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Cuvier’s History of the Natural Sciences

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Georges Cuvier

4. The Scientific Method and Foundations of Societies and Academies

12. The Foundations of Societies and Academies of Science

Texte intégral

Mundus subterraneus
Frontispice from Athanasius Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus… (1664). Cliché Bibliothèque centrale, MNHN.

1Messieurs,

  • 1 [Bacon, see Lesson 11, notes 19 and 30.]
  • 2 [Galileo, see Lesson 11, notes 20, 42, and 46.]
  • 3 [Descartes, see Volume 1, Lesson 6, note 7.]
  • 4 Despite the astronomers, we could deny the existence of the void based on physics. Indeed, any man (...)

2In our last lesson we mostly talked about three famous men who, during the first half of the seventeenth century, set up new rules for the study of sciences. We saw that Bacon,1 with his guidelines, and Galileo,2 with his examples, overthrew the authority that had been followed so far to prove facts, and they based everything on experiment and calculations. Then we noticed Descartes3 for the way he attacked metaphysics and the logic of the scholastic philosophers, for the brilliant systems he introduced and for the powerful grip he put on people’s spirits, with even more strength than his two predecessors, though he did not deserve as much praise as them. Indeed, everything that Descartes introduced in physics was mere pointless hypothesis. For example, after he established the fact that we can only accept as a principle what is obvious and noticeable by our senses and our experience, which was perfectly accurate, he assumed that the motion of matter was such that all phenomena of the material world, either inorganic, or organized, could be explained by this motion. Yet, everybody knows today that Descartes’s first explanation of gravity based on a subtle matter that would wrap all bodies and attract them to each other is irrational; that his explanations on chemical actions based on the structure of atoms or of small parts that would be pushed one over the other by this subtle matter are also fanciful; and that his explanations of the magnetic phenomena based on the existence of a ribbed matter or matter shaped in the form of a screw are mere suppositions. Finally, it is proved that the existence of the void, for example, which is incompatible with all his systems, is, on the contrary, necessary to the explanation of real facts;4 thus, Descartes did not give any accurate ideas whether in astronomy or in chemistry or physics; he threw himself in the field of hypothesis and as it always happens, only obtained errors as results. However, he was useful for giving the last blow to the scholastic approach; he was the one who made a clean sweep, as we say, and gave physicists and philosophers, whose approach was more grounded than his, the opportunity to build a new structure based no longer on the rules of the scholastics or on the Cartesian chimeras, but on the true method of the first Peripatetic philosophers, which is based on observations and the rules that result from them.

3Immediately after Bacon, Galileo, and Descartes, science enjoyed the benefit of several other men who followed them and completed by their own discoveries what these three men had started.

  • 5 [Johannes Kepler (born 27 December 1571, Weil der Stadt, Holy Roman Empire; died 15 November 1630, (...)
  • 6 [For Nicolaus Copernicus, see Lesson 11, note 48.]
  • 7 [Tycho Brahe (born 14 December 1546, Scania, then in Denmark, now part of modern-day Sweden; died (...)
  • 8 [Astronomia nova, seu physica coelestis, tradita commentariis de motibus stellæ Martis, ex observa (...)
  • 9 [Isaac Newton, see Lesson 11, note 37.]

4The first one is Johannes Kepler5 who was born in Weil in the Duchy of Württemberg in 1571. He spent all his life studying geometry and astronomy as well as the parts of physics that were related to both sciences. Though these sciences are not included in the list of those for which I intend to cover the history, I still want to talk about Kepler to show you the beneficial influence of calculation and observation in the sciences. Not only did Kepler prove the reality of Copernicus’s system,6 with regard to the motion of planets around the sun, but he also discovered, thanks to more precise observations that he combined with those done by Tycho Brahe,7 what were the mathematic laws of planetary motion. He proved that these bodies travel within ellipses whose sun occupies one of the centers and that the closer they are to the sun the faster their speed is. He wrote these laws in his Treatise on the planet Mars, which are now called Kepler’s laws.8 They were still empirical and determined only by observations; however, they were later explained mechanically and they represent today the basis of astronomy and physics. Newton9 was the one who proved that from these laws obviously stemmed two principles on which he established the law of universal gravitation.

5I must add that Kepler had not completely gotten rid of the mystical ideas that had been dominant during part of the Middle Ages, and his books, while admirable in their result, still contained Pythagorean ideas on the virtue of numbers and many other similar opinions that still remained from this general impetus that the platonic philosophy had generated.

  • 10 [Thirty Years’ War, see Lesson 11, note 66.]
  • 11 [Rudolph II, see Lesson 6, note 76.]

6The Thirty Years’ War10 was disastrous for this man: he had been appointed mathematician to Emperor Rudolph II11 who, as I told you several times before, protected scholars excessively; circumstances prevented Rudolph II from keeping the promises he had made to scholars; Kepler, left without any resources, went to Regensburg in 1630 in the hope of receiving annuities; he died there almost in poverty, at the age of fifty-nine.

  • 12 [Torricelli, see Lesson 11, note 41.]
  • 13 [Romagna, an Italian historical region that corresponds approximately to the south-eastern portion (...)
  • 14 [Benedetto Castelli (born 1578, Brescia; died 9 April 1643, Rome), an Italian mathematician who as (...)
  • 15 [Cycloid, the curve traced by a point on the circumference of a rolling circle.]

7During the same time lived a man who is not exactly part of the sciences I am covering but whom I want to introduce so that you can see what kind of impulse the spirits received at that time and how strong and different they were from before. This man is Evangelista Torricelli12 who was born in Romagna13 in 1608. He had befriended a favorite student of Galileo named Castelli14 and had studied and followed all the discoveries that Galileo had made, combining his own work in geometry with physics and to observation. He was the first to describe the course taken by a projectile. He also produced an excellent work on the cycloid;15 but what is special about him is his invention of the barometer. Galileo had acknowledged that water did not rise in a pump above thirty-two feet; the question of knowing the reason why water could not go higher than that was quite serious and important. In order to solve it, Torricelli examined whether liquids of different weight rose up to different limit levels. He noticed that mercury did not go beyond twenty-eight inches; while comparing the specific weight of this liquid to the weight of water, he saw that a twenty-eight inch column of mercury weighed the same as a thirty-two foot column of water. Thus, he provided proof that the suspension of liquid in a vacuum resulted from a mechanical cause since the difference in weight of these liquids had an influence on their elevation, and he assumed that this cause was gravity acting on air.

  • 16 [Blaise Pascal (born 19 June 1623, Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne; died 19 August 1662, Paris), a Fren (...)
  • 17 [Saint-Jacques Tower, a monument located in the 4th arrondissement of Paris on Rue de Rivoli at Ru (...)
  • 18 [Pascal (see note 16, above) solved the problem of the area of any segment of the cycloid and the (...)

8However, Blaise Pascal, so famous for his Provincial Letters,16 proved it as well with a new experiment. He positioned Torricelli’s tubes at different heights and observed that mercury decreased in height as the tube was brought higher and that, on the contrary, mercury increased as the tube was lowered. The experiment was carried out on the bell tower of the church of Saint-Jacques-de-la-Boucherie,17 one of the highest of Paris, and repeated in the mountains of Puy-de-Dome by Pascal’s brother-in-law. Pascal also wrote a treatise on the cycloid that is a masterpiece.18 This man was innately talented in the study of mathematics; in his early years he found, pretty much by himself, the first elements of geometry. If I tell you about this mighty genius, who does not pertain to the natural sciences, it is only to show you the general evolution of the spirits around the middle of the seventeenth century and to demonstrate that this century was the century of the sciences, at least as much as the centuries that followed.

  • 19 [Athanasius Kircher (born 2 May 1601 or 1602, Geisa, Holy Roman Empire; died 27/28 November 1680, (...)
  • 20 [Gaspar Schott (born 5 February 1608, Bad Königshofen; died 22 May 1666, Würzburg), a German Jesui (...)

9While these men had gotten rid of the scholastic approach, a few others still followed it; nevertheless, they still deserve praise. They belonged to societies whose principle was to follow more specific rules. Among these scholars who resisted the progressive evolution of their century were two German Jesuits named Athanasius Kircher19 and Gaspar Schott.20

  • 21 Kircher [see note 19, above] is usually credited, as we know, for the invention of the magic lante (...)
  • 22 Kircher put some hieroglyphs of his invention on the [Egyptian] obelisk [of Domitian] at the fount (...)
  • 23 [Mundus subterraneus, in XII libros digestus; quo divinum subterrestris mundi opificium, mira erga (...)
  • 24 Kircher, who wanted to know what was inside the [volcano of] Vesuvius, was brought inside the main (...)
  • 25 [Musaeum Kircherianum sive Musaeum a P. Athanasio Kirchero in Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu jam (...)
  • 26 [Filippo Bonanni or Buonanni (born 1638, Rome; died 1723), an Italian Jesuit scholar and pupil of (...)

10Athanasius Kircher21 was born in Fulda in 1601 and spent most of his life in Italy. He was a professor in Würzburg until 1631 when he left for Rome and became a professor at the Roman College. He died there in 1691 at the age of eighty-nine. Kircher did some research in almost all the fields of knowledge of his time but he was very superficial in each one of them. He spent a lot of time on the Coptic language and even created a dictionary. He studied this language with the purpose of deciphering hieroglyphs22 as well as with an interest in alchemy, this so-called science on which he spent a lot of time. He left us a book called Mundus subterraneus, printed in 1678.23 It is a system to explain the inside of the earth, purely a hypothesis, however, with which he tried to explain volcanoes,24 the sources and all the other phenomena whose explanation resides to a lesser or a greater extent inside the earth. He is also one of the first men to create a cabinet of curiosities. His collection devoted to natural history, at least the part that could be preserved, still exists in Rome at the Roman College. A description of it was published in 1709 under the title Museum Kircherianum25 by another Jesuit of the Roman College named Filippo Bonanni26 whom we will talk about later. This museum features several interesting objects.

  • 27 [Schott, see note 20, above.]
  • 28 [Physica curiosa, sive Mirabilia naturae et artis libris XII. comprehensa, quibus pleraq[ue], quae (...)
  • 29 [Technica curiosa, sive Mirabilia artis, libri XII. comprehensa; quibus varia experimenta, variaqu (...)
  • 30 [Magia universalis naturae et artis: sive, Recondita naturalium & artificialium rerum scientia, cu (...)
  • 31 [Otto von Guericke (born 30 November 1602, Magdeburg; died 21 May 1686, Hamburg), a German scienti (...)
  • 32 [Robert Boyle (born 25 January 1627, Lismore, Ireland; died 31 December 1691, London), an Irish na (...)

11The second of these straggling Jesuit scholars was Gaspard Schott;27 he was born in Würzburg in 1608. He was a professor in Palermo who later returned to Würzburg since usually the members of these congregations were not attached to a specific country. Depending on whether they were famous or not, and what their general ordered, they would travel from one country to another. You even saw that the Jesuits, depending on their status, could be sent on a mission to the most faraway places on earth. Gaspar Schott wrote several books including Physica curiosa printed in 1662;28 Technica curiosa, in 1664;29 and Magia naturalis, which was published after his death.30 These are collections of secrets and extraordinary experiments. However, this author is especially of interest to us because he was the first to publish the experiments of Otto von Guerike, magistrate of Magdeburg.31 In Descartes’s system, everything had to be filled; there was no vacuum; it was the contrary of prior systems. The question of whether the void could exist or not, which was very much debated at that time, led to many experiments, including those undertaken by Otto von Guerike. He linked two globes together and withdrew, with a pump, part of the air they contained; they then adhered to each other so much that not even two horses could separate them. Today, we obtain even more powerful effects with the pneumatic engine; but it was Guerike’s first trial that led to the invention of this machine that was later improved by Boyle,32 as we shall soon see. Today, everybody knows that it is the pressure of the atmosphere that holds Magdeburg’s hemispheres together; at that time, one barely thought about it.

  • 33 These organizations of scholars offer great advantages; they make possible what isolated individua (...)

12It took quite a long time for some professors of physics, who were members of congregations and universities and who were attached to the old scholastic philosophy, to accept the Cartesian philosophy, although this philosophy, once accepted and later recognized as false and illusory, was banned from schools, yet with great difficulty. While these organizations had some advantages,33 one of their flaws was to be impermeable to sudden revolutions that new discoveries bring to light in the field of human knowledge. While these corporations kept the scholastic philosophy for too long, other organizations of a different kind were created at the same time, during the seventeenth century, which all of a sudden brought to the sciences amazing discoveries and experiments.

  • 34 [Bacon, see Lesson 11, note 19.]
  • 35 [Nova Atlantis, see Lesson 11, note 35.]
  • 36 [Academy of the Lynx, see Lesson 4, note 61.]
  • 37 He [Bacon] wanted its members to wear a golden ring adorned with a large emerald on which the figu (...)
  • 38 [Prince Cesi, see Lesson 4, note 61.]
  • 39 [Fabius Columna, see Lesson 4, note 41.]
  • 40 [Giambattista della Porta (born 1535, Vico Equense, Italy; died 4 February 1615, Naples), an Itali (...)
  • 41 [Francesco Stelluti (born 12 January 1577, Fabriano; died November 1652, Fabriano), an Italian pol (...)
  • 42 [Severinus, see Lesson 10, note 45.]
  • 43 [Johann Vesling (born 1598, Minden, Westphalia; died 30 August 1649, Padua) was a German (not Belg (...)
  • 44 [Spigel or Spigelius, see Lesson 2, note 77.]
  • 45 [Terrentius, see Lesson 5, note 86.]
  • 46 [Faber, see Lesson 5, note 87.]
  • 47 [Pope Urban VIII, see Lesson 5, note 88.]
  • 48 [Hernández, see Lesson 5, note 78.]
  • 49 He [Cesi, see Lesson 4, note 61] had heated discussions with his father about it since his father (...)
  • 50 [Philip II, see Lesson 2, note 1.]
  • 51 [Sforza, a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan; it acquired the dukedom and Duchy o (...)
  • 52 [Francesco Barberini (born 23 September 1597, Florence; died 10 December 1679, Rome), an Italian C (...)
  • 53 [Nova Atlantis, see Lesson 11, note 35.]
  • 54 [Janus Plancus or Jano Placo was the pseudonym of Giovanni Paolo Simone Bianchi (born 3 January 16 (...)
  • 55 [Feliciano Scarpellini (born 20 October 1762, Foligno; died 29 November 1840, Rome), an Italian ab (...)

13When I told the history of the thirteenth century, I emphasized the establishment of universities whose only purpose was education, where each master’s obligation was not to bring new knowledge but to convey what was already known. The purpose of the academic societies was completely the opposite; they did not have to teach what was already known; their members only had to apply their common efforts to observations, experiments, and inductions; in one word, to the progress of the sciences. Bacon,34 as I already told you, had designed the outlines of these organizations in his book called Nova Atlantis.35 With the term “Nova Atlantis,” he meant a place for all people devoted to the advancement of knowledge, to provide them with the tools and all other means necessary to reach their goals. However, long before Bacon had published his plan, there existed in Italy an academy whose mission was similar. This society was called the Academy of the Lynx,36 because the purpose of its members37 was to observe nature by themselves from all angles. They took the lynx as their symbol because according to old opinions, the lynx is the animal that has the best sight; the ancients even claimed that it could see through walls. This academy was founded by Prince Cesi,38 a member of a very famous and powerful family who owned vast lands, either in the Roman State, or in the Kingdom of Naples. Cesi was only eighteen when he had the idea of this institution to which he dedicated most of his fortune. He created a cabinet of natural history and a botanical garden, and had several painters at its service. He bought for it all kinds of useful manuscripts, and received in his palace all men who were interested in his ideas and who abandoned the authority, the blind trust in the ancients, to the benefit of observing nature. The main members of this organization were Fabius Columna,39 whom I talked about in the history of botany during the sixteenth century (he was actually the first one to take the title of “Member of the Lynx” in his books); Galileo, Porta,40 Stelluti,41 and Severinus,42 whom I talked about in the history of anatomy; Vesling,43 a Belgian, professor of anatomy in Padua, succeeding Spigel;44 Terrentius45 and Faber,46 both German physicians who were established in Rome; because at that time there were many more contacts between Germany and Italy than there has ever been since then. Terrentius went to China as a missionary; Faber remained in Rome as the botanist to Pope Urban VIII.47 Together with Fabius Columna, they were in charge of the publication of Hernández’s book on Mexico48 that Prince Cesi had bought. This prince organized the first meetings of this society that he had founded in his hotel in Rome;49 he established a branch in Naples and had the idea of creating various branches of this society in all the main towns. This project did not succeed. Philip II, King of Spain,50 who was at that time also ruler of the kingdom of Naples, developed some fears with regard to this institution and ordered its suppression in this country. In Rome, the institution did not survive its founder by much since Cesi died in 1630 at the age of only forty-five. Cesi left only one daughter who was married to a Sforza;51 he did not leave anything to the Academy of the Lynx. Left without his munificence, the membership broke up. This academy was still protected for some time by Cardinal Barberini,52 nephew of Pope Urban VIII, but after the death of Barberini, the Academy was completely destroyed. It did not produce any collective work but it was very useful by encouraging the personal publications of its members and by providing them the means to improve themselves. Science actually owes it the development of several instruments. Prince Cesi himself worked a lot on the improvement of the telescope, but it is mostly in the changes he brought to the microscope that he gained great success. He gave the name to two powerful sight aides. He had these instruments manufactured and offered them to scholars whom he knew would use them in a useful way; basically there is nothing that money could provide to the progress of the sciences that this Prince did not do. We can find the history of his academy —which was the first one, having been founded in 1603, much earlier than Bacon’s Nova Atlantis53— in Fabius Columna’s Phytobasanos, provided by Janus Plancus in 1664.54 Recently, a professor of physics in Rome, Abbot Scarpellini,55 tried to reopen the Academy of the Lynx; some meetings took place in Rome, but I do not know what ensued from these meetings; I never heard of it again.

  • 56 [The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, see Lesson 8, note 96.]
  • 57 [Charles I, see Lesson 2, note 101.]
  • 58 [Boyle, see note 32, above.]
  • 59 [John Willis (fl. 1660s), an English physician and staunch follower of the Church of England, well (...)
  • 60 [Thomas Willis (born 27 January 1621, Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire; died 11 November 1675, London), an (...)
  • 61 [John Wilkins (born 14 February 1614, Fawsley, Northamptonshire; died 19 November 1672, London), a (...)
  • 62 [Cromwell, see Lesson 8, note 93.]

14The second Academy that was founded for the progress of the sciences was the Royal Society of London,56 which is very active and is organized in a way that makes us hope that it will survive as long as the sciences. It was created out of the sorrows and disgusts that several men of wit experienced as the result of theological battles that drenched England in blood at that time. It was when Charles I57 experienced the greatest difficulties that some of the members met for the first time and later established the society. Robert Boyle,58 a famous man from a famous Irish family, and John59 and Thomas Willis60 were among its first members. They met under the auspices of Wilkins, Bishop of Chester.61 First they met in London, then at Oxford when the turmoil forced all those who had anything to do with the royal party to flee London. In 1688, at the peak of Cromwell’s domination,62 they broke apart and reappeared only at the time of the Restoration.

  • 63 [Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (born 18 February 1609, Wiltshire; died 9 December 1674, Rouen (...)
  • 64 [Charles II, see Lesson 8, note 96.]
  • 65 [Philosophical Transactions, a scientific journal published by the Royal Society of London (see Le (...)

15They met in a college of London that had been founded by a goldsmith of this town. In 1660, with the help of Clarendon,63 they obtained a letters-patent from King Charles II.64 Since then, they have not stopped working for the progress of the sciences and creating this great collection of memoirs known as Philosophical Transactions.65 Its publication began as a pamphlet every three months; then it was published by semi-volume and then by volume; but, in fact, it is organized in a way that the number of volumes corresponds to the number of years that went by since the legal foundation of the society.

  • 66 Robert Hooke (born 28 July 1635, Freshwater, Isle of Wight; died 3 March 1703, London), an English (...)
  • 67 [Thomas Willis, see note 60, above.]
  • 68 [John Mayow (born 24 May 1641; died October 1679, London), a chemist, physician, and physiologist (...)
  • 69 [George Ent (born 6 November 1604, Sandwich, Kent; died 13 October 1689, St. Giles-in-the-Fields), (...)
  • 70 [Kenelm Digby (born 11 July 1603, Gayhurst, Buckinghamshire; died 11 June 1665), an English courti (...)
  • 71 [William Petty (born 26 May 1623, Romsey; died 16 December 1687, London), an English economist, ph (...)
  • 72 [Isaac Barrow (born October 1630, London; died 4 May 1677, London), an English Christian theologia (...)
  • 73 [Newton, see Lesson 11, note 37.]

16Its first members, and the most famous ones of that time, were Robert Boyle who improved the pneumatic engine and put the most into use; Robert Hooke,66 creator of the pocket watch, who improved the microscope and was the first to give beautiful figures of the objects he had observed with this instrument; Thomas Willis,67 a famous doctor who applied the first discoveries of pneumatic chemistry to physiology; and John Mayow68 who, as we shall see later, discovered, so to speak, pneumatic chemistry as we saw it reappear again during our own time. These men, and a few more, such as Ent,69 Digby,70 Petty,71 and others, gave an extraordinary impetus to the sciences in England and discredited all the quarrels that had troubled sciences so much in the past century. In addition to these famous men came great geometricians such as Barrow72 and the immortal Newton73 whom we will talk about when we study our new scientific period.

  • 74 [Henry Oldenburg (born c. 1619, Bremen; died 5 September 1677, London), a German theologian known (...)
  • 75 [[Mémoires de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, the scientific journal of the French Academy of Sc (...)

17Robert Boyle contributed to chemistry some work that gave to this science a unique character, while Hook was the first to publish tables of meteorological observations. Finally, the society established some connections with scholars from other countries. The main actor who contributed the most to the success of this academy was its first secretary, the German Henry Oldenburg74 who was in charge of the publication of the first issues of the Philosophical Transactions. The publication started in 1665 and since then it has not experienced any significant interruption in its publication. There is no collection as rich in works in mathematics and observations in natural history, physics, and chemistry as this collection. Together with Memoires de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris75, this publication is the one that has contributed the most to our knowledge of nature and its various phenomena.

  • 76 [Academy of the Lynx, see Lesson 4, note 61.]
  • 77 [Academy of Experiment or Accademia del Cimento, an early scientific society, founded in Florence (...)
  • 78 [Ferdinando II de’ Medici (born 14 July 1610, Florence; died 23 May 1670, Florence), Grand Duke of (...)
  • 79 [Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (born 28 January 1608, Naples; died 31 December 1679, Rome), an Italian (...)
  • 80 [Francesco Redi (born 19 February 1626, Arezzo; died 1 March 1697, Pisa), an Italian physician, na (...)
  • 81 [Nicolas Steno or Niels Stensen (born 11 January 1638, Copenhagen; died 5 December 1686, Schwerin, (...)
  • 82 [Thomas Bartholin (born 20 October 1616, Malmö; died 4 December 1680, Copenhagen), a Danish physic (...)
  • 83 [Leopoldo de’ Medici (born 6 November 1617, Florence; died 16 November 1675, Florence), an Italian (...)
  • 84 [Grand Duchy of Tuscany, a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to (...)
  • 85 [Cosimo di Giovanni de’Medici also known as Cosimo the Elder (born 27 September 1389, Florence; di (...)
  • 86 [Lorenzo de’ Medici (born 1 January 1449, Florence; died 9 April 1492, Careggi), an Italian states (...)
  • 87 [Lorenzo the Elder (born c. 1395, Florence; died 23 September 1440, Careggi), an Italian banker of (...)

18Italy created a third academy but, like the one of the Lynx,76 it did not last very long. It was named the Academy of Experiment77 and was founded in Florence under the reign of Ferdinand II78 in 1651 by some of Galileo’s students such as Borelli,79 the author of the treatise on the motion of animals; Redi,80 to whom we owe so many microscopic observations on animals and on chemistry, and other similar men. A few Danes like Steno81 and Bartholin,82 who were attracted by the protection that the Medici provided to the sciences, were also members of this academy. Their main patron was Cardinal Leopold di Medici,83 brother of the Grand Duke Ferdinand II. The branch of the Medici family that reigned in Florence under the title of the Grand Duchy84 and which ended in 1737 was a collateral branch, younger than the one that did so much for the sciences during the sixteenth century. It did not originate from Cosimo,85 nicknamed the father of the homeland, nor from Lorenzo de’ Medici,86 but from the brother of Cosimo;87 it was, however, very proud to protect the sciences and it left two beautiful establishments.

  • 88 This translation [Tentamina Experimentorum Naturalium in Accademia del Cimento: sub auspiciis sere (...)

19The Academy of Experiment showed great zeal from its very beginning and produced some very valuable works that are gathered together in a collection published in quarto that was translated into Latin by Musschenbroek88 around the end of the seventeenth century. The contributions are mostly related to chemistry and physics. Some of the experiments were done with the purpose of proving that liquids are not elastic. This collection is the only one that the Academy of Experiment published.

  • 89 [Cardinal Leopoldo de’ Medici (died on 16 November 1675); see note 83, above.]
  • 90 It is said that their dissolution was also the result of some disagreements [M. de St.-Agy].

20After the death of Cardinal Leopold de Medici in 1665,89 this academy found itself in the same situation as the Academy of the Lynx and, like it, did not survive very long. In 1667, its members completely stopped meeting.90 A attempt to revive this academy was recently made but no new publications resulted from it.

  • 91 [Académie Impériale des Curieux de la Nature or Academia Naturae Curiosorum, translated into Engli (...)

21The fourth scientific society that was also founded around the middle of the seventeenth century is the Imperial Academy of the Curious as to Nature.91 The academies I just told you about had a dedicated place of meeting: the Academy of the Lynx had its headquarters in Rome as well as a branch in Naples, which did not last very long; the one in England, called the Royal Society of London, met in London; finally, the Academy of Experiment met in Florence. In Germany a similar concentration was difficult because this country was divided into a number of principalities that were even more numerous than what exists today. The scholars, especially those who practiced medicine (since they were the ones who provided the most members to the societies that dealt with the physical sciences), were too scattered everywhere; it would not have been easy to gather a large number of them in one place. Thus, this society was founded by correspondence and never met in Vienna, which anyway was never the hub for the sciences in Germany where even today it has not been possible yet to create an academy.

  • 92 [Johann Lorenz Bausch, see note 91, above.]

22The foundation of the Academy of the Curious as to Nature was conceived by Bausch,92 a doctor from a small town of Franconia named Schweinfurt. It occurred in 1652, four years after the Peace of Westphalia, which followed the terrible war that had devastated all of Germany, ruined its towns, and left all its provinces in a dire state. Tranquility returned; people took advantage of the peace to go back to the study of the sciences, which had made some progress in the other countries where the situation was a little calmer, for few of them had enjoyed a complete peace.

  • 93 [Johann Michael Fehr, see note 91, above.]
  • 94 [Academy of the Arcadians, Accademia degli Arcadi, or Accademia dell’Arcadia, an Italian literary (...)
  • 95 [The Argonauts, a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who, in the years before the Trojan War, acco (...)
  • 96 [Philipp Jakob Sachs von Lewenhaimb (born 26 August 1627, Breslau; died 7 January 1672, Breslau), (...)

23Bausch addressed all the physicians of Germany; he had as associate a man called Fehr93 who later succeeded him to the chair of the society. The custom of the Academy of the Arcadians,94 to give each of its members a Greek name taken from ancient literary history, was also adopted by the members of the Academy of the Curious as to Nature: the associates took the names of the Argonauts95 and their successors, followed by the same tradition of taking special names. They started by publishing separately a few books that several of them had written, like the Academy of the Lynx had done. The first one they offered to the public was published in 1661; it is called Vitis vinifera, written by a physician from Breslaw named Sachs.96 In 1662, they published their statutes and wrote an epistle to all scholars to invite them to participate in their work.

  • 97 [Emperor Leopold I, see Lesson 8, note 86.]
  • 98 [Miscellanea Academiae naturae Curiosorum, seu Ephemerides medico-physicae, see note 96, above.]

24The founder and first chairman of this society, Bausch, died in 1665; his associate, Fehr, who succeeded him, published a new program to revive the zeal of the correspondents. He designated a certain number of collectors whose responsibility was to gather the memoirs that these correspondents might send. Please note that they did not ask for the protection of anyone; Emperor Leopold I97 only granted them the permission to take the title of Imperial Society, and ordered that they be given the list of all the curiosities that his cabinets contained. The first volume of their memoirs was published in 1670 and is called Miscellanea Academiae naturae Curiosorum, seu Ephemerides medico-physicae (annus primus).98 The collection of these various curiosities is known by the name of Ephemerides of the Curious about Nature; a volume was published every year; ten volumes covered ten years; then a new ten-year period was started. Thirty-seven volumes were published that way. Later these memoirs continued to be published under the title of Nova acta Academiae Curiosorum; nine volumes were published under this new format. Then, all of a sudden, the academy disappeared. It lived much longer than the academies of Italy because it did not resort to the patronage of the princes in its inception, as I mentioned earlier. Its members were actually located away from each other; each one of them made their observations separately. Thus, progress occurred with far less power and rapidity but, on the other hand, they benefited from great independence.

  • 99 [For Leibnitz, see Volume 1, Lesson 6, note 22.]
  • 100 [Lagographia curiosa, seu leporis descriptio juxto methodum & leges Augustae ac Imperialis Academi (...)

25For a certain number of years, this society was revived under a new structure. Its headquarters is in Bonn. Since its reappearance, it has published several volumes that are more interesting and more valuable than the first ones because they are written by men who are more educated. Nevertheless, we find in these books some rather important medical observations, but mostly experiments in chemistry that are related to alchemy. They also feature observations on a large number of monsters, but since memoirs were not examined by the society and were only sent to the chairman, they did not go through the review and critique that the memoirs done by academies that hold meetings have to go through; thus, we can notice facts that do not have all the authenticity that we find in those related to the collections of other academies. The last ten or twelve volumes, while they are done in the same format as the first ones, are much superior because there was more knowledge at that time and more criticism was available. They are almost all related to natural history; works in mathematics are rare. Several men worthy of merit were part of this society around the eighteenth century; we will see the admirable Leibnitz99 whom we will talk about when we reach the revolution that marks the beginning of the eighteenth century. The members of these academies added the word “curious” to all their personal works; thus, during the second half of the seventeenth century, they published several small treatises called Lagographia curiosa, Elephantographia curiosa, Salamandrologia curiosa, Astronomia curiosa;100 usually their plan was to write treatises on various subjects that each of them chose. But these publications still show customs from the past; they are filled with many compilations and mystical ideas. Basically, the work of the curious about nature during the seventeenth century and even during the eighteenth century do not match, in terms of perfection, the work of the other societies.

  • 101 [The French Academy of Sciences or Académie Royale des Sciences, a learned society, founded in 166 (...)
  • 102 [Cardinal Richelieu, see Lesson 7, note 153.]
  • 103 [Pierre Rémond de Montmort (born 27 October 1678, Paris; known for his book on probability: Essay (...)
  • 104 [Melchisédech or Melchisédec Thévenot (born c. 1620;veler, cartographer, orientalist, inventor, an (...)
  • 105 [Pierre Michon Bourdelot (born 2 February 1610, Senlis; diedtine, and freethinker; in addition to (...)
  • 106 [Steno, see note 81, above.]
  • 107 [Paolo Silvio Boccone (born 24 April 1633, Palermo; died 22 Sicily, whose interest in plants had b (...)
  • 108 [Colbert, see note 75, above.]
  • 109 [Louis XIV, see Lesson 8, note 86.]

26The Academy of the Sciences of Paris,101 while very old, is only the fifth one to be established, if we consider the date of its legal creation, since its date only goes back to 1666; but, as it happened for the Royal Society of London whose letters-patent dates only from 1660 (although it existed fifteen years earlier in 1645), the origin of the Academy of the Sciences of Paris is much earlier than 1666. The French Academy was founded by Cardinal Richelieu102 in 1633 from existing elements, which were the meetings of men of the arts who gathered to talk about literature, much before the time when their gathering was legally recognized —the same occurred for the Academy of Sciences. Next to these literary men —poets, historians and philosophers who created the French Academy —doctors, physicians, and chemists met and mutually shared their observations. Gatherings of this kind took place at the home of a master of requests called Montmort,103 at the house of another man quite famous for his travels named Thévenot,104 and at the house of a famous doctor of this time named Bourdelot.105 Memoirs were read and when foreign scholars came to Paris they would go there to present their experiments. I told you about a few Danes who ended up settling down in Florence, such as Steno.106 Before he went to Florence where he converted to Catholicism and became professor to the sons of the Great Duke, he stopped in Paris and showed these societies the anatomy of the brain based on a new method. A man named Boccone,107 a Sicilian monk who had made a lot of observations on the corals, seashells, and fishes of Sicily also communicated his observations to these societies. Thus, when Colbert108 suggested to Louis XIV109 to create a society for men who were studying either mathematics or astronomy, sciences that we thought were only related to medicine, botany, and chemistry, its elements were already existing since they were mostly made up of very distinguished men.

  • 110 [Jean-Baptiste Duhamel (born 11 June 1624, Vire, Normandy; died 6 August 1706, Paris), a French cl (...)
  • 111 [Giovanni Domenico Cassini (born 8 June 1625, Perinaldo; died 14 September 1712, Paris), an Italia (...)
  • 112 [Memoirs for a natural history of animals, containing the anatomical descriptions of several creat (...)
  • 113 [Claude Perrault (born 25 September 1613, Paris; died 9 October 1688, Paris), a French architect b (...)
  • 114 [Joseph-Guichard Duverney (born 5 August 1648, Feurs; died 10 September 1730, Paris), a French ana (...)
  • 115 [Philippe de Lahire or de la Hire (born 18 March 1640, Paris; died 21 April 1718, Paris), a French (...)
  • 116 [The Paris Observatory, the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest as (...)

27The first meetings of the French Academy of the Sciences took place at the library of the king who had received from Colbert a new meeting place and new land. The king gave to the academy the animals of the menagerie he had established at Versailles so that its members could make anatomical observations. They appointed Duhamel,110 who had written a volume of their history in Latin, as their secretary. Their work was not compiled as memoirs. They were written and published separately. Thus, some who were the astronomers were in charge of the meridian, which is at the origin of the map of France, also called Cassini’s map;111 others were in charge of human anatomy or comparative anatomy; these were published in three volumes in quarto of discussions on animals and whose title is Memoirs for a natural history of animals.112 Perrault,113 a skilled architect, is one of the authors of these memoirs; Joseph Guichard Duverney,114 a famous anatomist, worked on it as well. The drawings were done by the geometrician Lahire,115 a member of the Academy. All these scholars traveled to the shores of France and made many observations on the anatomy of fishes; their manuscripts and their drawings still exist. It was under their auspices and based on Claude Perrault’s drawings that the Observatory116 was set up.

  • 117 [Cassini, see note 111, above.]
  • 118 [Ole Christensen Roemer or Rømer (born 25 September 1644, Århus; died 19 September 1710, Copenhage (...)
  • 119 [Wilhelm Homberg (born 8 January 1652, Batavia, now Jakarta; died 24 September 1715, Paris), a Dut (...)
  • 120 [Denis Dodart (born 1634, Paris; died 5 November 1707, Paris), a French physician, naturalist, and (...)
  • 121 [Claude Bourdelin (born 1621, near Lyon; died 15 October 1699, Paris), a French apothecary and che (...)
  • 122 [Samuel Cottereau Duclos or du Clos (born 1598, Paris; died 1685, Paris), a French chemist, member (...)
  • 123 [Recueil des plantes dessinées et gravées par ordre du roi Louis XIV (Collection of plants drawn a (...)

28The king, always encouraged by Colbert, also attracted to France foreign scholars such as Domenico Cassini,117 a famous Italian astronomer born in the region of Nice; and Roemer118 from Hamburg and also an astronomer, to whom we owe the discovery of the speed of light. Cassini’s discoveries and observations in astronomy are numerous. Homberg,119 a German chemist, was also attracted to France by Louis XIV’s benefaction—he was one of the first chemists of the academy. French scholars such as Dodart,120 Bourdelin,121 and Duclos122 put their efforts into the observation of plants and the analysis of mineral waters; their work was at the origin of the Collection of Plants of the King that were engraved after Robert’s drawings,123 whom we will talk about later when we study the history of botany. These first members of the academy from 1666 showed great zeal in their efforts but they worked toward collective works on various subjects and they did not create a collection of these memoirs as the ones that the Royal Society of London had put together.

  • 124 [Jean-Paul Bignon (born 19 September 1662, Paris; died 14 March 1743, Ile Belle), a French ecclesi (...)
  • 125 [Louis Phélypeaux (born 1643; died 1727), Marquis de Phélypeaux (1667), Comte de Maurepas (1687), (...)
  • 126 [Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle (born 11 February 1657, Rouen; died 9 January 1757, Paris), a Fre (...)

29During the end of the seventeenth century, Louis XIV, based on the proposition made by Abbot Bignon,124 a favorite councilor because he was the nephew of the Chancellor de Pontchartrain,125 gave a new structure to the Academy; he divided it into a certain number of classes and each of them was to be focused on a specific science. He appointed the famous Fontenelle126 as its secretary. Fontenelle, who presented the works of the academy in such a clear and coherent way, contributed greatly to spreading the taste for sciences more than any other man who dealt with the sciences at that time.

  • 127 [Elector of Brandenburg, see Lesson 6, note 26.]
  • 128 [Leibnitz, see Volume 1, Lesson 6, note 22.]

30Since the founding of this new organization, which dates back to 1699, the French Academy published a volume of memoirs every year until 1792. They all contain precious works on the various parts of mathematics, anatomy, chemistry, botany, and natural history. Out of all the collections, it is probably the one that deserves the best comparison to the Philosophical Transactions. We can, in fact, say that no other publication series has surpassed it. It is true that the academy always benefited from the protection of the French government and that the various establishments around it, such as the Jardin des Plantes, the Observatory, and other similar places were successively created and added to the study resources of his members. Anyhow, the great reputation that it promptly acquired, especially due to the elegance and clarity that Fontenelle put into the presentation of its work, led every country to want to have its own academy of sciences. In 1700, as soon as the Elector of Brandenburg took the title of King of Prussia, with the name of Frederick I,127 this prince conceived the project of creating the Academy of Berlin that since the beginning of the seventeenth century, was on a par with the best societies of this kind. It was organized according to the suggestions of Leibnitz128 himself who was later consulted when the institute was created; it mostly involved the gathering of various groups, focused for some on the sciences of mathematics, physics, and history, and others on literature, philosophy, and political sciences. But this academy belongs entirely to the eighteenth century; I will talk about it later.

  • 129 [Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich (born 9 June 1672, Mos-cow; died 8 February 1725, Saint Pete (...)
  • 130 [Catherine I or Marfa Samuilovna Skavronskaya, (born 15 April 1684; died 17 May 1727, Saint Peters (...)
  • 131 [Peter II Alekseyevich (born 23 October 1715, Saint Petersburg; died 30 January 1730, Moscow), Emp (...)
  • 132 [Anna of Russia or Anna Ioannovna (born 7 February 1693, Moscow; died 28 October 1740, Saint Peter (...)

31The Academy of Petersburg is in the same situation; it was planned by Peter I129 who was a member of the Academy of the Sciences of Paris, but it could not be established during his lifetime, not even during the reign of his widow Catherine,130 when she succeeded him. It was only under the reign of Peter II,131 who almost died as an infant, that this academy started to be set up. Scholars had to be invited from all over Europe, in particular from Germany. Since then it has been protected by Empress Anna132 and has reached the same level as all the great academies, and we can say that the Royal Society of London, the academies of sciences of Paris, Berlin, Petersburg, and Stockholm are the ones that contributed the most to the progress of the sciences of observation by the efforts and the time they put into it; the Academy of Stockholm was the latest one.

  • 133 [Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli (or Marsili) (born 10 July 1658, Bologna; died 1730), an Italian (...)

32The Institute of Bologna, which for a certain time held a decent rank among the societies of scholars also belongs to the eighteenth century; it dates from 1703. It was founded by Count Marsigli.133

  • 134 [Homberg, see note 119, above.]
  • 135 [Duclos, see note 122, above.]
  • 136 [Bourdelin, see note 121, above.]
  • 137 [Bacon’s Nova Atlantis, see Lesson 11, note 35.]

33These various societies, while not numerous, gave to the sciences of observation and of experiment a prodigious impetus. However, the Academy of Science of Paris still kept for thirty years the Cartesian explanations, especially in chemistry. Because of this it did not evolve as fast as the Royal Society of London, which always followed the path of observation. Nevertheless, men like Homberg,134 Duclos,135 Bourdelin,136 and their successors contributed greatly to the science of chemistry, with many observations, discoveries, and new methods. The Royal Society of London had such a perfect template with Chancellor Bacon’s Nova Atlantis,137 and had found such a genius with Robert Boyle to put this project into practice, that chemistry immediately took a particular direction, unique to England. Its effect was only felt during our time, but if it had not been eclipsed for a while by the system of chemistry of the German schools, it would have changed the whole face of the sciences long before.

  • 138 [Paracelsus, see Lesson 4, note 72.]
  • 139 [Rosicrucianism, see Lesson 1, note 6.]
  • 140 [Academy of the Curious as to Nature, see note 91, above.]
  • 141 [Théodore Turquet de Mayerne, see Lesson 10, note 60.]
  • 142 See Lesson 4, note 73 [M. de St.-Agy].
  • 143 [Van Helmont, see Lesson 10, note 66.]
  • 144 [Ubique terrarium, a Latin phrase meaning “everywhere” or “all over the world.”]
  • 145 [Joseph Duchesne or du Chesne, Latin Josephus Quercetanus (born c. 1544, Armagnac; died 1609), a F (...)
  • 146 [Henry IV, see Lesson 2, note 57.]
  • 147 [Jean Beguin (born 1550; died 1620), a French physician and chemist noted for his lecture notes pu (...)
  • 148 [Christopher Glaser (born 1615, Basel; died between 1670 and 1678), a pharmacist and demonstrator (...)
  • 149 [Nicolas Lemery (born 17 November 1645, Rouen; died 19 June 1715, Paris), a French chemist, one of (...)

34In Germany, Paracelsus’s138 ideas dominated, with his five chemical principles of salt, sulfur, spirit, earth, and water. For a very long time, secret societies such as those following Rosicrucianism139 remained alive in this country together with the Academy of the Curious as to Nature,140 and it is highly probable that several members of this society also belonged to the first societies that were initially created. Paracelsus’s ideas were imported into France by those who brought chemistry; and you can remember what I told you during our last session: this science and its application to medicine were rejected with a ridiculous and fanatic violence by the Faculty of Medicine of Paris. We saw that Turquet de Mayerne,141 for example, was expelled from this faculty by a decree that prevented all doctors in Paris to consult him142 because he had adopted the remedies of Paracelsus and Van Helmont.143 I refer again to this decree: not only the doctors in Paris, but all the doctors of the earth, ubique terrarum,144 are invited to reject such a monster. However, the people who wanted to be healed or who felt better with the use of his remedies did not stop using them. We even find some chemists among the physicians to the king of France. Duchene, in Latin Quercetanus,145 was doctor to Henry IV,146 and the first elements of chemistry were described by a man named Beguin,147 doctor to the same king. However, the French chemists experienced so much trouble with the Faculty of Medicine that those who introduced chemistry to Paris were German. One of the first to show this science to the Jardin du Roi was Glaser148 who gave some elements of chemistry, but still according to the five principles. The scholar who wrote on the subject after him was Nicolas Lemery;149 and during all of the seventeenth century, the chemists of Paris followed the same systems as those of Germany, which were Paracelsus’s ideas modified by those of Van Helmont.

  • 150 [Becker, see Lesson 9, note 89.]

35We can divide chemistry into three groups: English chemistry, German, and French. French chemistry was a mixture of German chemistry, with Becker’s system,150 and it is not the least curious part of the history of this science; I will start with it during our next lesson.

36Since chemistry had quite a lot of influence on physiology and anatomy, I will follow an order reverse to the one I have used until now. I will start with chemistry and anatomy; then I will talk about mineralogy, botany, and zoology, which will be the subject with which I will finish our study this year since my plan is to finish it with the seventeenth century and talk about the eighteenth century next year.

Notes

1 [Bacon, see Lesson 11, notes 19 and 30.]

2 [Galileo, see Lesson 11, notes 20, 42, and 46.]

3 [Descartes, see Volume 1, Lesson 6, note 7.]

4 Despite the astronomers, we could deny the existence of the void based on physics. Indeed, any man, who has whatever small knowledge of this science, knows that when we withdraw part of the air contained in the globe of a pneumatic engine, with the help of a piston, what is left rarefies in such a way that the globe continues to be filled. With a blow from a second piston, the expansion of air increases and if we continue activating the pump until the globe only contains the hundred millionth part of the initial air, this hundred millionth part will be sufficient to fill the globe; thus, there will never and nowhere be any absolute vacuum because gases have an indefinite expansion capacity. Therefore, could we not assume that space is a large globe in which it would be impossible to find a perfect void, where immediately the atmosphere would rarefy in order to fill it? If we did not accept this reasoning, it would still remain the light to prove the absence of vacuum, whether with Newton’s theory of emission or the one on vibrations [M. de St.-Agy].

5 [Johannes Kepler (born 27 December 1571, Weil der Stadt, Holy Roman Empire; died 15 November 1630, Regensburg, Holy Roman Empire), a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer; a key figure in the seventeenth-century scientific revolution, best known for his laws of planetary motion. His works provided one of the foundations for Newton‘s theory of universal gravitation (see Lesson 11, note 37).]

6 [For Nicolaus Copernicus, see Lesson 11, note 48.]

7 [Tycho Brahe (born 14 December 1546, Scania, then in Denmark, now part of modern-day Sweden; died 24 October 1601, Prague), a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and alchemist whose astronomical observations were an essential contribution to the scientific revolution. In addition to his contributions to astronomy, he was famous in his own time for his contributions to medicine; his herbal medicines were in use as late as the 1900s.]

8 [Astronomia nova, seu physica coelestis, tradita commentariis de motibus stellæ Martis, ex observationibus G. V. Tychonis Brahe, jussu & sumptibus Rudolphi II... plurium annorum pertinaci studio elaborata Pragæ..., one of the greatest books on astronomy ever published, based on Kepler’s ten-year long investigation of the motion of Mars; although completed in late 1605, it was not published until 1609 by Gotthard Voegelin, Heidelberg ([38] + 337 p. + [1] leaf of pls, illus., in-folio). Kepler’s laws of planetary motion consist of three principles that describe the motion of planets around the Sun: (1) the orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci; (2) a line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time; and (3) the square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit.]

9 [Isaac Newton, see Lesson 11, note 37.]

10 [Thirty Years’ War, see Lesson 11, note 66.]

11 [Rudolph II, see Lesson 6, note 76.]

12 [Torricelli, see Lesson 11, note 41.]

13 [Romagna, an Italian historical region that corresponds approximately to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna, an administrative region of northern Italy; its capital city is Bologna.]

14 [Benedetto Castelli (born 1578, Brescia; died 9 April 1643, Rome), an Italian mathematician who assisted Galileo in his study of sunspots and participated in the examination of the theories of Copernicus; born Antonio, he took the name Benedetto upon entering the Benedictine Order in 1595.]

15 [Cycloid, the curve traced by a point on the circumference of a rolling circle.]

16 [Blaise Pascal (born 19 June 1623, Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne; died 19 August 1662, Paris), a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer, and Christian philosopher; his earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli (see Lesson 11, note 41). He also wrote in defense of the scientific method.]

17 [Saint-Jacques Tower, a monument located in the 4th arrondissement of Paris on Rue de Rivoli at Rue Nicolas Flamel; a 52-meter flamboyant Gothic tower, all that remains of the former sixteenth-century Church of Saint-Jacquesde-la-Boucherie, which was leveled shortly after the French Revolution.]

18 [Pascal (see note 16, above) solved the problem of the area of any segment of the cycloid and the center of gravity of any segment; he also solved the problems of the volume and surface area of the solid of revolution formed by rotating the cycloid about the x-axis.]

19 [Athanasius Kircher (born 2 May 1601 or 1602, Geisa, Holy Roman Empire; died 27/28 November 1680, Rome), a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published some forty major works, most notably in the fields of Oriental studies, geology, and medicine, said to be the first scholar with a global reputation.]

20 [Gaspar Schott (born 5 February 1608, Bad Königshofen; died 22 May 1666, Würzburg), a German Jesuit and scientist, remembered for his contributions to the fields of physics, mathematics, and natural philosophy, and more specifically for his work on hydraulic and mechanical instruments.]

21 Kircher [see note 19, above] is usually credited, as we know, for the invention of the magic lantern [or Laterna magica, an early kind of image projector perhaps developed by Kircher, but credit is more widely given to Christiaan Huygens (see Lesson 11, note 40), who is said to have invented it in the 1650s] [M. de St.-Agy].

22 Kircher put some hieroglyphs of his invention on the [Egyptian] obelisk [of Domitian] at the fountain [of the four Rivers] of Place Navone [Piazza Navona, Rome] where the ancient figures had completely disappeared. Fortunately, we remember it [M. de St.-Agy].

23 [Mundus subterraneus, in XII libros digestus; quo divinum subterrestris mundi opificium, mira ergasteriorum naturae in eo distributio, vergo pantamorphon protei regnum, universae denique naturae majestas & divitiae, summa rerum varietate exponuntur, first printed in Amsterdam by Joannem Janssonium & Waesberge, 1665, 2 parts in 1 vol. ([34] + 346 + [6]; [12] + 487 + [9], illus., in-folio; another printing by the same publishers appeared in 1678.]

24 Kircher, who wanted to know what was inside the [volcano of] Vesuvius, was brought inside the main caldera by a strong man who sent him down with a rope until he had completely satisfied his curiosity [M. de St.-Agy].

25 [Musaeum Kircherianum sive Musaeum a P. Athanasio Kirchero in Collegio Romano Societatis Jesu jam pridem incoetum nuper restitutum, et auctum, descriptum, et iconibus illustratum, Rome: Georgius Plachus, 1709, 6 leaves + 522 + [7] p., pls.]

26 [Filippo Bonanni or Buonanni (born 1638, Rome; died 1723), an Italian Jesuit scholar and pupil of Kircher who undertook the manufacturing of microscopic lenses, which he used to develop studies of insects and other small animals, notably the flea; among his many works are treatises on fields ranging from anatomy to music. After Kircher’s death in 1698, Bonanni was appointed curator of the well-known cabinet of curiosities gathered by Kircher; he later published a catalogue of the collection in 1709, titled Musaeum Kircherianum (see note 25, above).]

27 [Schott, see note 20, above.]

28 [Physica curiosa, sive Mirabilia naturae et artis libris XII. comprehensa, quibus pleraq[ue], quae de angelis, daemonibus, hominibus, spectris, energumenis, monstris, portentis, animalibus, meteoris, & c., Würzburg: Jobus Hertz, 1662, [51] + 770 p. + XXII leaves of pls, in-4°).]

29 [Technica curiosa, sive Mirabilia artis, libri XII. comprehensa; quibus varia experimenta, variaque technasmata pneumatica, hydraulica, hydrotechnica, mechanica, graphica, cyclometrica, chronometrica, automatica, cabalistica, aliaque artis arcana ac miracula, rara, curiosa, ingeniosa, magnamque partem nova & antehac inaudita, eruditi orbis utilitati, delectationi, disceptationique proponuntur, Nuremberg: Jobus Hertz, 1664, [22] + 1044 + [16-84] p., 17 leaves of pls, illus., in-4°.]

30 [Magia universalis naturae et artis: sive, Recondita naturalium & artificialium rerum scientia, cujus ope per variam applicationem activorum cum passivis, admirandorum effectuum spectacula, abditarumque inventionum miracula, ad varios human vit usus, eruuntur…, in four volumes, published not after Schott’s death (see note 20, above), but from 1657 to 1659, in Würtzburg by Joannis Godefridi Schönwetteri (illus., in-4°); it contains many mathematical problems and physical experiments, mostly from the areas of optics and acoustics.]

31 [Otto von Guericke (born 30 November 1602, Magdeburg; died 21 May 1686, Hamburg), a German scientist, inventor, and politician whose major scientific achievements were the establishment of the physics of vacuums, the discovery of an experimental method for clearly demonstrating electrostatic repulsion, and his advocacy of the reality of “action at a distance” and of “absolute space.”]

32 [Robert Boyle (born 25 January 1627, Lismore, Ireland; died 31 December 1691, London), an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor, also noted for his writings in theology. Although his research clearly has its roots in the alchemical tradition, Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry, and one of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method. He is best known for Boyle’s law, which describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system.]

33 These organizations of scholars offer great advantages; they make possible what isolated individuals could not do on their own. But they should be able to multiply indefinitely, to be completely free in their direction, and exempt from backing, from any governmental protection since the administration usually does not understand anything in the sciences; the best it can do is to consult those who do [M. de St.-Agy].

34 [Bacon, see Lesson 11, note 19.]

35 [Nova Atlantis, see Lesson 11, note 35.]

36 [Academy of the Lynx, see Lesson 4, note 61.]

37 He [Bacon] wanted its members to wear a golden ring adorned with a large emerald on which the figure of a sphinx was engraved. A medal would have been better for scholars if they really needed a sign of distinction [M. de St.-Agy].

38 [Prince Cesi, see Lesson 4, note 61.]

39 [Fabius Columna, see Lesson 4, note 41.]

40 [Giambattista della Porta (born 1535, Vico Equense, Italy; died 4 February 1615, Naples), an Italian scholar, polymath, and playwright who made important contributions to occult philosophy, astrology, alchemy, mathematics, meteorology, and natural philosophy.]

41 [Francesco Stelluti (born 12 January 1577, Fabriano; died November 1652, Fabriano), an Italian polymath who worked in the fields of mathematics, microscopy, literature, and astronomy.]

42 [Severinus, see Lesson 10, note 45.]

43 [Johann Vesling (born 1598, Minden, Westphalia; died 30 August 1649, Padua) was a German (not Belgian) anatomist and botanist who, as professor of anatomy and surgery at Padua, performed important studies of blood circulation, and was one of the first physicians to describe the brain’s circle of Willis (a circulatory anastomosis that supplies blood to the brain and surrounding structures, named after Thomas Willis; see note 60, below).]

44 [Spigel or Spigelius, see Lesson 2, note 77.]

45 [Terrentius, see Lesson 5, note 86.]

46 [Faber, see Lesson 5, note 87.]

47 [Pope Urban VIII, see Lesson 5, note 88.]

48 [Hernández, see Lesson 5, note 78.]

49 He [Cesi, see Lesson 4, note 61] had heated discussions with his father about it since his father was far from having the same enthusiasm for his projects. It is even said that Cesi the elder wanted to have Johannes Eckius killed; Johannes Eckius [also known as Johannes van Heeck, born 1574, Deventer; died 1616, Rome] was a Dutch physician who had given Cesi the younger the taste for natural history. After this, Eckius left Italy for several years [M. de St.-Agy].

50 [Philip II, see Lesson 2, note 1.]

51 [Sforza, a ruling family of Renaissance Italy, based in Milan; it acquired the dukedom and Duchy of Milan from the previously ruling Visconti family in the mid-fifteenth century, and lost it to the Spanish Habsburgs about a century later.]

52 [Francesco Barberini (born 23 September 1597, Florence; died 10 December 1679, Rome), an Italian Catholic Cardinal, the nephew of Pope Urban VIII (see Lesson 5, note 88); benefiting immensely from the nepotism practiced by his uncle, he was given various roles within the Vatican administration but his personal cultural interests, particularly in literature and the arts, resulted in becoming a highly significant patron.]

53 [Nova Atlantis, see Lesson 11, note 35.]

54 [Janus Plancus or Jano Placo was the pseudonym of Giovanni Paolo Simone Bianchi (born 3 January 1693, Rimini; died 3 December 1775, Rimini), an Italian anatomist, archaeologist, and zoologist who wrote numerous medical texts but best known for his De Conchis minus notis liber cui accessit specimen aestus reciproci maris superi ad littus portumque Arimini (Venice: Joannis Baptistae Pasquali, 1739, 88 p. + 5 pls, copper engr., illus., in-4°); his history of the Lincei Academy of Rome appeared in a 1744 (not 1664) edition of Fabius Columna’s Phytobasanos cui accessit vita Fabi et Lynceorum notitia adnotationesque in phytobasanon Jano Planco Ariminensi auctore ..., Milan: I. P. Aere & Petri Caietani Viviani, LII + 134 + [2] p. + XXXVIII leaves of pls, copper engr., in-4° (see Lesson 4, note 47).]

55 [Feliciano Scarpellini (born 20 October 1762, Foligno; died 29 November 1840, Rome), an Italian abbot and astronomer whose efforts to revive the Academy of the Lynx in the early nineteenth century were unsuccessful; revival of activities did not occur until 1847 when Pope Pius IX (born 13 May 1792, Senigallia; died 7 February 1878, Vatican City) re-founded a Pontifical Academy of the New Lynxes that still exists.]

56 [The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, see Lesson 8, note 96.]

57 [Charles I, see Lesson 2, note 101.]

58 [Boyle, see note 32, above.]

59 [John Willis (fl. 1660s), an English physician and staunch follower of the Church of England, well known for his faith and faith-based charities, who helped to inaugurate the Royal Society of London.]

60 [Thomas Willis (born 27 January 1621, Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire; died 11 November 1675, London), an English physician who played an important part in the history of anatomy, neurology, and psychiatry; he was a founding member of the Royal Society of London.]

61 [John Wilkins (born 14 February 1614, Fawsley, Northamptonshire; died 19 November 1672, London), an English clergyman, natural philosopher and author, as well as one of the founders of the Royal Society of London; he was Bishop of Chester from 1668 until his death.]

62 [Cromwell, see Lesson 8, note 93.]

63 [Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (born 18 February 1609, Wiltshire; died 9 December 1674, Rouen), an English statesman, historian, and one of the most important advisors to King Charles II.]

64 [Charles II, see Lesson 8, note 96.]

65 [Philosophical Transactions, a scientific journal published by the Royal Society of London (see Lesson 8, note 96). Established in 1665, it is the first journal in the world exclusively devoted to science and it has a strong claim to be the world’s longest-running scientific journal. The slightly earlier Journal des sçavans can also lay claim to be the world’s first science journal, although it contained a wide variety of non-scientific material as well. The use of the word “philosophical” in the title refers to “natural philosophy,” which was the equivalent of what would now be generically called “science.”]

66 Robert Hooke (born 28 July 1635, Freshwater, Isle of Wight; died 3 March 1703, London), an English natural philosopher, architect, and polymath, the first to study and record cells by using a microscope.]

67 [Thomas Willis, see note 60, above.]

68 [John Mayow (born 24 May 1641; died October 1679, London), a chemist, physician, and physiologist who is remembered for his early research into respiration and the nature of air, a field that is sometimes called pneumatic chemistry.]

69 [George Ent (born 6 November 1604, Sandwich, Kent; died 13 October 1689, St. Giles-in-the-Fields), an English scientist who focused on the study of anatomy; a member of the Royal ociety and the Royal College of Physicians, he is best known for his associations with William Harvey (see Lesson 2, note 72), particularly his Apologia pro circulatione sanguinis qua respondetur Aemilio Parisano medico Veneto (London: Guillaume Hope, 1641, 284 p., in-8°), a defense of Harvey’s work.]

70 [Kenelm Digby (born 11 July 1603, Gayhurst, Buckinghamshire; died 11 June 1665), an English courtier and diplomat; a highly respected natural philosopher and well known as a leading Roman Catholic intellectual, he was a founding member of the Royal Society, and a member of its governing council from 1662 to 1663.]

71 [William Petty (born 26 May 1623, Romsey; died 16 December 1687, London), an English economist, philosopher, scientist, inventor, entrepreneur, and a charter member of the Royal Society of London.]

72 [Isaac Barrow (born October 1630, London; died 4 May 1677, London), an English Christian theologian and mathematician who is generally given credit for his early role in the development of infinitesimal calculus; in particular, for the discovery of the fundamental theorem of calculus.]

73 [Newton, see Lesson 11, note 37.]

74 [Henry Oldenburg (born c. 1619, Bremen; died 5 September 1677, London), a German theologian known as a diplomat and a natural philosopher. At the foundation of the Royal Society he took on the task of foreign correspondence; as the first Secretary, and as the founding editor of the Philosophical Transactions, he began the practice of sending submitted manuscripts to experts who could judge their quality before publication, initiating the peer-review process that is the standard today]

75 [[Mémoires de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, the scientific journal of the French Academy of Sciences, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV (see Lesson 8, note 86) at the suggestion of Jean- Baptiste Colbert (a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV; born 29 August 1619, Reims; died 6 September 1683, Paris) to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and is one of the earliest academies of sciences.]

76 [Academy of the Lynx, see Lesson 4, note 61.]

77 [Academy of Experiment or Accademia del Cimento, an early scientific society, founded in Florence in 1657 by students of Galileo, Borelli (see note 79, below), and Vincenzo Viviani.]

78 [Ferdinando II de’ Medici (born 14 July 1610, Florence; died 23 May 1670, Florence), Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1621 to 1670; his 49-year rule was punctuated by the terminations of the remaining operations of the Medici Bank, and the beginning of Tuscany’s long economic decline.]

79 [Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (born 28 January 1608, Naples; died 31 December 1679, Rome), an Italian physiologist, physicist, and mathematician who contributed to the modern principle of scientific investigation by continuing Galileo’s custom of testing hypotheses against observation. Trained in mathematics, Borelli also made extensive studies of Jupiter‘s moons, the mechanics of animal locomotion and, in microscopy, the constituents of blood. He also used microscopy to investigate the stomatal movement of plants, and undertook studies in medicine and geology.]

80 [Francesco Redi (born 19 February 1626, Arezzo; died 1 March 1697, Pisa), an Italian physician, naturalist, and poet; the first scientist to challenge the doctrine of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from the eggs of flies. He was also the first to recognize and correctly describe details of many important parasites, and for this reason, as many historians and scientists claim, he may rightly be called the father of modern parasitology, and also regarded as the founder of experimental biology.]

81 [Nicolas Steno or Niels Stensen (born 11 January 1638, Copenhagen; died 5 December 1686, Schwerin, Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin), a Danish Catholic bishop and scientist, and a pioneer in anatomy, paleontology, geology and stratigraphy, and crystallography; many of his observations and discoveries are still recognized today. His investigations and his subsequent conclusions on fossils and rock formation have led scholars to consider him one of the founders of modern stratigraphy and modern geology.]

82 [Thomas Bartholin (born 20 October 1616, Malmö; died 4 December 1680, Copenhagen), a Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian, best known for his work in the discovery of the lymphatic system in humans and for his advancements of the theory of refrigeration anesthesia, the first to describe it scientifically.]

83 [Leopoldo de’ Medici (born 6 November 1617, Florence; died 16 November 1675, Florence), an Italian cardinal, scholar, patron of the arts and Governor of Siena; the brother of Ferdinand II de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (see note 78, above).]

84 [Grand Duchy of Tuscany, a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859. Initially, Tuscany was ruled by the House of Medici (see Lesson 10, note 33) until the extinction of its senior branch in 1737. While not as internationally renowned as the old republic, the grand duchy thrived under the Medici and it bore witness to unprecedented economic and military success under Cosimo I (see Lesson 7, note 87) and his sons, until the reign of Ferdinando II (see note 78, above), whose reign saw the beginning of the state’s long economic decline. It peaked under Cosimo III (born 14 August 1642, Florence; died 31 October 1723, Florence; elder son of Grand Duke Ferdinando II and penultimate Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany, who reigned from 1670 to 1723).]

85 [Cosimo di Giovanni de’Medici also known as Cosimo the Elder (born 27 September 1389, Florence; died 1 August 1464, Careggi), the first of the Medici political dynasty, de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Renaissance; his power derived from his great wealth as a banker, and he was a great patron of learning, the arts, and architecture.]

86 [Lorenzo de’ Medici (born 1 January 1449, Florence; died 9 April 1492, Careggi), an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent by contemporary Florentines, he was a diplomat, politician, and patron of scholars, artists, and poets. He is perhaps best known for his contribution to the art world, giving large amounts of money to artists and encouraging them to create master works of art.]

87 [Lorenzo the Elder (born c. 1395, Florence; died 23 September 1440, Careggi), an Italian banker of the House of Medici of Florence, the younger brother of Cosimo de’ Medici the Elder (see note 85, above) and the founder of the Popolani line of the family.]

88 This translation [Tentamina Experimentorum Naturalium in Accademia del Cimento: sub auspiciis serenissimi principis Leopoldi, Magni Etruriæ ducis et ab ejus academiæ secretario conscriptorum: ex italico in latinum sermonem conversa. Quibus commentarios, nova experimenta, et orationem de methodo instituendi experimenta physica addidit Petrus van Musschenbroek, Leiden: Johannes Verbeek, 1731, [16] + XLVIII + [12] + 193 + [1] + 192 + [14] p. + [33] fold. leaves of pls, illus., in-4°)] is much better than the original because of the notes and the numerous additions that [Pieter van] Musschenbroek [born 14 March 1692, Leiden; died 19 September 1761, Leiden; a Dutch scientist and professor in Duisburg, Utrecht, and Leiden, where he held positions in mathematics, philosophy, medicine, and astrology] brought to it. In one of these additions, Musschenbroek described a pyrometer [a type of thermometer used to measure high temperatures] that he invented: it is the first instrument of this kind to ever be published [M. de St.-Agy].

89 [Cardinal Leopoldo de’ Medici (died on 16 November 1675); see note 83, above.]

90 It is said that their dissolution was also the result of some disagreements [M. de St.-Agy].

91 [Académie Impériale des Curieux de la Nature or Academia Naturae Curiosorum, translated into English as the “Academy of the Curious as to Nature,” is the national academy of Germany, historically known as the Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina until 2007, when it was renamed the National Academy of Germany. Called the Leopoldina for short, it was established in the city of Schweinfurt on 1 January 1652 by four founding members, all physicians, namely Johann Lorenz Bausch (born 30 September 1605, Schweinfurt; died 17 November 1665, Schweinfurt), first president of the society; Johann Michael Fehr (born 9 May 1610, Kitzingen; died 15 November 1688, Schweinfurt); Georg Balthasar Metzger (born 23 September 1623, Schweinfurt; died 9 October 1687, Tubingen); and Georg Balthasar Wohlfarth (born 11 June 1607; died 31 January 1674).]

92 [Johann Lorenz Bausch, see note 91, above.]

93 [Johann Michael Fehr, see note 91, above.]

94 [Academy of the Arcadians, Accademia degli Arcadi, or Accademia dell’Arcadia, an Italian literary academy founded in Rome in 1690; the full Italian official name was Pontificia Accademia degli Arcadi.]

95 [The Argonauts, a band of heroes in Greek mythology, who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece. Their name comes from their ship, the Argo, named after its builder, Argus; “Argonauts” literally means “Argo sailors.”]

96 [Philipp Jakob Sachs von Lewenhaimb (born 26 August 1627, Breslau; died 7 January 1672, Breslau), a German physician, naturalist, and editor of Miscellanea Academiae naturae Curiosorum, the first-ever learned journal in the field of medicine and natural history; and author of Ampelographia sive Vitis viniferae ejusque partium consideratio, Leipzig: Christiani Michaelis, 1661, [54] + 670 + 70 + [34] + 1 fold. leaf of pls, in-8°.]

97 [Emperor Leopold I, see Lesson 8, note 86.]

98 [Miscellanea Academiae naturae Curiosorum, seu Ephemerides medico-physicae, see note 96, above.]

99 [For Leibnitz, see Volume 1, Lesson 6, note 22.]

100 [Lagographia curiosa, seu leporis descriptio juxto methodum & leges Augustae ac Imperialis Academiae Leopoldinae nat. curios. adornata, Selectisque observationibus & curiositatibus conspersa..., by Christian Franz Paullini, Augsburg: Johann Jacob Schönigii, 1691, [30] + 408 + [4] p. + 1 fold. leaf of pls, engr., in-8°; Elephantographia curiosa, seu elephanti descriptio, juxta methodum et leges imperialis academiae Leopoldino-Carolinae naturae curiosorum adornata, multisqve selectis observationibus physicis, medicis et jucundis his-toriis referta, cum figuris aeneis..., by Georg Christoph Peter von Hartenfels, Erfurt: Johann Heinrich Grosch, 1715, 15 + 284 + 1 p., illus., 27 pls; Salamandrologia curiosa, descriptio historico-philologico-philosophico-medica salamandrae quae vulgò in igne vivere creditur, by Johann Paul Wurffbain, Nuremberg: Johannis Michaelis Spörlini, 1683, [6] + 133 + [14] p. + 5 pls, in-4°; Astrologia curiosa: a thorough search of the literature failed to find a publication with this title.]

101 [The French Academy of Sciences or Académie Royale des Sciences, a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV (see Lesson 8, note 86) at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert (see note 75, above), to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and is one of the earliest academies of science.]

102 [Cardinal Richelieu, see Lesson 7, note 153.]

103 [Pierre Rémond de Montmort (born 27 October 1678, Paris; known for his book on probability: Essay d’analyse sur les jeux de hazard, Paris: Jacque Quillau, 1713, xlii + 415 p. + [3] fold. leaves of pls, illus.]

104 [Melchisédech or Melchisédec Thévenot (born c. 1620;veler, cartographer, orientalist, inventor, and diplomat. A wealthy patron of many scientists and mathematicians, he also influenced the founding of the Académie Royale des Sciences (see note 101, above).

105 [Pierre Michon Bourdelot (born 2 February 1610, Senlis; diedtine, and freethinker; in addition to helping to establish the 9 February 1685, Paris), a French physician, anatomist, liber-French Academy of Sciences, he founded in 1640 the Académie Bourdelot, a circle for scientists, philosophers and authors, that came together twice a month.]

106 [Steno, see note 81, above.]

107 [Paolo Silvio Boccone (born 24 April 1633, Palermo; died 22 Sicily, whose interest in plants had been sparked at a young December 1704, Altofonte), an Italian botanist and monk from age; born into a rich family, he was able to dedicate most of his life to the study of natural history.]

108 [Colbert, see note 75, above.]

109 [Louis XIV, see Lesson 8, note 86.]

110 [Jean-Baptiste Duhamel (born 11 June 1624, Vire, Normandy; died 6 August 1706, Paris), a French cleric, natural philosopher, and the first secretary of the Académie Royale des of the Académie but, having exerted little or no influence over Sciences. As its first secretary, he influenced the initial work administrative and organizational matters, his legacy and influence on the Académie and the growth of science in France were compromised.]

111 [Giovanni Domenico Cassini (born 8 June 1625, Perinaldo; died 14 September 1712, Paris), an Italian-French mathematician, astronomer, engineer, and astrologer, best known for his discovery of four satellites of Saturn and the division of the on rings of Saturn. He was also the first of his family to begin work the project of creating a topographic map of France.]

112 [Memoirs for a natural history of animals, containing the anatomical descriptions of several creatures dissected by the Académie Royale des Sciences at Paris, London: printed by Joseph Streater, 1688, [18] + 267 + [17] + 40 p. + [35] pls, illus.]

113 [Claude Perrault (born 25 September 1613, Paris; died 9 October 1688, Paris), a French architect best remembered for his design of the east wing of the Palais du Louvre in Paris, known as Perrault’s Colonnade. He also achieved success as a physician and anatomist, and as an author, who wrote treatises on physics and natural history.]

114 [Joseph-Guichard Duverney (born 5 August 1648, Feurs; died 10 September 1730, Paris), a French anatomist, who published one of the earliest comprehensive works on otology: Traité de l’organe de l’ouïe, contenant la structure, les usages et les maladies de toutes les parties de l’oreille (Treatise on the organ of hearing, containing the structure, function, and diseases of all parts of the ear), Paris: Estienne Michallet, 1683, [24] + 210 p. + XVI fold. leaves of pls, in-12.]

115 [Philippe de Lahire or de la Hire (born 18 March 1640, Paris; died 21 April 1718, Paris), a French mathematician and astronomer whose work also extended to descriptive zoology, the study of respiration, and physiological optics.]

116 [The Paris Observatory, the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centers in the world. Its historic building is located on the Left Bank of the Seine in central Paris. Its foundation lies in the ambitions of Jean-Baptiste Colbert (see note 75, above) to extend France‘s maritime power and international trade in the seventeenth century. Louis XIV promoted its construction, which started in 1667 and completed in 1671. It thus predates by a few years the Royal Greenwich Observatory in England, which was founded in 1675.]

117 [Cassini, see note 111, above.]

118 [Ole Christensen Roemer or Rømer (born 25 September 1644, Århus; died 19 September 1710, Copenhagen), a Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.]

119 [Wilhelm Homberg (born 8 January 1652, Batavia, now Jakarta; died 24 September 1715, Paris), a Dutch natural philosopher who made important contributions to chemistry and physics.]

120 [Denis Dodart (born 1634, Paris; died 5 November 1707, Paris), a French physician, naturalist, and botanist, perhaps best known for his early studies of plant respiration and growth. He collaborated with the French engraver Nicolas Robert (born 18 April 1614, Langres; died 25 March 1685, Paris; a French miniaturist and engraver to Louis XIV) in several illustrated works including Mémoires pour servir à l’Histoire des Plantes (Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1679, [16] + 329 + [3] p., in-12) and Estampes pour servir à l’histoire des plantes (Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1701, 2 vols, in-folio).]

121 [Claude Bourdelin (born 1621, near Lyon; died 15 October 1699, Paris), a French apothecary and chemist whose importance lies in his having made clear to some of his contempora-ries and to his successors that progress in chemical knowledge required use of less antiquated experimental methods and the elaboration of hypotheses as guidelines for research.]

122 [Samuel Cottereau Duclos or du Clos (born 1598, Paris; died 1685, Paris), a French chemist, member of the Académie Royale des Sciences from its founding in 1666, and author of de France faites en l’Académie Royale des Sciences en l’année Observations sur les eaux minérales de plusieurs provinces 1670 & 1671 (Observations on mineral waters in several provinces of France made at the Royal Academy of Sciences in the year 1670 & 1671), Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1675, 203 + [7] p., illus., copper engr., in-8°).

123 [Recueil des plantes dessinées et gravées par ordre du roi Louis XIV (Collection of plants drawn and engraved by order of King Louis XIV), 319 plates in three volumes, by Denis Dodart and Nicolas Roberts, Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1701 (see note 120, above).]

124 [Jean-Paul Bignon (born 19 September 1662, Paris; died 14 March 1743, Ile Belle), a French ecclesiastic, statesman, writer, and preacher, and librarian to Louis XIV of France.]

125 [Louis Phélypeaux (born 1643; died 1727), Marquis de Phélypeaux (1667), Comte de Maurepas (1687), Comte de Pont-chartrain (1699), known as the Chancellor de Pontchartrain, was a French politician who served as Secretary of State of the Navy, Secretary of State of the Maison du Roi, Controller-General of Finances, and Chancellor of France.]

126 [Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle (born 11 February 1657, Rouen; died 9 January 1757, Paris), a French author and a popular figure in the educated French society of his period, holding a position of esteem comparable only to that of Voltaire (see Lesson 9, note 36). But unlike Voltaire, Fontenelle avoided making important enemies. He balanced his penchant for universal critical thought with liberal doses of flattery and praise to the appropriate individuals in aristocratic society.]

127 [Elector of Brandenburg, see Lesson 6, note 26.]

128 [Leibnitz, see Volume 1, Lesson 6, note 22.]

129 [Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich (born 9 June 1672, Mos-cow; died 8 February 1725, Saint Petersburg), Tsar and Grand Russia from 1721 until his death, ruling jointly before 1696 Prince of All Russia from 1682 to 1721, and Emperor of All with his younger half-brother Ivan V Alekseyevich (born 6 September 1666, Moscow; died 8 February 1696, Moscow). a huge empire that became a major European power, leading In numerous successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a cultural revolution that replaced a traditional and medieval social and political system with a modern, rationalist, scientific, European-oriented system.]

130 [Catherine I or Marfa Samuilovna Skavronskaya, (born 15 April 1684; died 17 May 1727, Saint Petersburg), second wife of Peter I of Russia (see note 129, above), who reigned as Empress of Russia from 1725 until her death.]

131 [Peter II Alekseyevich (born 23 October 1715, Saint Petersburg; died 30 January 1730, Moscow), Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. He was the only son of Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich (born 28 February 1715, Moscow; died 7 July 1718, Saint Petersburg) —son of Peter I of Russia (see note 129, above) by his first wife Eudoxia Lopukhina (born 9 August 1669, Moscow; died 7 September 1731, Moscow)— and Princess Charlotte (born 28 August 1694, Wolfenbuttel; died 2 November 1715, Saint Petersburg).]

132 [Anna of Russia or Anna Ioannovna (born 7 February 1693, Moscow; died 28 October 1740, Saint Petersburg), reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740.]

133 [Count Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli (or Marsili) (born 10 July 1658, Bologna; died 1730), an Italian soldier and naturalist, best known for his Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus: observationibus geographicis, astronomicis, hydrographicis, historicis, physicis perlustrarus…, The Hague: Pierre Gosse, Rutgert Christophle Alberts, and Pierre de Hondt, 1726, 3 pts in 6 vols, 255 pls, 33 maps + plans, illus.; a richly illustrated work in six volumes containing much valuable historic and scientific information on the river Danube.]

134 [Homberg, see note 119, above.]

135 [Duclos, see note 122, above.]

136 [Bourdelin, see note 121, above.]

137 [Bacon’s Nova Atlantis, see Lesson 11, note 35.]

138 [Paracelsus, see Lesson 4, note 72.]

139 [Rosicrucianism, see Lesson 1, note 6.]

140 [Academy of the Curious as to Nature, see note 91, above.]

141 [Théodore Turquet de Mayerne, see Lesson 10, note 60.]

142 See Lesson 4, note 73 [M. de St.-Agy].

143 [Van Helmont, see Lesson 10, note 66.]

144 [Ubique terrarium, a Latin phrase meaning “everywhere” or “all over the world.”]

145 [Joseph Duchesne or du Chesne, Latin Josephus Quercetanus (born c. 1544, Armagnac; died 1609), a French physician and chemist, physician-in-ordinary to King Henry IV of France; a follower of Paracelsus, he is remembered for important transitional theories of alchemy.]

146 [Henry IV, see Lesson 2, note 57.]

147 [Jean Beguin (born 1550; died 1620), a French physician and chemist noted for his lecture notes published under the title Tyrocinium chymicum e naturae fonte et manuali experientia depromptum… (Beginner’s Chemistry), Paris: [s. n.], 1610, textbook (as opposed to alchemy); a later edition of this book 70 p., in-8°), considered by many to be the first chemistry (Cologne: Antonium Boëtzerum, 1615, 90 p., woodcut. portr., in-12) contains the first-ever chemical equation or rudimentary reaction diagrams, showing the results of reactions in which there are two or more reagents.]

148 [Christopher Glaser (born 1615, Basel; died between 1670 and 1678), a pharmacist and demonstrator of chemistry at the Jardin du Roi in Paris, best known for his Traité de la chymie enseignant par une briève et facile méthode toutes ses plus néces-saires préparations (Paris: [s. n.], 1663, [16] + 378 + [3] p., illus.), which went through some ten editions in about twenty-five years, and was translated into both German and English.]

149 [Nicolas Lemery (born 17 November 1645, Rouen; died 19 June 1715, Paris), a French chemist, one of the first to develop theories on acid-base chemistry.]

150 [Becker, see Lesson 9, note 89.]

Table des illustrations

Légende Mundus subterraneusFrontispice from Athanasius Kircher’s Mundus Subterraneus… (1664). Cliché Bibliothèque centrale, MNHN.
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Fichier image/jpeg, 1,1M

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