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Multidisciplinary approaches to food and foodways in the medieval Eastern Mediterranean

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Sylvie Yona Waksman

Byzantium and beyond

Corinth: beyond the forum

Use of ceramics, social implications and settlement pattern (12th‑13th centuries)

Elli Tzavella

Résumé

The medieval city of Corinth (Greece) was one of the first to be studied in relation to the comparative study of food and foodways. These studies have so far been carried out by the American School of Classical Studies and are focused on the area of the Forum, which was occupied by a commercial and domestic quarter during the 12th, 13th and early 14th centuries. The Forum has provided evidence for occupation by Frankish as well as Greek populations.
Today it is possible to compare the Forum evidence with ceramic finds recovered from rescue excavations by the local Archaeological Department of the Greek Ministry of Culture in various quarters of the city. This contribution is a first attempt towards this end. It presents ceramic finds of the 12th and 13th centuries found in the Koutsougera plot, at the western border of the area “Kraneion”, east of the Forum. There is no historical evidence that attests to the ethnic identity of the residents of this area, thus all conclusions rely on archaeological evidence.
The first results show that the residents of this area made choices similar to those of the Forum residents in regard to the purchase and use of pottery. At the same time, however, there are marked differences, which the present paper attempts to explore.

Texte intégral

Introduction

1Research on food and foodways can be combined with research on the history of identities and settlement history. The present contribution explores the question of whether different parts of the urban entity of Corinth can tell us different things about the use of ceramics, and hence, food consumption. The relevant archaeological material is highly fragmentary, and cannot always be dated with precision. In an effort to avoid methodological flaws associated with this kind of drawback, this is a preliminary approach. It brings to light newly excavated material and sets it against the background of years-long ceramic studies at Corinth.

  • 1 H.S. Robinson, Director of the Corinth Excavations in the 1960s, contributed greatly to the organi (...)

2Discussion of ceramics at Corinth was initiated by Charles Morgan, Henry S. Robinson and Charles K. Williams, and was systematized and brought to a whole new level by Guy D.R. Sanders (Morgan 1942; among the numerous publications by G. Sanders, Director of the American School of Classical Studies at Corinth from 1997 to 2017: Sanders 1987; 2000; 2003a; 2003b; Williams 2003).1 Excavations and studies of the American School at the Corinth Forum area offered new insights regarding the form and function of the Byzantine and Frankish city. Noteworthy is that the Forum area had a special character throughout the medieval period, and is not to be regarded as a “representative” area of the city. The Forum is located outside the Early Byzantine city wall (Sanders 2002, p. 647) (fig. 1a) and did not accommodate systematic building or domestic activity between the 6th and the mid‑11th centuries (Scranton 1957, p. 49). During the 11th and 12th centuries, its character was more commercial than domestic (Scranton 1957, pp. 54‑83; Williams 2003, pp. 426‑427).

Fig. 1 – a) Plan of Byzantine Corinth, courtesy of the American School of Classical Studies, with indications in white added by the author; b) Ground plan of Koutsougera excavation by Y. Nakas, courtesy of 25th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities; c‑d) Coins recovered during the Koutsougera excavation.

Fig. 1 – a) Plan of Byzantine Corinth, courtesy of the American School of Classical Studies, with indications in white added by the author; b) Ground plan of Koutsougera excavation by Y. Nakas, courtesy of 25th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities; c‑d) Coins recovered during the Koutsougera excavation.

3Avenues of enquiry regarding the urban arrangement of Corinth in the 13th century, as expressed by Williams, are as follows: What were the differences between the standard of living of the Greek population and that of the Frankish population? Does a difference exist between the pottery imported to Greece for private use by foreigners and special groups, such as monastic orders, and that sold commonly in the public markets? Williams also suggested that “one must in the future try to isolate domestic habitation that had been restricted in use to the Greek population; such habitation might be identifiable if one were to compare the statistics for various types of pottery recovered from different areas within the city” (Williams 2003, p. 428).

Medieval Corinth beyond the Forum: rescue excavations

  • 2 For an overview of rescue excavations between 2006-2010, see Athanasoulis et al. 2010.
  • 3 Athanasoulis 2013, p. 208, n. 1; fig. 172 on p. 195 is partly based on this database.

4This paper compares ceramics from the Forum with ceramics recovered during rescue excavations of the Ephorate of Antiquities of Corinthia in order to gain insights into the consumption patterns of the medieval inhabitants of Corinth.2 A database of Byzantine ceramics from excavations undertaken between 2006 and 2012 was created by the author, as part of my duties at the Ephorate of Corinthia (2011-2013).3 The preliminary results of these records show that Middle Byzantine habitation covered quarters which lie outside the Forum, currently known as Murat Aga, Arapomachalas, Kraneion, Koutsoukomachalas, and Zekio (Athanasoulis 2013, p. 204, fig. 172) (fig. 1a). These cover an overall area of about 1.7 km east-west by about 0.75 km north-south.

5The urban fabric appears to have had a varied density in the different quarters. It is possible that the centre of Middle Byzantine Corinth, housing the main churches, the bishop’s see, and elite houses, was located east of the Roman Forum, inside the Early Byzantine wall, in an area which is covered by the modern village. Dense habitation remains that have been revealed in the Kraneion and Arapomachalas quarters support this view (Athanasoulis 2013, p. 204 & fig. 172, no. 12, 14‑15). The settlement extended also to the west of the Forum, where building phases of the Early and Middle Byzantine periods were identified based on ceramic finds. It is possible that the inhabited areas were arranged as settlement quarters, or parishes, separated from each other by areas with scattered buildings and cultivated fields.

Excavation at the Koutsougera plot

  • 4 This excavation is represented by no. 14 in Athanasoulis 2013, p. 195, fig. 172.

6The present paper focuses on ceramics found during the rescue excavation at the Koutsougera plot, located within the Early Byzantine wall, at the western border of the Kraneion area, which shows considerable continuity in habitation4 (fig. 1a). The excavation revealed parts of two distinct buildings of domestic use, separated by an open corridor or narrow street (fig. 1b). The excavated part of the northern building is a single rectangular room with a square cistern. The southern building is separated into three rooms. A sewage pipe, covered with stone slabs, runs along the open corridor or narrow street which separates the two buildings.

  • 5 For selected ceramic finds from the Late Antique phase of use see Tzavella 2018, pp. 811‑812, n. 9 (...)

7The upper excavation layers provided pottery of the 12th and 13th centuries, dated by two bronze half-tetartera coins of Manuel I Comnenus (1143-1180) (fig. 1c‑d), while the lower layers produced pottery of the 4th to 7th centuries.5

8The 12th and 13th-century ceramic assemblage includes the following categories of vessels.

Glazed vessels

9Fine Sgraffito (fig. 2, no. 1‑7). This is the usual ceramic category of the excavation. Many of these vessels have parallels in Forum lots (lot 1989‑8) dated to the first half of the 12th century by a coin of Alexius I (Williams & Zervos 1990, p. 340ff, especially p. 343, pl. 63a-d), and in Deposit 51 of Saraçhane, dated to the 3rd quarter of the 12th century (Hayes 1992, pp. 138‑142, fig. 81‑86).

Fig. 2 – Glazed pottery. no. 1‑7: Fine Sgraffito. no. 8‑11: Champlevé. no. 12: Late Sgraffito. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.

Fig. 2 – Glazed pottery. no. 1‑7: Fine Sgraffito. no. 8‑11: Champlevé. no. 12: Late Sgraffito. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.

10Champlevé (fig. 2, no. 8‑11); recovered in significant numbers, the execution is excellent.

11Late Sgraffito (fig. 2, no. 12; fig. 3, no. 13‑17); dated vaguely to the end of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century by parallels from the Forum area (Developed Style Sgraffito: Morgan 1942, pp. 127‑140; Sanders 2003b, pp. 388‑389, no. 16).

12Incised Sgraffito (fig. 3, no. 18‑21); these find some close parallels in the Forum area (Sanders 2003b, pp. 388‑389, no. 19). No. 20 from the Koutsougera plot can be closely paralleled with a find from the Forum (Williams et al. 1998, 258, no. 21, pl. 46) which was found in a context dated by coins of William de Villehardouin (1245-1278).

Fig. 3 – Glazed pottery. no. 13‑17: Late Sgraffito. no. 18‑21: Incised Sgraffito. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.

Fig. 3 – Glazed pottery. no. 13‑17: Late Sgraffito. no. 18‑21: Incised Sgraffito. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.
  • 6 For a recent study on Measles Ware see Vassiliou (2018).

13Very few examples from the categories of Measles Ware6 (fig. 4, no. 22) and Slip Painted (fig. 4, no. 25‑26), and many examples of Monochrome Glazed Wares (fig. 4, no. 23‑24).

  • 7 I would like to thank Dr Valentina Vezzoli and Dr Edna Stern for their valuable advice regarding t (...)
  • 8 See Avissar & Stern 2005, pp. 16‑18, for various Islamic bowls with Sgraffito decoration.

14One bowl body fragment is an import from Islamic lands (fig. 4, no. 27). The fabric, very dissimilar to Corinthian or other fabrics from Greek areas, is salmon pinkish, sandy. The interior is covered with light pinkish slip. A band with a pseudo-epigraphic motif has been finely incised through the slip, and the interior surface is covered with a yellowish glaze. The motif is closely reminiscent of the Mamluk Sgraffiato Ware produced in Fustat (Egypt) during the end of the 13th and the early 14th century (Watson 2004, pp. 395, 408‑414, especially p. 410, no. R.17; Avissar & Stern 2005, pp. 38‑39, fig. 14.7; Vezzoli 2011, pp. 125‑128, pl. 1‑6).7 The fabric, however, is not the dark red alluvial fabric typical of the Nile region, and it is therefore possible that this vessel should be ascribed more generally to the ceramic horizon of incised objects very common in the Eastern Mediterranean (Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Israel) during the 13th and 14th centuries.8

Fig. 4 – Glazed pottery. no. 22: Measles Ware. no. 23‑24: Monochrome Glazed. no. 25‑26: Slip-Painted. no. 27: Imported Islamic ware. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.

Fig. 4 – Glazed pottery. no. 22: Measles Ware. no. 23‑24: Monochrome Glazed. no. 25‑26: Slip-Painted. no. 27: Imported Islamic ware. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.

15Based on macroscopic examination of the fabrics of the tableware, most glazed vessels belong to two main fabric categories. Fabric 1 (represented with catalogue no. 4, 13‑15, 20, 23, 26) is fine and clean with a brownish red colour (usually Munsell 2.5 YR 6/6), often with orange or pinkish hues, and contains a few small to medium limestone inclusions. Occasionally it also contains rare rounded reddish brown inclusions, and/or a few silver mica inclusions. The exterior surface of vessels made of Fabric 1 presents a thin watery white slip, applied with a brush while the vessel was still on the turning wheel. This white slip does not cover equally the whole of the exterior surface, but is manifested in thin horizontal brush lines. Fabric 1 is used for vessels decorated with the Fine Sgraffito, Incised Sgraffito, Champlevé and Slip Painted techniques.

16Fabric 2 (represented by catalogue no. 2, 5, 8, 11, 12, 16, 18, 19, 21, 24) is medium coarse, hard fired, orange brown (usually Munsell 2.5 YR 6/8), and contains some to many white inclusions, a few small grey inclusions, and a very few reddish brown inclusions. Fabric 2 is used for vessels decorated with the Fine Sgraffito, Incised Sgraffito, Champlevé and Monochrome Glazed techniques.

  • 9 See White 2009, pp. 94‑130 for petrographic and chemical groups of pottery found in the Corinthian (...)

17Both Fabrics 1 and 2 appear similar to the clays used in medieval Corinth,9 but for further conclusions microscopic examination is needed. Previous petrographic analyses on material from the Forum suggest that during the first quarter of the 12th century much of the pottery in use in Corinth was locally produced, while imported pottery increased significantly by the middle of the century and complemented local production (White et al. 2006). Based on chemical analyses, one of the sources of glazed table wares imported to the Forum appears to have been the region of Chalcis (Waksman et al. 2014, p. 414). However, other sources cannot be excluded.

18The above-mentioned categories of glazed vessels enable a dating of the domestic use of the excavation area to between the second quarter of the 12th century and the third quarter of the 13th century: ca 1125-1275.

  • 10 MacKay 1967, p. 252 (Glossy Ware) and pp. 258‑261 (Shiny Olive Incised Ware II); Sanders 1987, p.  (...)
  • 11 Williams (2003, p. 430), however, argues that the earliest imported south Italian Protomaiolica is (...)
  • 12 Sanders, forthcoming. The results presented recently in this paper need to be cross-checked with w (...)

19With this chronological range in mind, it is noteworthy that imported ceramic categories of the 13th century found commonly in the Forum area, such as Zeuxippus Ware and Protomaiolica, are completely absent from the Koutsougera excavation. Zeuxippus Ware is found in Forum contexts of 1200-1275,10 and it is thus chronologically compatible with the finds of the Koutsougera excavation. Protomaiolica wares were imported to the Forum already before the Frankish conquest in 1210, but their quantity increased greatly after ca 1250 (MacKay 1967, p. 257; Sanders 1987, p. 166; Williams & Zervos 1995, p. 19, n. 23, pl. 12).11 Their absence from the Koutsougera plot may be due to chronological reasons. In fact, recent research by G. Sanders shows that Protomaiolica and other glazed categories of Italian origin were actually used, or continued to be used in the Forum during the 14th century.12 Alternatively it may represent a conscious choice of the consumers.

  • 13 RMR: Sanders 1987, p. 171; MacKay 2003, p. 412, n. 53. Veneto Ware: MacKay 1967, pp. 254‑255; Sand (...)

20The absence of the RMR, Veneto and Metallic Wares has to do with chronology; they appear in the Forum in the late 13th and early 14th centuries (the RMR start ca 1250, but in small quantities).13

21Does the absence of Zeuxippus Ware and Protomaiolica reflect a choice of economic character, namely that the residents of the Koutsougera complex refused to, or could not afford to, buy these imported wares? They could afford to buy a dish imported from the Islamic East, but this is the only example of imported tableware.

22Does the choice have to do with the shape and the size of the table wares (large diameter vs. small diameter, or shallow vs. deep), thus reflecting a change in dining habits towards dishes with sauces and/or towards individualized portions? The material does include some small, deep bowls, similar to the new Italian types, but the majority follows the Byzantine tradition, as expected for a context that ends around 1275.

Cooking vessels

  • 14 Piérart & Thalmann 1980, p. 481, D5, fig. 7 (second half of 12th century); François 2010, fig. 1.8 (...)
  • 15 Sanders 1993, p. 277, no. 59‑61, fig. 13.

23In the Forum, the period between the mid‑11th century and the first half of the 13th century is dominated by the so-called “Byzantine” stewpot type, which has a globular thick-walled body and a triangular or folded rim (Corinth: MacKay 1967, pp. 292‑297, fig. 3‑4, no. 108‑110, 112, 116; Williams & Zervos 1990, p. 342, Lot 1989‑15, pl. 64c; Sanders 2003a, p. 36, fig. 4.11; François 2010, fig. 1.5). The type occurs widely in the eastern Peloponnese (Argos,14 Sparta15), while similar examples are seen in the whole of southern Greece. The second half of the 13th century is dominated by the so-called “Frankish” type, with an average smaller size, thin-walled, with a high vertical rim. The Frankish type has been linked to ways of cooking and dining familiar to the Frankish settlers of the Peloponnese, namely stewing meat for a long time (Williams & Zervos 1991, p. 33, no. 30‑31, pl. 10; Williams 2003, p. 432, fig. 25.8; Joyner 2007, p. 186 ff, fig. 4, types G and H). In the Forum, the Frankish stewpot occurs commonly in assemblages which date from ca 1260 (50 years after the Frankish occupation) to the 14th century.

24At the Koutsougera excavation, all cooking vessels belong to the so-called “Byzantine” type (fig. 5, 6). Not a single sherd of the “Frankish” type was found. This is possibly explained by chronology, since domestic use of the Koutsougera plot appears to have stopped around 1275, while Frankish stewpots in the Forum appear commonly from 1260 onwards; there was only a short overlap. On the other hand, the complete absence of Frankish stewpots in the Koutsougera excavation may be due to a conscious choice. Perhaps the inhabitants were not familiar with, or did not favor, the Frankish way of stewing food, while the residents of the Forum area did adopt this way of cooking. Also, baking and sieving pans which occur in the Forum (Williams 2003, p. 433, fig. 25.9) do not appear here.

Fig. 5 – Cooking vessels. no. 28‑36: Type A. no. 37: Type B. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.

Fig. 5 – Cooking vessels. no. 28‑36: Type A. no. 37: Type B. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.

Fig. 6 – Cooking vessels. no. 38‑41: Type C. Plain ware and amphorae. no. 42: Unglazed White Ware. no. 43: Amphora, 10th-11th centuries (?). no. 44‑46: Amphorae, 12th-13th centuries. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.

Fig. 6 – Cooking vessels. no. 38‑41: Type C. Plain ware and amphorae. no. 42: Unglazed White Ware. no. 43: Amphora, 10th-11th centuries (?). no. 44‑46: Amphorae, 12th-13th centuries. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.

25The “Byzantine” stewpots of the Koutsougera plot can be divided into three categories:

  • Type A (fig. 5, no. 28‑36) presents a heavy rim which is triangular in section, and is marked by an incision running around its exterior surface. It has two strap handles, a globular body with fine, densely arranged incisions, and a rounded base. The stewpots of Type A were made of various fabric categories. Their fabric is generally medium coarse, hard-fired, brown to orange, red or grey, and contains small to large limestone inclusions. Occasionally it contains also grey or angular reddish-brown inclusions, and one example contains abundant fine silver mica.
  • Type B (fig. 5, no. 37) presents a high folded rim and strap handles attached to the rim. It is a rather uncommon type. It has been found in Forum contexts dated from the late 12th century to the third quarter of the 13th century (MacKay 1967, pp. 295‑297, no. 118, 119, 125, fig. 4; Williams et al. 1997, 36, no. 51, fig. 9, pl. 15).16 The fabric of no. 37 is light brown to grey and contains a few small to large white and grey inclusions.
  • Type C (fig. 6, no. 38‑41) presents a short rim with triangular section, a globular squattish body, and thick walls.17 Noteworthy is the fact that all four stewpots of Type C were found concentrated in the same excavation context of the Koutsougera plot. Their fabric is very consistent: light brown, with a few small to large white inclusions, and some large angular light brown inclusions, visible mostly on the interior surface.
  • 18 See Hayes 1992, pp. 39‑40, Deposit 51 (1150-1175), no. 53 and no. 54 (handle attachment, typical f (...)
  • 19 Papanikola-Bakirtzis (2003, p. 48) characterizes as “tea-kettles” closed glazed vessels used over (...)
  • 20 Hayes 1992, p. 40: “It was not much exported.”
  • 21 Numerous examples of the UWW V category were found at a rescue excavation in Chalcis (island of Eu (...)

26A special cooking vessel for boiling is included in the Unglazed White Ware category, produced in Constantinople (fig. 6, no. 42). It belongs to Hayes’ Type V and dates to the third quarter of the 12th century.18 Though its drawn section reminds closely a jug or pitcher, its lower part is fire-blackened, suggesting that it was used to boil water or make tea.19 Vessels of the Unglazed White Ware Type V from the Forum area have not been published. Hayes notes that they were generally exported from Constantinople in relatively low numbers,20 but recent finds may change this assumption.21 Recovery of this imported vessel in the Koutsougera excavation may be interpreted as a conscious choice of the inhabitants.

Closed vessels for storage and serving

27Closed vessels present striking similarities with the material from the Forum area. Amphorae are few in number, as they are in contemporary levels of the Forum, and they are made of the same fabric as those from the Forum, namely the typical light yellow marl clay of Corinth (fig. 6, no. 44‑46); no. 43 appears to date to the 10th-11th century and is therefore probably residual. The Günsenin 3 type, particularly common in the Aegean during the 12th and 13th centuries, is not represented at the Koutsougera plot, and is uncommon in the Forum.

  • 22 Where the lagenia are mentioned as “amphorae”.

28Thin-walled storage vessels called lagenia in Byzantine sources outnumber by far all other categories of closed vessels (fig. 7, no. 47‑48). They are similar in size and shape to amphorae, but are totally unsuitable for transport due to their thin walls and soft-fired, porous clay (Williams & Zervos 1992, p. 146).22 They were storage vessels for domestic use, filled with products which were probably transported in leather sacks. In shape and fabric, the lagenia of the Koutsougera excavation are the same as those from the Forum. The only difference concerns decoration and is not connected with food habits, but rather with financial status or aesthetic choice: Matt-Painted decoration, which is already present on a large number of lagenia of the early 12th century from the Forum (Williams & Zervos 1990, p. 344), is not to be found on any of the lagenia from the Koutsougera excavation.

Fig. 7 – Plain ware. no. 47‑48: Lagenia. no. 49‑52: Jugs. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.

Fig. 7 – Plain ware. no. 47‑48: Lagenia. no. 49‑52: Jugs. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.

29The jugs have various shapes and sizes and are made of Corinthian clay (fig. 7, no. 49‑52). Only two present Matt-Painted decoration (no. 51‑52), while numerous examples of Matt-Painted jugs were found in the Forum (Williams & Zervos 1992, p. 148, fig. 5; p. 162, fig. 13 and pl. 41, pl. 36f-h). Due to their diversity and rather low numbers, very little can be concluded concerning their content or use.

Different urban districts, different choices?

30The residents of the Koutsougera complex chose to buy glazed table wares, most of which provided the traditional sizes and shapes and were therefore suitable for what might be called “traditional Byzantine cuisine”. They did not choose to buy Zeuxippus and Protomaiolica wares. Perhaps they found them unsuitable for their dining habits, as well as their wallets. They did, however, buy at least one imported Islamic dish, the rarity of which is noteworthy. This Islamic dish is the only long-distance import, along with the Unglazed White boiling vessel from Constantinople. A Mamluk vase of similar date from the Frankish port of Glarentza, in the northwestern Peloponnese, has been published (Athanasoulis 2011, pp. 44‑45).

31For cooking, the Koutsougera residents used exclusively stewpots of the “Byzantine” type. For storage they preferred lagenia, which may have been relatively cheap due to their local production, thin walls and low firing temperature – and they were not decorated, in contrast to their Forum counterparts. Amphorae were also locally produced, but their low numbers and typological inconsistency indicate a non-systematized production.

32Do these similarities and differences in ceramic types necessarily reflect similarities and differences in dining habits? Furthermore, is it legitimate to attribute the observed differences to different ethnic origins or social statuses? The evidence does not substantiate this kind of conclusion. If anything, it appears that the Koutsougera residents were of lower economic status than those of the Forum, since they used almost exclusively locally and regionally produced wares, apparently not having the luxury of buying storage vessels (lagenia) with Matt-Painted decoration, and not using elaborate glass vessels. On the other hand, their economic status does not appear to have been excessively low, and it matches our general conception concerning the urban inhabitants of this city.

Contribution to the settlement pattern of Byzantine Corinth

33Based on the ceramic and numismatic evidence from the excavation, the area of the Koutsougera plot was inhabited during the periods between the 4th and 7th centuries and the 12th and 13th centuries, and was then abandoned in the 14th century and during the Ottoman period. A few sporadic finds belong to the Transitional period (second half of 7th century-9th century). A similar chronological pattern appears in another rescue excavation in the Kraneion area (Theophani Marini plot), located just north of the Koutsougera plot. In both plots, the large quantity of pottery of the 12th and 13th centuries and the absence of later material indicates that a relatively short-lived neighbourhood was created here in the first half or the middle of the 12th century. The ceramic finds no. 13 and 20 date to the mid‑13th century or later, thus suggesting that habitation in this area continued after the Frankish occupation. Questions regarding the extension of this neighbourhood and its relation with the nexus of the urban centre remain unanswered.

34The pottery recovered from the Koutsougera plot shows the standard high quality of pottery used in Byzantine urban contexts of the 12th-13th centuries. The Forum has generally revealed ceramic finds of similar standards, as far as Byzantine pottery is concerned, but it has provided greater quantities of imported Italian wares. In general, the high quality of the pottery and the existence of imported wares from distant sources found in Corinth indicate a high economic level, attested in literary sources of the same period (Sanders 2002, pp. 650‑654).

35The Koutsougera excavation is only one of the rescue excavations in Corinth which produced material of the 12th and 13th centuries. Study of this material is necessary in order to systematize results and produce a comprehensive picture of the city of Corinth on the eve of the Frankish occupation and after it.

Acknowledgements

36Sincere thanks are expressed to Dr Yona Waksman for her kind invitation to contribute to this conference volume. The excavation material was recorded in 2011, as part of my official duties at the Ephorate of Corinthia. I would like to thank the former director of the Ephorate, Dr D. Athanasoulis, and the vice-director, Dr E. Manolessou, for their permission to study and present the excavation material. The excavation was conducted by the Ephorate of Corinthia (2010) under the supervision of A. Papadakis. Conservation was carried out by M. Akritidou, M. Dimitrakopoulou and K. Nezi, illustrations are by E. Broziouti and the ground plan of the excavation is by Y. Nakas.

Catalogue

1. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ41. Fabric is pinkish to brown (2.5 YR 6/6). Contains few white and brown inclusions. See Sanders 2003, p. 389, no. 11.

2. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ44. Fabric 2: brownish red (2.5 YR 6/6). Few small white inclusions, few mica inclusions. See Morgan 1942, p. 30, fig. 19B.

3. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ45. Fabric is sandy, light brown (5 YR 7/4). Abundant light yellow and few red inclusions. Imported vessel.

4. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ48. Fabric 1 (?): light brown, partially tinted pinkish (5 YR 5/4). Some small to large white limestone inclusions and rare dark-coloured inclusions.

5. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ98. Fabric 2: brown-orange (2.5 YR 6/6‑6/8). Few small white inclusions.

6. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ85. Fabric is brownish red (2.5 YR 6/4‑6/6). Few small white inclusions.

7. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ97. Possibly Fabric 1 or 2: brownish-orange (2.5 YR 6/4‑6/6). Few small and medium white inclusions, rare medium rounded inclusions. See Saccardo et al. 2003, p. 406, fig. 9.

8. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ70. Fabric 2: brownish-orange (2.5 YR 6/6). Few white and rare brown inclusions of small to medium size. See Sanders 2003b, pp. 388‑389, no. 18.

9. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ68. Fabric is pinkish buff (2.5 YR 6/4). Few white and grey inclusions of small to medium size. See Sanders 2003b, pp. 388‑389, no. 18.

10. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ50. Fabric is pinkish buff (10 YR 7/3). Few small to very large angular white inclusions, few rounded brown inclusions, and some small to large voids.

11. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ53. Fabric 2 (?): brownish orange (2.5 YR 6/8). Rare small and very small white inclusions, some voids.

12. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ54. Fabric 2: medium, reddish brown (2.5 ΥR 6/6). Few small to medium white inclusions, and mica. Very large voids, especially on or near exterior surface. The exterior surface is covered with a watery white slip.

13. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ66. Fabric 1 (?) (rough version?): pinkish buff (2.5 YR 6/5). Few small to large white inclusions, and few small to medium voids. The exterior surface is covered with a watery white slip. See Frantz 1938, pp. 433, 457, A92, fig. 15: mid-to late 13th century; MacKay 2003, p. 414, fig. 24.8: late 13th-early 14th century.

14. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ67. Fabric 1: reddish brown to pinkish (2.5 YR 6/6). Few small white and dark grey inclusions. Medium to large voids visible on both surfaces. The exterior is covered with a watery white slip. See Saccardo et al. 2003, p. 406, fig. 9.

15. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ46. Fabric 1: reddish brown (2.5 ΥR 6/6). Few very small to large white inclusions. The exterior is covered with a watery white slip. See Saccardo et al. 2003, p. 406, fig. 9.

16. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ51. Fabric 2: brownish orange (2.5 YR 6/8). Some small white and grey inclusions. The exterior is covered with a watery white slip.

17. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ84. Fabric is orange buff (5 YR 7/6‑6/8). Few small to medium white and light brown inclusions.

18. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ52. Fabric 2 (?): orange-brown (2.5 YR 6/8). Few small to very large white inclusions, rare very large angular reddish brown inclusions. The exterior is covered with a watery white slip.

19. ΚΟΡ.2009/Κ125. Fabric 2: pinkish brown (2.5 YR 6/6). Few white angular inclusions, sub-angular reddish brown inclusions, and rare mica. The exterior is covered with a watery white slip.

20. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ42. Fabric 1: pinkish orange (2.5 YR 6/4). Few small to very large white inclusions, and few large voids. The exterior is covered with a watery white slip. See Williams et al. 1998, pp. 258‑259, no. 21, pl. 46c: found in context which contains coins of Guillaume Villehardouin, 1245‑1278.

21. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ87. Fabric 2: reddish brown (2.5 YR 6/8). Few small white inclusions and some small voids.

22. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ43. Fabric is light brown. Some small white inclusions, abundant mica.

23. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ86. Fabric 1: buff (5 YR 6/4). Few small white and rare small rounded orange inclusions.

24. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ49. Fabric 2: reddish brown (2.5 ΥR 6/6). Some very small and rare very large white inclusions, and common very small voids. The exterior is covered with a watery white slip.

25. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ36. Fabric is medium coarse, pinkish brown (2.5 YR 6/8). Few white inclusions of small to very large size, few small grey inclusions, and rare.

26. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ69. Fabric 1: pinkish brown (2.5 YR 6/4). Few small to very large white inclusions and rare small rounded reddish brown inclusions. The exterior is covered with a watery white slip.

27. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ47. Fabric is light pinkish buff (5 YR 7/4). Few grey and white inclusions of small to very large size. On the exterior surface small swirls of brown clay, partly fused with the clay, are visible. Finely incised decoration forms a band running around the interior surface of the upper body, filled with arabesque and geometric designs. The decoration imitates Islamic inscriptions. A second band is partly visible on the lower body. The interior surface is covered with yellow glaze. The exterior surface is not decorated. Yellow glaze covers the lowest part of the exterior surface.

28. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ37. Stewpot of type A. Stewpot bears a heavy rim which is triangular in section, and is marked by an incision running around its exterior surface. It has two strap handles and a globular body with densely arranged, fine incisions.

29. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ39. Stewpot of type A. Stewpot bears a heavy rim which is triangular in section, and is marked by an incision running around its exterior surface. It has two strap handles and a globular body with densely arranged, fine incisions.

30. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ40. Stewpot of type A. Stewpot bears a heavy rim which is triangular in section, and is marked by an incision running around its exterior surface. It has two strap handles and a globular body with densely arranged, fine incisions.

31. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ59. Stewpot of type A. Stewpot bears a heavy rim which is triangular in section, and is marked by an incision running around its exterior surface. It has two strap handles and a globular body with densely arranged, fine incisions.

32. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ128. Stewpot of type A. Stewpot bears a heavy rim which is triangular in section, and is marked by an incision running around its exterior surface. It has a globular body with two bands of densely arranged, fine incisions.

33. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ127. Stewpot of type A. Stewpot bears a heavy rim which is triangular in section, and is marked by an incision running around its exterior surface. It has a globular body with four bands of densely arranged, fine incisions.

34. ΚΟΡ.2009/Κ113. Stewpot of type A. Stewpot bears a heavy rim which is triangular in section, and is marked by two incisions running around its exterior surface. It has a globular body with four bands of densely arranged, fine incisions. Shape is identical with MacKay 1967, p. 295, no. 115 (fourth quarter of 12th century).

35. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ60. Stewpot of type A. Stewpot bears a heavy rim which is triangular in section, and is marked by an incision running around its exterior surface. It has two strap handles and a globular body with densely arranged, fine incisions.

36. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ61. Stewpot of type A. Stewpot bears a heavy rim which is triangular in section, and is marked by an incision running around its exterior surface. It has a globular body with densely arranged, fine incisions.

37. ΚΟΡ.2009/Κ122. Stewpot of type B. It bears a high folded rim, a globular body, and strap handles attached to the rim. A vertical band of clay runs from top of the rim to the maximum diameter. Fabric: medium coarse, light brown to grey (7.5 YR 5/2). It contains few small to large white and grey inclusions.

38. ΚΟΡ.2009/Κ119. Stewpot of type C. It bears a short rim with triangular section, a globular squattish body, and strap handles attached to rim and body. Thick-walled. Fabric: medium coarse, light brown (7.5 YR 6/3), with few small to large white inclusions, and some large angular light brown inclusions, visible mostly on the interior surface.

39. ΚΟΡ.2009/Κ120. Stewpot of type C. It bears a short rim with triangular section, a globular squattish body, and strap handles attached to rim and body. Thick-walled. Fabric same as above.

40. ΚΟΡ.2009/Κ115. Stewpot of type C. It bears a short rim with triangular section, a globular squattish body, and strap handles attached to rim and body. Thick-walled. Fabric same as above.

41. ΚΟΡ.2009/Κ116. Stewpot of type C. It bears a short rim with triangular section, a globular squattish body, and strap handles attached to rim and body. Thick-walled. Fabric same as above.

42. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ77. Unglazed White Ware jug, type V. Fabric is fine, hard fired, sandy, light pink (5 YR 8/4). It contains some reddish brown inclusions of small to large size, abundant gold mica, and abundant small to medium sparkling flakes.

43. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ95. Middle Byzantine amphora. Vertical rounded rim, cylindrical neck, and oval handles attached to middle of neck and to shoulder. Fabric is fine, hard fired, yellowish buff (10 YR 7/3). Few small to medium grey inclusions. Shape is similar to Hayes Type 54 (Hayes 1992, p. 73, fig. 24). 10th-11th century. Residual?

44. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ90. Amphora. Fabric is fine, hard fired, pink at core and yellow on exterior surface (10 YR 8/4‑7/4). Few large reddish brown and few small to large white inclusions.

45. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ91. Amphora. Fabric is fine, medium fired, light pinkish to buff (10 YR 8/4). Few small to very large rounded grey inclusions, and rare large white inclusions.

46. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ71. Amphora. Fabric is fine, hard fired, pink to yellowish (7.5 YR 7/4). It contains some small white inclusions and few medium to large rounded reddish brown inclusions.

47. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ55. Lageni. Fabric is medium coarse, medium fired, buff to yellow (2.5 Υ 8/3). Some small to large white and greyish brown inclusions.

48. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ57. Lageni. Fabric is medium, hard fired, yellowish buff (10 YR 7.5‑7.4). It contains some greyish brown and few small to large white inclusions.

49. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ75. Jug. Fabric is fine, hard fired, buff on exterior surface and light pinkish orange on interior surface (5 YR 7/6). Few small white inclusions, rare small and medium reddish brown, and some small voids.

50. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ74. Small jug. Fabric is fine, medium fired, buff (7.5 YR 7/4‑2.5 Y 8/3). Some angular reddish brown inclusions of small to very large size.

51. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ76. Jug with matt-painted decoration. Fabric is fine, hard fired, buff to orange (5 YR 7/6). Some small grey, orange and white inclusions, and some small voids.

52. ΚΟΡ.2010/Κ88. Large pitcher with matt-painted decoration. Fabric is medium, hard fired, pinkish orange (2.5 YR 6/6). It contains few medium white and reddish brown inclusions. For the decoration see Williams & Zervos 1992, p. 146, pl. 34.

Bibliographie

Athanasoulis 2011: Athanasoulis D., “Clay vase with Arabic inscriptions and relief decoration”, in Byzantium and the Arabs, exhibition catalogue, Museum of Byzantine Culture, Thessaloniki, 2011, pp. 44‑45.

Athanasoulis 2013: Athanasoulis D., “Corinth”, in J. Albani, E. Chalkia (ed.), Heaven and earth: Cities and countryside in Byzantine Greece, Athens, 2013, pp. 192‑209.

Athanasoulis et al. 2010: Αθανασουλης Δ., Αθανασουλα Μ., Μανωλεσσου Ε., Μελετη Π. [= Athanasoulis D., Athanasoula M., Manolessou E., Meleti P.], “Σύντομη επισκόπηση της αρχαιολογικής έρευνας μεσαιωνικών καταλοίπων Κορίνθου” [= “Short overview of archaeological research of medieval remains at Corinth”], in Πρακτικά του Η’ Διεθνούς Συνεδρίου Πελοποννησιακών Σπουδών (Κόρινθος, 26‑28 Σεπτεμβρίου 2008), Πελοποννησιακά, Παράρτημα 29 [= Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of Peloponnesian Studies (Corinth 26‑28 September 2008), Peloponnesiaka supplement 29], Athens, 2010, pp. 167‑179.

Avissar & Stern 2005: Avissar M., Stern E., Pottery of the Crusader, Ayyubid, and Mamluk periods in Israel, IAA reports 26, Jerusalem, 2005.

François 2010: François V., “Cuisine et pots de terre à Byzance”, Bulletin de correspondance hellénique 134, 2010, pp. 317‑382.

Frantz 1938: Frantz A., “Middle Byzantine pottery in Athens”, Hesperia 7, 1938, pp. 429‑467.

Hayes 1992: Hayes J.W., Excavations at Saraçhane in Istanbul, vol. 2, The pottery, Princeton, 1992.

Joyner 2007: Joyner L., “Cooking pots as indicators of cultural change: a petrographic study of Byzantine and Frankish cooking wares from Corinth”, Hesperia 76, 2007, pp. 183‑227.

MacKay 1967: MacKay T.S., “More Byzantine and Frankish pottery from Corinth”, Hesperia 36, 1967, pp. 249‑320.

MacKay 2003: MacKay T.S., “Pottery of the Frankish period: 13th and early 14th centuries”, in C.K. Williams II, N. Bookidis (ed.), Corinth, vol. XX, Corinth: The centenary (1896-1996), Princeton, 2003, pp. 401‑422.

Morgan 1942: Morgan C.H., Corinth, vol. XI, The Byzantine pottery, Cambridge Mass., 1942.

Papanikola-Bakirtzis 2003: Παπανικολα-Μπακιρτζη Δ. [= Papanikola-Bakirtzi D.], “Εργαστήρια εφυαλωμένης κεραμικής στο βυζαντινό κόσμο” [= “Workshops of glazed pottery in the Byzantine world”], in Ch. Bakirtzis (ed.), Actes du VIIe Congrès International sur la Céramique Médiévale en Méditerranée (Thessaloniki, 11‑16 octobre 1999), Athens, 2003, pp. 45‑61.

Piérart & Thalmann 1980: Piérart J., Thalmann J.‑P., “Céramique romaine et médievale”, in Études argiennes, Bulletin de correspondance hellénique supplément 6, Athens, 1980, pp. 459‑493.

Saccardo et al. 2003: Saccardo F., Lazzarini L., Munarini M., “Ceramiche importate a Venezia e nel Veneto tra XI e XIV secolo”, in Ch. Bakirtzis (ed.), Actes du VIIe Congrès International sur la Céramique Médiévale en Méditerranée (Thessaloniki, 11‑16 octobre 1999), Athens, 2003, pp. 395‑420.

Sanders 1987: Sanders G.D.R., “An assemblage of Frankish pottery at Corinth”, Hesperia 56, 1987, pp. 159‑195.

Sanders 1993: Sanders G.D.R., “Excavations at Sparta: The Roman Stoa (1988-1991). Preliminary report, Part 1: (c) medieval pottery”, Annual of the British School at Athens 88, 1993, pp. 251‑286.

Sanders 2000: Sanders G.D.R., “New relative and absolute chronologies for 9th to 13th century glazed wares at Corinth: Methodology and social conclusions”, in K. Belke, F. Hild, J. Koder, P. Soustal (ed.), Byzanz als Raum. Zu Methoden und Inhalten der historischen Geographie des östlischen Mittelmeerraumes im Mittelalter, Vienna, 2000, pp. 153‑173.

Sanders 2002: Sanders G.D.R., “Corinth”, in A. Laiou (ed.), The economic history of Byzantium: From the seventh through the fifteenth century, vol. 2, Washington DC, 2002, pp. 647‑654.

Sanders 2003a: Sanders G.D.R., “An overview of the chronology for 9th to 13th century pottery at Corinth”, in Ch. Bakirtzis (ed.), Actes du VIIe Congrès International sur la Céramique Médiévale en Méditerranée (Thessaloniki, 11‑16 octobre 1999), Athens, 2003, pp. 35‑44.

Sanders 2003b: Sanders G.D.R., “Recent developments in the chronology of Byzantine Corinth”, in C.K. Williams II, N. Bookidis (ed.), Corinth, vol. XX, Corinth: The centenary (1896-1996), Princeton, 2003, pp. 385‑399.

Sanders, forthcoming: Sanders G.D.R., “Renaissance-period pottery at Corinth dated by Tessere Mercantile and mould-blown glass”, in P. Petridis (ed.), 12th International Congress on Medieval and Modern Period Mediterranean Ceramics (Athens, 21‑26 October 2018), Athens, forthcoming.

Scranton 1957: Scranton R.L., Corinth, vol. XVI, Mediaeval architecture in the central area of Corinth, Princeton, 1957.

Tzavella 2018: Τζαβελλα Ε. [= Tzavella E.], “Βυζαντινή κεραμική από την Αρχαία Κόρινθο και οι μαρτυρίες της για την οικιστική μορφή της πόλης” [= “Byzantine pottery from ancient Corinth and evidence regarding the settlement pattern”], in E. Zymi, A.‑V. Karapanagiotou, M. Xanthopoulou (ed.), Το αρχαιολογικό έργο στην Πελοπόννησο (ΑΕΠΕΛ 1). Πρακτικά του Διεθνούς Συνεδρίου (Τρίπολη, 7‑11 Νοεμβρίου 2012) [= The archaeological work in the Peloponnese (AEPEL 1). Proceedings of the international conference (Tripoli, 7‑11 November 2012)], Kalamata, 2018, pp. 811‑823.

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Vezzoli 2011: Vezzoli V., “The Fustat ceramic collection in the Royal Museums of Art and History in Brussels: The Mamluk assemblage”, Bulletin des Musées royaux d’Art et d’Histoire 82, 2011, pp119‑168.

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Watson 2004: Watson O., Ceramics from Islamic lands: Kuwait National Museum, the Al‑Sabah collection, New York, 2004.

White 2009: White H.E., “An investigation of production technologies of Byzantine glazed pottery from Corinth, Greece in the 11th to 12th centuries”, PhD, University of Sheffield, 2009 (unpublished).

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Williams 2003: Williams C.K. II, “Frankish Corinth”, in C.K. Williams II, N. Bookidis (ed.), Corinth, vol. XX, Corinth: The centenary (1896-1996), Princeton, 2003, pp. 423‑434.

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Notes

1 H.S. Robinson, Director of the Corinth Excavations in the 1960s, contributed greatly to the organization and future study of the voluminous medieval ceramic material of the excavations of the American School of Classical Studies.

2 For an overview of rescue excavations between 2006-2010, see Athanasoulis et al. 2010.

3 Athanasoulis 2013, p. 208, n. 1; fig. 172 on p. 195 is partly based on this database.

4 This excavation is represented by no. 14 in Athanasoulis 2013, p. 195, fig. 172.

5 For selected ceramic finds from the Late Antique phase of use see Tzavella 2018, pp. 811‑812, n. 9, fig. 2.

6 For a recent study on Measles Ware see Vassiliou (2018).

7 I would like to thank Dr Valentina Vezzoli and Dr Edna Stern for their valuable advice regarding the identification of this sherd.

8 See Avissar & Stern 2005, pp. 16‑18, for various Islamic bowls with Sgraffito decoration.

9 See White 2009, pp. 94‑130 for petrographic and chemical groups of pottery found in the Corinthian Forum. A few of these groups (e.g. the Quartz-Chert fabric, pp. 105‑106, and the Medium-Coarse Mudstone-Chert group, pp. 106‑107, with Corinthian origin), could be petrographically similar to our Fabric 1. This comparison is only tentative, however, since the examination of the fabrics from the Koutsougera plot was performed only at macroscopic level.

10 MacKay 1967, p. 252 (Glossy Ware) and pp. 258‑261 (Shiny Olive Incised Ware II); Sanders 1987, p. 162 and n. 7; MacKay 2003, p. 408; Sanders 2003, p. 393 (Zeuxippus Ware found in Units 35, 36 and 36, dated between 1200 and 1260), fig. 23.2: 26.

11 Williams (2003, p. 430), however, argues that the earliest imported south Italian Protomaiolica is to be found in Corinthian deposits of the second third of the 13th century, and importation in the first third of the 13th century seems most unlikely.

12 Sanders, forthcoming. The results presented recently in this paper need to be cross-checked with well-dated stratified contexts from other sites, especially in Italy.

13 RMR: Sanders 1987, p. 171; MacKay 2003, p. 412, n. 53. Veneto Ware: MacKay 1967, pp. 254‑255; Sanders 1987, 174‑175; Williams & Zervos 1992, pp. 153‑156, fig. 6‑9; Williams & Zervos 1993, p. 21, no. 15‑16, pl. 10‑11; Williams & Zervos 1994, p. 15, no. 15, and p. 29, no. 40‑41; Williams & Zervos 1995, pp. 26‑27, no. 15‑17, pl. 6; Williams et al. 1997, p. 26, no. 24‑26; MacKay 2003, pp. 413‑414; Williams 2003, p. 428. Metallic Ware: MacKay 1967, p. 252 (for the type) and pp. 265‑267 (for chronology); Sanders 1987, p. 162.

14 Piérart & Thalmann 1980, p. 481, D5, fig. 7 (second half of 12th century); François 2010, fig. 1.8 (second half of 12th century).

15 Sanders 1993, p. 277, no. 59‑61, fig. 13.

16 Found in lot 1996‑1, which contains a coin of Guillaume Villehardouin issued in 1250 or later, as well as a RMR bowl.

17 Parallels from the Forum: MacKay 1967, p. 295, no. 120‑121.

18 See Hayes 1992, pp. 39‑40, Deposit 51 (1150-1175), no. 53 and no. 54 (handle attachment, typical for UWW V). Classification of the vessel to the UWW V type is based also on the mica inclusions.

19 Papanikola-Bakirtzis (2003, p. 48) characterizes as “tea-kettles” closed glazed vessels used over the fire which were produced in Constantinople from the 7th century onwards.

20 Hayes 1992, p. 40: “It was not much exported.”

21 Numerous examples of the UWW V category were found at a rescue excavation in Chalcis (island of Euboea), under study and publication by J. Vroom, E. Tzavella & G. Vaxevanis.

22 Where the lagenia are mentioned as “amphorae”.

Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1 – a) Plan of Byzantine Corinth, courtesy of the American School of Classical Studies, with indications in white added by the author; b) Ground plan of Koutsougera excavation by Y. Nakas, courtesy of 25th Ephorate of Byzantine Antiquities; c‑d) Coins recovered during the Koutsougera excavation.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/10204/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,6M
Titre Fig. 2 – Glazed pottery. no. 1‑7: Fine Sgraffito. no. 8‑11: Champlevé. no. 12: Late Sgraffito. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/10204/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,7M
Titre Fig. 3 – Glazed pottery. no. 13‑17: Late Sgraffito. no. 18‑21: Incised Sgraffito. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/10204/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,6M
Titre Fig. 4 – Glazed pottery. no. 22: Measles Ware. no. 23‑24: Monochrome Glazed. no. 25‑26: Slip-Painted. no. 27: Imported Islamic ware. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/10204/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 1,6M
Titre Fig. 5 – Cooking vessels. no. 28‑36: Type A. no. 37: Type B. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/10204/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 716k
Titre Fig. 6 – Cooking vessels. no. 38‑41: Type C. Plain ware and amphorae. no. 42: Unglazed White Ware. no. 43: Amphora, 10th-11th centuries (?). no. 44‑46: Amphorae, 12th-13th centuries. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/10204/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 414k
Titre Fig. 7 – Plain ware. no. 47‑48: Lagenia. no. 49‑52: Jugs. The numbers refer to the catalogue entries infra.
URL http://books.openedition.org/momeditions/docannexe/image/10204/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 479k

Auteur

Ephorate of Antiquities of Boeotia, Museum of Thebes, 1 Threpsiadou St., 32200, Thebes, Greece, ellitzav@gmail.com

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LCDPUleslibraires.fr
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