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Cuvier’s History of the Natural Sciences

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Georges Cuvier

Illustrations

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1Allegory of the Sciences parts pages
«Allegorie op de Wetenschappen». Oil on canvas (113.8 x 63.4 in.) by the Dutch Golden Age painter Gérard de Lairesse (1641-1711). Painting dated between 1675-1683, exhibited at the Rijksmuseum of Amsterdam.

2Allégorie des Sciences pages de parties
«Allegorie op de Wetenschappen». Huile sur toile (289 x 161 cm) du peintre Néerlandais Gérard de Lairesse (1641-1711). Cette œuvre (datée entre 1675-1683) est exposée au Rijksmuseum d’Amsterdam.

3Dissection of human cadaver page 36
Frontispice from Vésale (André), Andreae Vesalii Bruxellensis, Scholae medicorum Patavinae Professoris De humani corporis fabrica libri septem, Basileae: [ex officina Johann Oporinus], 1543, [663] + [37] p., illus., in-folio.

4Dissection d’un cadavre humain page 54
Frontispice (détail) extrait de Vésale (André), Andreae Vesalii Bruxellensis, Scholae medicorum Patavinae Professoris De humani corporis fabrica libri septem, Basileae: [ex officina Johann Oporinus], 1543, [663] + [37] p., illus., in-folio.

5Anatomy of the horse page 74
Anatomical plate from Ruini (Carlo), Anatomia del cauallo, infermità, et suoi rimedii opera nuoua degna di qualsiuoglia prencipe, & caualiere, & molto necessaria à filosofi, medici, cauallerizzi, & marescalchi del sig. Carlo Ruini senator bolognese. Adornata di bellissime figure, lequali dimostrano tutta l’anatomia di esso cauallo divisa in due volumi de qualiquesto primo, in cinque libri copiosamente dichiara tutte le cose appartenenti alla detta anatomia con due bellissime tavole, una de’ capitoli, & l’altra delle cose notabili, In Venetia: Appresso Gasparo Bindoni, 1599, plate I, Book III, p. 175.

6Anatomie du cheval page 94
Planche anatomique extraite de Ruini (Carlo), Anatomia del cauallo, infermità, et suoi rimedii opera nuoua degna di qualsiuoglia prencipe, & caualiere, & molto necessaria à filosofi, medici, cauallerizzi, & marescalchi del sig. Carlo Ruini senator bolognese. Adornata di bellissime figure, lequali dimostrano tutta l’anatomia di esso cauallo divisa in due volumi de qualiquesto primo, in cinque libri copiosamente dichiara tutte le cose appartenenti alla detta anatomia con due bellissime tavole, una de’capitoli, & l’altra delle cose notabili, In Venetia: Appresso Gasparo Bindoni, 1599, planche I, Livre I, p. 49.

7Human skeleton page 116
Anatomical plate from Belon (Pierre), L’histoire de la nature des oiseaux, avec leurs descriptions et naïfs portraits retirés du naturel, écrite en sept livres, Paris: Gilles Corrozet, 1555, [28] + 281 + 1 p. Plate p. 40.

8Squelette d’oiseau page 134
Planche anatomique extraite de Belon (Pierre), L’histoire de la nature des oiseaux, avec leurs descriptions et naïfs portraits retirés du naturel, écrite en sept livres, Paris: Gilles Corrozet, 1555, [28] + 281 + 1 p. Planche p. 41.

9Equus marinus monstrosus page 154
Plate from Aldrovandi (Ulisse), Monstrorum historia cum Paralipomenis historiae omnium animalium, Bologna: Nicolai Tebaldini, 1642, [947] p., ills, in-folio. Plate p. 356.

10Homme à tête de chien page 174
Planche extraite de Aldrovandi (Ulisse), Monstrorum historia cum Paralipomenis historiae omnium animalium, Bologne: Nicolai Tebaldini, 1642, [947] p., ills, in-folio. Planche p. 22.

11Ô caput elleboro dignum page 196
Fool’s Cap Map of the World believed to be by Oronce Fine (c. 1580-1590). Map preserved at the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris (d’Anville collection).

12Ô caput elleboro dignum page 214
Le monde dans une tête de fou. Mappemonde attribuée à Oronce Fine (c. 1580-1590), conservée à la Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris (collection d’Anville).

13Elephant page 196
Plate from Jonston (Jan), Historiæ naturalis de quadrupetibus [sic] libri... cum æneis figuris Johannes Jonstonus med: doctor concinnavit…, Francofurti: ad Moenum impensa Matthæi Meriani, 1640, 4 vols, plate 7.

14Éléphant de face page 214
Planche extraite de Jonston (Jan), Historiæ naturalis de quadrupetibus [sic] libri... cum æneis figuris Johannes Jonstonus med: doctor concinnavit…, Francofurti: ad Moenum impensa Matthæi Meriani, 1640, 4 vol., planche 9.

15Vite vinifera page 276
Plate from Mattioli (Pietro Andrea), Commentarii in sex libros Pedaci Dioscoridis Anazerbei de medica materia iam denuo ab ipso autore recogniti, et locis plus mille aucti: adiectis magnis, ac nouis plantarum, ac animalium iconibus, supra priores editiones long`e pluribus, ad viuum delineatis: accesserunt quoque ad margines Graeci contextus qu`am plurimi, ex antiquissimis codicibus desumptu, qui Dioscoridis ipsius deprauatam sectionem restituunt..., Venice: Vincenzo Valgrisi, 1565, [172] + 1459 + [13] p. Plate 1376.

16Olivo domestico page 298
Planche extraite de Mattioli (Pietro Andrea), Commentarii in sex libros Pedaci Dioscoridis Anazerbei de medica materia iam denuo ab ipso autore recogniti, et locis plus mille aucti: adiectis magnis, ac nouis plantarum, ac animalium iconibus, supra priores editiones long`e pluribus, ad viuum delineatis: accesserunt quoque ad margines Graeci contextus qu`am plurimi, ex antiquissimis codicibus desumptu, qui Dioscoridis ipsius deprauatam sectionem restituunt..., Venise: Vincenzo Valgrisi, 1565, [172] + 1459 + [13] p. Planche 219.

17Conrad Gessner page 320
Portrait from 1564 by Thomann Grosshans (1525-1567).

18Conrad Gessner page 334
Page de titre de Gessner (Conrad), Lexicon Graecolatinum post Conradum Gesnerum philosophum, Arnoldum Arlenium pari eruditione & diligentia viros: & post Adriani Iunii innumerabilem pene illam accessionem postremo nunc... auctum per Ioannem Hartongum. Ad hec novissime iam revisum ac probe castigatum’, Basileae: [Ex Officina Hieronymi Curionis, Impensis Henrichi Petri], 1550. Gravure d’après Hans Holbein le Jeune (1497-1543).

19De machinis tractoris fatis… page 350
Plate from Agricola (Georgius), De re metallica libri XII quibus officia, instrumenta, machinæ, ac omnia deniq[ue] ad metallicam spectantia, non modo luculentissimè describuntur, sed & per effigies, suis locis insertas, adjunctis latinis, germanicisq[ue] appellationibus ita ob oculos ponuntur, ut clarius tradi non possint. Ejusdem De animantibus subterraneis liber, ab autore recognitus: cum indicibus diversis, quicqiuid in opere tractatum est, pulchrè demonstrantibus, Basel: [s. n.], 1556, [10] + 502 + [74] p. + [2] leaves of pls, illus., wood engr., in-folio. Plate p. 158.

20Ampullæ in catinis collocatæ… page 366
Planche extraite de Agricola (Georgius), De re metallica libri XII quibus officia, instrumenta, machinæ, ac omnia deniq[ue] ad metallicam spectantia, non modo luculentissimè describuntur, sed & per effigies, suis locis insertas, adjunctis latinis, germanicisq[ue] appellationibus ita ob oculos ponuntur, ut clarius tradi non possint. Ejusdem De animantibus subterraneis liber, ab autore recognitus: cum indicibus diversis, quicqiuid in opere tractatum est, pulchrè demonstrantibus, Basel: [s. n.], 1556, [10] + 502 + [74] p. + [2] feuillets de pl., illus., bois gr., in-folio. Planche p. 360.

21The alchemyst page 384
Ink on paper (c. 1558) attributed to Philip Galle (1537-1612) after Pieter Bruegel the Elder (c. 1525/1530-1569). Engraving (12 9/16 x 17 11/16 in.) preserved at the National Gallery of Art, Washington (Rosenwald Collection).

22L’alchimiste page 400
Dessin à l’encre (c. 1558) attribué à Philip Galle (1537-1612) d’après Pieter Bruegel l’Ancien (c. 1525/1530-1569). Dessin (31.9 x 45 cm) conservé à la National Gallery of Art, Washington (Collection Rosenwald).

23Francis Bacon page 420
Portrait by the English portrait painterJohn Vanderbank (1694-1739) after unknown artist (c. 1618), preserved at the National Portrait Gallery, London (Primary collection).

24Francis Bacon page 438
Portrait (détail) de John Vanderbank (1694-1739) d’après un artiste inconnu (c. 1618), conservé à la National Portrait Gallery, London (Primary collection).

25Mundus subterraneus page 458
Frontispice from Athanasius Kircher’s Mundus subterraneus, in XII libros digestus; quo divinum subterrestris mundi opificium, mira ergasteriorum naturae in eo distributio, vergo pantamorphon protei regnum, universae denique naturae majestas & divitiae, summa rerum varietate exponuntur, Amsterdam: Joannem Janssonium & Waesberge, 1664, 2 parts in 1 vol. ([34] + 346 + [6] p.; [12] + 487 + [9] p.), illus., in-folio.

26L’arche de Noé page 478
L’embarquement des espèces dans l’arche de Noé. Planche extraite de Kircher (Athanasius), Arca Noë: in tres libros digesta, quorum I. de rebus quæ ante diluvium, II. de iis, quæ ipso diluvio ejusque duratione, III. de iis, quæ post diluvium a Noëmo gesta sunt, quæ omnia novâ methodo, nec non summa argumentorum varietate, explicantur, & demonstrantur, Amstelodami: Apud J. Janssonium à Waesberge, 1675, 240 p. + [1]. Gravure p. 123.

27Magdeburg hemispheres page 502
Plate from Guericke (Otton von), Experimenta nova (ut vocantur) Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio primùm à R. P. Gaspare Schotto, è Societate Jesu... nunc verò ab ipso auctore perfectiùs edita, variisque aliis experimentis aucta. Quibus accesserunt simul certa quædam de aëris pondere circa terram; de virtutibus mundanis, & systemate mundi planetario; sicut & de stellis fixis, ac spatio illo immenso, quod tàm intra quam extra eas funditur, Amstelodami: Apud Joannem Janssonium à Waesberge, 1672, [8] + 244 p. Engraving by Gaspar Schott (detail, part left), plate 11, book III.

28Les globes de Magdebourg page 524
Planche extraite Guericke (Otton von), Experimenta nova (ut vocantur) Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio primùm à R. P. Gaspare Schotto, è Societate Jesu... nunc verò ab ipso auctore perfectiùs edita, variisque aliis experimentis aucta. Quibus accesserunt simul certa quædam de aëris pondere circa terram; de virtutibus mundanis, & systemate mundi planetario; sicut & de stellis fixis, ac spatio illo immenso, quod tàm intra quam extra eas funditur, Amstelodami: Apud Joannem Janssonium à Waesberge, 1672, [8] f. + 244 p. Gravure de Gaspar Schott (détail, partie droite), planche 11, livre III.

29Boyle’s experiment page 546
“An experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump” (exhibited in 1768). Detail of the oil on canvas (183 x 244 cm) by the English painter Joseph Wright of Derby (1734-1797). Painting preserved at the National Gallery, London.

30L’expérience de Boyle page 564
«Une expérience sur un oiseau dans une pompe à air» (exposé en 1768). Détail de l’huile sur toile (183 x 244 cm) du peintre anglais Joseph Wright originaire de Derby (1734-1797). Tableau conservé à la National Gallery de Londres.

31Embryology of the chick page 582
Plate from Malpighi (Marcello) Opera Omnia, Seu Thesaurus Locupletissimus Botanico-Medico-Anatomicus, Viginti Quatuor Tractatus Complectens Et In Duos Tomos Distributus, quorum Tractatuum Seriem videre est Dedicatione absolutâ. Editio Novssima, cum omnibus Codicibus hactenus publici juris factis collata, nunc primum elegantißimâ methodô disposita, variis Iconibus, ut & Authorum diversorum opusculis (materiam hanc spectantibus) illustrata, quibus omnes Editiones hactenus caruerunt, notis marginalibus, amplißimis paßim adaucta, craßis emendata sphalmatis, & uberrimis Illustrata Indicibus, tam Capitum, quam Rerum & Verborum, Lugduni Batavorum: apud Petrum Vander Aa, bibliopolam, 1687, 2 parts in 1 vol. Plate p. 62.

32Embryologie du poulet page 600
Planche (détail) extraite de Malpighi (Marcello) Opera Omnia, Seu Thesaurus Locupletissimus Botanico-Medico-Anatomicus, Viginti Quatuor Tractatus Complectens Et In Duos Tomos Distributus, quorum Tractatuum Seriem videre est Dedicatione absolutâ. Editio Novssima, cum omnibus Codicibus hactenus publici juris factis collata, nunc primum elegantißimâ methodô disposita, variis Iconibus, ut & Authorum diversorum opusculis (materiam hanc spectantibus) illustrata, quibus omnes Editiones hactenus caruerunt, notis marginalibus, amplißimis paßim adaucta, craßis emendata sphalmatis, & uberrimis Illustrata Indicibus, tam Capitum, quam Rerum & Verborum, Lugduni Batavorum: apud Petrum Vander Aa, bibliopolam, 1687, 2 part. en 1 vol. Planche p. 62.

33Chimpanzee page 620
Plate from Tyson (Edward), Orang-outang, sive Homo Sylvestris: or, The anatomy of a Pygmie compared with that of a monkey, an ape, and a man. To which is added, a philological essay concerning the Pygmies, the Cynocephali, the Satyrs, and Sphinges of the ancients. Wherein it will appear that they are all either APES or MONKEYS, and not MEN, as formely pretented, London: Th. Bennett, 1699, 108 p. Figure 1.

34Chimpanzé de dos page 638
Plate from Tyson (Edward), Orang-outang, sive Homo Sylvestris: or, The anatomy of a Pygmie compared with that of a monkey, an ape, and a man. To which is added, a philological essay concerning the Pygmies, the Cynocephali, the Satyrs, and Sphinges of the ancients. Wherein it will appear that they are all either APES or MONKEYS, and not MEN, as formely pretented, London: Th. Bennett, 1699, 108 p. Figure 2.

35Museum Wormianum page 658
Plate from Worm (Ole), Museum Wormianum. Seu, Historia rerum rariorum, tam naturalium, quam artificialium, tam domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quae Hafniae Danorum in aedibus authoris servantur. Adornata ab Olao Worm Lugduni Batavorum: Apud Johannem Elsevirium, 1655, [12] + 389 p.

36Museum Wormianum page 676
Planche extraite de Worm (Ole), Museum Wormianum. Seu, Historia rerum rariorum, tam naturalium, quam artificialium, tam domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quae Hafniae Danorum in aedibus authoris servantur. Adornata ab Olao Worm Lugduni Batavorum: Apud Johannem Elsevirium, 1655, [12] + 389 p.

37Micrographia page 694
Plate (detail) from Hooke (Robert), Micrographia: or, Some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses. With observations and inquiries thereupon, London: Printed by J. Martyn & J. Allestry, 1665, 246 + [10] p. Plate XXXV.

38Micrographie page 712
Planche (détail) extraite de Hooke (Robert), Micrographia: or, Some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses. With observations and inquiries thereupon, London: Printed by J. Martyn & J. Allestry, 1665, 246 + [10] p. Planche XXIV.

39Coda-pana page 734
Plate (detail) from Rheede (Hendrik van), Hortus Indicus Malabaricus: continens regni Malabarici apud Indos cereberrimi onmis generis plantas rariores, Latinas, Malabaricis, Arabicis, Brachmanum charactareibus hominibusque expressas... adornatus per Henricum van Rheede, van Draakenstein,... et Johannem Casearium...; notis adauxit, & commentariis illustravit Arnoldus Syen, Amstelaedami: sumptibus Johannis van Someren & Joannis van Dyck, 1678-1703, 12 vols in 6. Plate 2 (vol. 3).

40Coda-pana page 758
Planche (détail) extraite de Rheede (Hendrik van), Hortus Indicus Malabaricus: continens regni Malabarici apud Indos cereberrimi onmis generis plantas rariores, Latinas, Malabaricis, Arabicis, Brachmanum charactareibus hominibusque expressas... adornatus per Henricum van Rheede, van Draakenstein,... et Johannem Casearium...; notis adauxit, & commentariis illustravit Arnoldus Syen, Amstelaedami: sumptibus Johannis van Someren & Joannis van Dyck, 1678-1703, 12 vol. en 6. Planche 1 (vol. 3).

Credits

41Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle Paris

42Bibliothèque centrale pages 36 54 74 94 116 134 154 174 232 252 360 366 458 478 502 524 582 600 620 638 658 676 694 712 734 758

43British Museum Londres

44Pages 334 746 764

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