna cemetery33. The conventional 14C dates provided by the samples from the cemetery completely match the dates of the Late Chalcolithic in Northeastern Bulgaria and Thrace. They do not provide any grounds for reconsidering the date of the Varna cemetery and placing it in the Middle Chalcolithic. The authors who propose such reconsideration and “rejuvenate” the cemetery are misguided, as they use the calibrated values of these dates directly without considering the coinciding dates of the Early and the Late Chalcolithic in the mentioned region.

22In any case the 14C dates from Tell Yunatsite are indicative of a long break between the end of the Chalcolithic and the beginning of the Early Bronze Age in Thrace. This break lasted for almost one thousand years, if the interpolation of the dates of the Late Chalcolithic (approximately between 4100/4000 and 3100/3000 cal BC) is accepted, or almost one thousand two hundred and fifty years, if the existing calibration curve is accepted unreservedly.

Notes

3 I. Aslanis is the author of the part about the results of the research, the rest of the text is written by Y. Boyadzhiev. The English translation is by Tatiana Stefanova.

4 Katincharov et al. 1995, p. 33‑50.

5 During this period the Russian team was representing the former Soviet Union Academy of Sciences.

6 Information on the results of the recent archaeological campaigns can be found in Boyadzhiev et al. 2004; Aslanis & Boyadzhiev 2004; Aslanis & Boyadzhiev 2008; Boyadzhiev et al. 2009, Matsanova 2011; Boyadzhiev et al. 2011; Balabina & Mishina 2011.

7 Full list in Matsanova 2011, p. 24‑19 (there is a printing error in the page numbers).

8 The difference in the number of the EBA building levels (sixteen or seventeen) in the various publications is a result of the fact that the excavators of the Early Bronze Age layers have not yet come to an unanimous conclusion about the number of the building levels (one or two) representing the earliest EBA layer (cf. Balabina et al. 2002, p. 131, and Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 17‑18).

9 Tell Yunatsite 2007.

10 Ibid., p. 9.

11 Matsanova 1996, p. 190, fig. 2, 4a, b.

12 Matsanova 1996, p. 194.

13 Aslanis & Boyadzhiev 2008.

14 Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 11‑14.

15 Matsanova 2000, p. 121‑123; Bouzhilova 2005, p. 106‑122; Zäuner 2011.

16 Todorova & Matsanova 2000.

17 Boyadzhiev et al. 2006b.

18 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 155‑157; Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 217‑221.

19 Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 232‑237.

20 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 155‑157; Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 217‑221.

21 The date comes from the mixing of samples from various kinds of charred wood – oak, maple and elm – taken from the central section of the tell (Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 233).

22 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 155‑157; Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 219‑220.

23 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 170‑172.

24 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 183‑184.

25 See also the article on Karnobat, supra, chapter 8, p. 153‑154.

26 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 168‑170.

27 Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 171‑173; Boyadzhiev 1998; see also the articles on Tatul (chapter 11), Dolno Dryanovo (chapter 10), the Yagodina Cave (chapter 14) and Bezhanovo-Banunya (chapter 5) in this volume.

28 Todorova 1986, p. 57‑78.

29 Boyadzhiev 1988; Boyadzhiev 1992; Boyadzhiev 1995, p. 167‑173.

30 It is possible that these earlier dates resulted from a volcanic eruption in the neighbouring regions. Remains of volcanic ash were found in the Maritsa layer at Tell Yunatsite (Balabina & Mishina 2002). The volcanic ash completely matches the “old 14C dates” phenomenon. The anomaly affected not only the territory of present-day Bulgaria but, to a different extent, the entire territory of the Balkan Peninsula (cf. Boyadzhiev 1988).

31 This list does not include sites for which 14C dates with values between 5500 and 5400 BP are exceptional inside a series of dates with values between 5750 and 5500 BP.

32 Görsdorf & Boyadzhiev 1996, p. 150‑152.

33 Chapman et al. 2006; Higham et al. 2007; Higham et al. 2008; Reingruber & Thissen 2009; Borić 2009.

Table des illustrations

Légende Fig. 1 – Aerial photo of Tell Yunatsite and the surrounding area (view from the east).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/514/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 120k
Légende Fig. 2 – Early Chalcolithic layers extending beyond the present outlines of the mound (trench in the southern periphery of the site).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/514/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 84k
Légende Fig. 3 – A layer of stones which were part of the construction of the earthen protective wall.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/514/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 144k
Légende Fig. 4 – Reconstruction of the fortification system of the Late Chalcolithic settlement.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/514/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 100k
Légende Fig. 5 – Clay platform with ceramic vessels and debris which had fallen and remained in a vertical position in the empty space beneath it; belongs to the latest Chalcolithic building level.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/514/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 104k
Légende Fig. 6 – Ceramic vessel with graphite-painted and red-crusted decoration from the latest Chalcolithic building level.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/514/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 44k
Légende * This column reproduces the results as they were presented in the original publication: Tell Yunatsite 2007, p. 234, table 1. The values put between brackets correspond to the dates with the maximum probabilities.** The 2s calibrations are given in order to facilitate comparisons with the dates conducted at Lyon (table 2), as well as with the other dates presented in this volume.Table 1 – Radiocarbon dates from samples analyzed in the Laboratory of the Institute of Geography at the Russian Academy of Sciences (ИГАН).
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/514/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 420k
Légende Table 2 – Radiocarbon dates from samples analyzed in the Lyon laboratory within the framework of the “Balkans 4000” project.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/514/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 290k
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