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Cuvier’s History of the Natural Sciences

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Georges Cuvier

1. Early Sixteenth-century Anatomists and Zoologists

2. Falloppio, Eustachio, Harvey, and Their Contemporaries

Texte intégral

Anatomy of the horse
Anatomical plate from Ruini’s Anatomia del cauallo… (1599). Cliché Bibliothèque centrale, MNHN.

1Messieurs,

2We saw anatomy born again during the Middle Ages with the work of Mundinus; then we saw it evolve little by little until it finally reached, thanks to Vesalius, a rather complete doctrine, at least for the ground basis of anatomy since there were still many details and improvements to be added to it. Vesalius’s work could be used as a starting point for further study since all the various parts of anatomy are presented in his book; everything that the author had been able to observe is described with clarity and refinement, along with illustrations that give a good idea of the objects he refers to, as long as these objects do not require a microscope or complete details. The works that were published after Vesalius were in fact only developments or improvements of his work.

3During Vesalius’s lifetime there lived two other men worthy of credit; together with Vesalius, they were considered as the triumvirs of anatomy since these three actually founded the science of anatomy. These two men are Gabriele Falloppio and Bartolomeo Eustachio. Vesalius was not Italian —he only conducted most of his research there— but the other two were Italian.

  • 1 [Philip II of Spain (born 21 May 1527, Valladolid; died 13 September 1598, El Escorial), King of S (...)
  • 2 This fact is accepted only by a few authors; others, like [George] Martine [Scottish physician, bo (...)
  • 3 [Falloppio’s Observationes anatomicae, a detailed critical commentary on Vesalius’s De humani corp (...)
  • 4 [The trigeminal or fifth cranial nerve; both sensory and motor, it receives sensation from the fac (...)
  • 5 This is how far the great Duchy of Tuscany extended its protection: Princeps jubet ut nobis dent h (...)
  • 6 [Falloppio’s De principio venarum may be found in his collected works, Opera genuine omnia, see Fa (...)
  • 7 [Gabriellis Fallopii Mutensis physici praeclarissimi ac... expositio in librum Galeni de ossibus. (...)

4Gabriele Falloppio was a nobleman from Modena, born in 1523. He was a professor in Ferrara, then in Pisa and Padua, where he took over from Vesalius when Vesalius had to go to Madrid as first physician to the king of Spain.1 He died at the age of 40. We can thus understand why Vesalius was called back to take over his former professorial position. During the little time Falloppio worked, he made very nice and delicate discoveries. He was provided with a rather abundant number of cadavers for that time, about seven or eight a year. He was a student of Vesalius;2 although he had corrected his master and had commented on his master’s opinion about the ancients, he always treated him with respect and regard, which his colleagues did not do. At that time, people had such mercy for animals that they used opium to kill the animals that were destined to be dissected, thus avoiding a violent death. Falloppio’s main observations are in a book that he published in Venice in 1561, Observationes anatomicae.3 This book was such a success that it was published again a year later in Paris. It contains many new observations. The author shows that the skull of the fetus contains more pieces than the skull of an adult. He also shows the differences in the vascular system between both. The very complicated bone called the ethmoid is better described than in Vesalius’s work. We also owe Falloppio the description of the oval foramen of the sphenoid through which pass the nerves of the fifth pair,4 and the description of the sphenoidal and petrosal sinuses. He also describes the tooth sockets, and the blood vessels and nerves around them. However, his main topic of study was the structure of the inner ear. Falloppio discovered the vestibule, the semicircular canals, the cochlea and its spiral lamina, the lateral wall of the tympanic cavity, the tympanic membrane, and the meatus canal of the eardrum. He made several important observations on various muscles, in particular those of the ear, both inner and outer. It would be difficult for me to explain this section of his work since it would require details and illustrations, but those of you who are familiar with anatomy know that the external pterygoid muscle is one of the most difficult muscles to observe in the human body. Falloppio is the only one who was working to give a general description of the muscles of the palate. His description of the facial muscles is also superior to that of Vesalius. In his description of the intestines, he distinguished the villous tunic of the intestine and the circular folds (also called plicae) of the intestine. All these small details became more and more numerous because of the emulation he created, which contributed heavily to the development of Vesalius’s scholarship. Falloppio spent almost twenty years gathering his observations, and with the help of the government of Venice,5 which sponsored all scholars, it is not surprising that he was able to add to Vesalius’s work all these interesting facts that we just mentioned. He also wrote a manual called De principio venarum6 in which we can clearly see that he did not know about blood circulation; once again he says that the blood vessels come from the liver, as the Ancients thought. His last book, called Expositio in Galeni librum de ossibus,7 is an osteology in which he tries to prove that Galen did not use as many animals as Vesalius asserted. His critical observations are always presented with moderation.

  • 8 According to the most common opinion, it is in San Severino, in [the province of] Ancona [in the] (...)
  • 9 [For Sylvius, see Lesson 1, note 41.]
  • 10 [De renum structura, the first work devoted specifically to the kidney, see Bartholomaei Eustachii (...)
  • 11 [Taille-douce, the French term for a type of engraving on copper plates in which the design is mad (...)

5Moderation is certainly not a quality that we find in the third of the great anatomists that we are discussing now —Bartolomeo Eustachio di San Severino (kingdom of Naples),8 called as such because he was born in San Severino. Eustachio was a professor in Rome where he died in 1570. In all his writings he takes the defense of the Ancients against Vesalius with extraordinary harshness, almost similar to Sylvius.9 His first book is a treatise on kidneys, published in Venice in 1563,10 which shows for the first time engraved illustrations of quality in taille-douce (line engraving).11 He is also one of the first anatomists whose work was scrutinized in search of structural variation of organs. Vesalius spent a lot of time and effort working on giving a general description of organs in their ordinary presentation, thus he had to leave it to his successors to study their structural variation. Yet you probably understand why this research was so important to Vesalius’s antagonists: Vesalius accused Galen of having described animals, and some of Galen’s descriptions definitely prove it; thus to defend him, his protectors, who asserted that his descriptions were human, had to find in different individuals of the human species anomalies that could explain Galen’s incorrect descriptions. Thus, Eustachio put a strong interest in finding these variations and sometimes he managed to explain incoherent differences between Galen’s descriptions and the ordinary structure of the human body.

  • 12 [Bartholomaei Eustachii sanctoseverinatis libellus de dentibus, Venice: printed by Vincentius Luch (...)
  • 13 [Bernhard Siegfried Albinus, see Lesson 1, note 78.]

6In another book that was published in 1563 called De dentibus,12 Eustachio gives a similar example; he starts his study of organs in the fetus and follows with the study of these organs at different ages of the human species. Vesalius so far had examined the adult, and his scholarship, within these limits, was already rather extended. But our organs vary with age; there is almost none that does not change in shape, consistency, or proportion during the different periods of life; and yet it is obvious that these variations are among the most important facts to know in anatomy and physiology. These variations are particularly noticeable in teeth since we are not born with them, like the other body parts; but teeth grow later, some fall out, others grow back, and they continually change with age. Eustachio wanted to study these variations; thus, he started by examining them in the fetus. This study has since then been done by other scholars such as Albinus,13 but Eustachio was the first one to use this method, which since then has been generally applied.

  • 14 [Ossium examen see note 10, above.]

7Eustachio’s third book, written in 1564, is called Ossium examen14 and includes a critique of Vesalius. He follows the same method as for his book on kidneys; each time that Vesalius attributes one of Galen’s description to animals, especially to monkeys, Eustachio tries to first prove that it was not a monkey that Galen tried to describe; and then, if his description did not apply to the largest number of human skeletons, that it might apply to some particular skeletons in some special circumstances. This book is not of very good faith; however, it allowed the author to make observations that helped science. This book gives a good osteology of the monkey and interesting remarks on osteological variation of the human species.

  • 15 [The azygos vein, a vein running up the right side of the thoracic vertebral column that provides (...)
  • 16 Jean Pecquet [born 1622, Dieppe, Seine-Maritime; died 1674; a French anatomist and physiologist wh (...)

8Another treatise written by Eustachio talks about the azygos vein: a blood vessel that originates in the thorax.15 Here again, in this small treatise in comparative anatomy, he uses his comparative method. He not only examines this body part at different ages, but also in different animals; he describes the channel of the thorax in the horse, which was later called Pecquet’s duct.16 Many discoveries in anatomy bear the name of people who were not actually the ones who made the discoveries because the ones who made the actual discoveries did not receive the importance they deserved. Thus, many discoveries bear the name of men who came later and were able to better describe the use and economic value of these discoveries, which, in some cases, is very unfair.

  • 17 [De auditu organis, see note 10, above.]
  • 18 [Even in ancient times the existence of an open pathway between the ear and the respiratory tract (...)
  • 19 [On the discovery of the stapes, see note 32, below.]
  • 20 [Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, see Lesson 1, note 85.]
  • 21 [A group of anatomical treatises written by Eustachius in 1561 and 1562 on the kidneys (De renum s (...)
  • 22 [Eustachius’s Tabulae anatomicae or “Anatomical engravings,” first published in 1714 by Giovanni M (...)
  • 23 Lancisi was helped by his counselors and even by [the Italian physicians and anatomists] [Antonio] (...)
  • 24 [For Albinus, see note 22, above; see also Lesson 1, note 73.]
  • 25 [For Haller, see Lesson 1, note 16.]

9Eustachio’s fifth book is about the ear:17 he gives the first illustration of the cochlea and its spiral lamina, which had already been described by Falloppio, but never illustrated. His book also describes the tube that goes from the inner ear to the back of the mouth called the Eustachian tube, although it was discovered long before him.18 He also describes the small bone in the ear called the stapes.19 While Falloppio credited this discovery to Ingrassias,20 Eustachio disputes it and claims it to be his own discovery. Eustachio’s scholarship is gathered in a fourpart book, which was printed several times, in particular in Holland.21 Eustachio had, however, prepared another book that would have been much more significant, if it had been published in a timely manner; it included plates of anatomy that an artist drew for him under his own eyes to create a complete treatise on anatomy. This book would have been similar to the work of Vesalius, but of much better quality, because he had added numerous additional structures and because the plates, even though the artist was not as talented as the one who prepared Vesalius’s illustrations, gave a better representation of the details. It was supposed to be a folio collection with an extensive narrative. However, Eustachio died before he was able to finish this beautiful collection. The coppers were engraved in 1552, ten years after Vesalius’s work. They represented many discoveries for their time, but they remained in storage or in some estate during part of the sixteenth and all of the seventeenth century. They were published only in 1714 by a doctor to the Pope named Lancisi, along with succinct explanations.22 We can imagine what success Eustachio would have received if they had been published during his lifetime because several discoveries that were made during the century and a half while his work was unknown had actually been already discovered by him. The explanation that Lancisi gave to his plates is not very accurate;23 several things were still too new for anatomists. Albinus gave a better edition in 1744, with better explanations.24 He explains the discoveries that had been made during the previous 150 years; however, this edition is still not satisfactory. In Haller’s time,25 different parts of Eustachio’s plates were not even clearly explained, especially the distribution of the nerves on the surface of the body.

  • 26 [For Guinther, see Lesson 1, note 38].
  • 27 [For Sylvius, see Lesson 1, note 41].

10So here is Eustachio’s most significant scholarship. He certainly deserves to be held in high esteem among anatomists and nothing would have tarnished his image if he had shown more moderation in the way he treated his predecessor and fellow student, since both of them were students of Guinther26 and Sylvius.27

  • 28 [Fabricius d’Aquapendente, see Lesson 1, note 66; and Volume 1, Lesson 9, note 38.]
  • 29 [Jean-Baptiste Cannanus (also Cannani or Canano) (born 1515, Ferrare; died 1579), professor of ana (...)

11Vesalius, Falloppio, and Eustachio were, as we just discussed, the three main founders of modern anatomy. However, we should not forget to mention other anatomists of their time from Italy and other European countries who also deserve recognition. We will rapidly look at their contribution to science and show what each of them brought to it, until the time of Fabricius d’Aquapendente who revolutionized anatomy.28 During Vesalius’s lifetime there lived in Ferrara a professor a little bit older than him named Jean-Baptiste Cannanus.29 He wrote an illustrated treatise on muscles intended for artists. Cannanus died in 1543.

  • 30 [Jean-Philippe Ingrassias, see Lesson 1, note 85.]
  • 31 [Ingrassius’s In Galeni librum de ossibus doctissima et expectatissima commentaria, in which he co (...)
  • 32 [The discovery of the stapes in the mid-16th century remains a subject of controversy in medical l (...)
  • 33 [The facial nerve, or seventh (VII) of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves, which controls the musc (...)

12Jean-Philippe Ingrassias30 is another anatomist but of a higher level. He can be ranked at the same level as all eminent scholars in anatomy. He was from Sicily, taught in Naples, and was first physician to the kingdom of Sicily and neighboring islands. In 1575, he saved the town of Palermo from the plague and we owe him the institution of isolation wards meant to prevent the propagation of eastern diseases in the West. Sicilians erected a statue in his honor. He had several opportunities for dissecting and he made various discoveries, most of which are presented in his commentary on Galen’s Treatise on bones that was published only after his death in 1604.31 Ingrassias’s discoveries were reported before his book was published, thus Falloppio felt he should credit him for the discovery of the stapes, which he had thought he was the first to discover. Though Eustachio also observed it, we cannot credit him either for this discovery.32 We owe Ingrassias the distinction between the soft and the hard branches of the seventh pair of nerves,33 and the description of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. He also observed the differences in the pelvis in both sexes, with much more precision than what had been done so far.

  • 34 According to l’abbé Gouget [(Claude-Pierre), Mémoire historique et littéraire sur le Collège Royal (...)
  • 35 [Francis I, king of France, see Lesson 1, note 39].
  • 36 [Vidius’s posthumous work, titled Anatome corporis humani libri VII, Venise: apud Juntas, 1611, [1 (...)

13Another anatomist of that time was Vidus-Vidius, also called Guido-Guidi.34 He was principal physician to Francis I, king of France,35 and the first professor of anatomy and of medicine at the Collège de France, where he started to work in 1542. When Francis I died in 1547, he left and became a professor in Pisa, his homeland, where he passed away in 1569. Sylvius was the one who succeeded him at the Collège de France in 1550. Sylvius had more seniority than Vidus-Vidius; he taught in Paris as a private professor. He was even Vidius’s master at some point; however, he was only his successor. Vidius’s work was published only after his death, in 1611, in Venice. It is called Corporis humani anatomia.36 Except for a few additions, its contents are entirely borrowed from Vesalius who was his contemporary. The illustrations are also nearly copied from Vesalius’s work.

  • 37 [Realdus Columbus or Realdo Colombo (born about 1516, Cremona; died 1559, Rome), an Italian profes (...)
  • 38 [De re anatomica, Colombus’s only published work, which appeared shortly before his death in 1559 (...)
  • 39 [Mucous bags of tendons or tendon sheaths —layers of membrane around a tendon that permit the tend (...)
  • 40 [Michael Servius or Miguel Servetus (born 1509 or 1511, Villanueva, Aragon; burned at the stake, 1 (...)

14Another of his contemporaries is Realdus Columbus, from Cremona, student and successor to Vesalius in Padua.37 After Falloppio’s death, Columbus did not give much recognition to his master in his book titled De re anatomica.38 He treats him harshly many times; however, his book is very useful. He describes very interesting experiments on breathing; it was almost the first time that such experiments occurred since Galen. He made some additions; for example, the description of the mucous bags of tendons.39 He also did a better job at describing pulmonary circulation than Servius.40 But as far as the main blood circulation, he still did not have a clear idea about it.

  • 41 [Italian physician and anatomist Leonardo Botal or Botallo, born 1530, Asti, Piedmont; died after (...)
  • 42 [The foramen Botalli or foramen ovale, not to be confused with the foramen ovale of the skull, an (...)

15We also need to add to the list of Italian anatomists Leonardo Botal from Asti in Piedmont,41 who was a disciple of Falloppio. He wrote a small book called Commentarioli duo, alter de medici, alter de aegroti munere, published in Lyon, in 1565, in which he describes the foramen that now bears his name and which allows communication between the auricles in the fetus.42 This is again a discovery that is credited to the wrong person. Botal’s foramen was already mentioned by Galen, but like other modern anatomists, Botal was the first one to prove its importance, thus his name remained attached to it. We will see many more examples of this kind.

  • 43 [Julius Cesar Arantius, Giulio Cesare Aranzio, or Aranti (born 1529/1530, Bologna; died 7 April 15 (...)

16Another anatomist who was also a disciple of Vesalius is Julius Cesar Arantius, professor in Bologna, who wrote in 1564 in Rome a treatise called De humano foetu.43 His work provides new details about the fetal membrane.

  • 44 [Constanzo Varolio or Constantius Varolius (born 1543, Bologna; died 1575, Rome), an Italian anato (...)
  • 45 [Raymond Vieusseus or Vieussens (born c. 1635, died 1715), professor of anatomy at Montpellier, au (...)
  • 46 [Franz Josef Gall (born 9 March 1758, Baden; died 22 August 1828, Paris), a pioneer in the study o (...)

17Constanzo Varolio, professor in Bologna,44 is also from that time since he died in 1578; his book De resolution corporis humani was published posthumously in Frankfurt, in 1591. His work is particularly remarkable for its whole new way of dissecting the brain. Vesalius and other authors in anatomy took the brain from its upper part, and successively sliced it to show what could be found at each cut, be it either ventricles or other parts located beneath each cut, then they would turn them upside down. Varolio did it differently. He started at the lower part of the brain. From the medulla oblongata, he follows the fibers through the central bulge to the thalamus and the ventricles where the fibers seem to expand. This method has since been improved by Vieusseus of Montpellier45 and mostly by Gall;46 but we don’t owe them this invention. Varolio is the one who left his name to this central bulge, which in both men and quadrupeds goes from one part of the cerebellum to the other, crossing over the medulla oblongata.

  • 47 [André Césalpin, Andrea Cesalpino, or Andreas Caesalpinus (born 1524 or 1525, died 23 February 160 (...)
  • 48 [Pope Clement VIII (born 24 February 1536, Fano, Marche; died 3 March 1605, Rome), head of the Cat (...)

18Andre Césalpin,47 famous botanist of that time, professor in Pisa and principal physician to Pope Clement VIII,48 is worth mentioning here for his descriptions of the pulmonary circulation. The pulmonary circulation, or small circulation, was rather well known at that time since it was mentioned by Servius and described by Columbus and Césalpin; but it was not the whole spectrum of the science. The systemic circulation, also called the large circulation, was not yet understood, and nobody really thought about it yet.

  • 49 [Charles or Carlo Ruini (born 1530, died 1598), author of Anatomia del cavallo, infermità, et suoi (...)
  • 50 [Gaspard de Saunier (born 1663, died 10 August 1748), author of L’art de la cavalerie, ou La maniè (...)

19Charles Ruini, contemporary to the anatomists we just mentioned, senator in Bologna in 1598, provided a description of the anatomy of the horse.49 It is the best anatomical monograph of that time. It was reproduced by most of those who later wrote on the anatomy of the horse in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Saulnier,50 for example, wrote a treatise on the medical treatment of horses and their anatomy in which he copied Ruini and his plates without crediting him.

20These men were not all the Italian anatomists of that time, but only the most important ones. You see that they were many and that their scholarship was done with a lot of diligence and refinement; they each contributed to the corpus of doctrine created by Vesalius.

  • 51 [Ambroise Paré (born about 1510, Bourg-Hersent, northwestern France; died 20 December 1590, Paris) (...)
  • 52 [Henry II (born 31 March 1519, Château de Saint-Germainen-Laye, near Paris; died 10 July 1559, Pla (...)
  • 53 According to [Pierre de Bourdeille, seigneur de] Brantôme [born about 1540, Périgord, Aquitaine; d (...)
  • 54 [Saint Bartholomew’s Day massacre, a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman (...)
  • 55 His father who lived in Laval had put him in a boarding house with a chaplain named Orsoy; but sin (...)
  • 56 [Briefve collection de l’administration anatomique: Avec la maniere de côioindre les os et d’extra (...)

21Anatomy was not studied as much in other countries. Yet there were some remarkable anatomists both in France and in Germany, but in France they were mostly surgeons. The most famous was Ambroise Paré,51 surgeon to Henry II;52 he called himself Henry’s barber. He remained surgeon to Henry’s three sons, also kings. Paré was very skilled in curing surgical diseases. A Protestant, he was saved by Charles IX53 from the Saint Bartholomew’s Day massacre.54 He did not know Latin.55 One of his writings includes a treatise on anatomical administration, published in 1549,56 that is of rather good quality, the illustrations for which come from Vesalius. He is the first one to do general comparisons between the bone structure in the skeleton of man, the quadruped, and the bird. He shows that the skeleton of the bird, while it seems completely different from the human skeleton, still has parts that have similarities with the human skeleton. With his very ingenious and accurate observation, Ambroise Paré is at the origin of comparative osteology.

  • 57 [Henry IV (born 13 December 1553, Pau, Navarre; died 14 May 1610, Paris), king of Navarre (as Henr (...)
  • 58 [André Dulaurens or du Laurens (born 1558, Arles; died 1609,) a French physician, gerontologist, r (...)
  • 59 [Historia anatomica humani corporis, singularum ejus partium multis controversiis & observationibu (...)

22During the same period lived André Dulaurens, a contemporary of Henry IV57 and professor at Montpellier.58 Dulaurens wrote a treatise on human anatomy largely based on Vesalius and his immediate successors; the clarity of his descriptions has some merit.59

  • 60 [Leonhard or Leonhart Fuchs (born 1501, Wemding, Duchy of Bavaria; died 10 May 1566, Tübingen), a (...)
  • 61 [Felix Plater or Platter (born 28 October 1536, Basel; died 28 July 1614, Basel), a Swiss physicia (...)
  • 62 [De corporis humani structura et usu Felicis Plateri Bas. medici antecessoris libri III. Tabulis m (...)
  • 63 [Camera obscura (Latin for darkened room or chamber), an optical device that projects an image of (...)
  • 64 [The talus or ankle bone is an element in the collection of bones in the foot called the tarsus. T (...)
  • 65 [In 1557, some immense bones were exposed to view by the uprooting of an oak tree near the cloiste (...)

23Among the German anatomists was Leonard Fuchs, professor at Tübingen, who published a description of anatomy in 1551, based mostly on Vesalius, and compared to Galen.60 I want to mention as well a professor from Basel, Felix Plater,61 who was for fifty years the only professor of anatomy of reference in Europe for those who did not go to Italy. Plater also wrote a treatise on the parts of the human body that was published in 1583 and printed again in 1603.62 In addition to what he added to Vesalius’s scholarship, there is an article on the use of the lens that other anatomists had not researched very well; he compares it to convex lenses and the whole eye to the camera obscura (dark room).63 His work also includes the study of some fossil bones found near Lucerne. These bones belonged to an elephant but because he did not have a skeleton of this animal, he could not verify it. Since the talus bone and the calcaneus64 had some resemblance to human bones, even a very farfetched resemblance; and because the resemblance is more definite in elephants than in horses and other mammals, he concluded that these fossil bones came from the skeleton of a giant. Based on the length of the tibia or any other bone, he even calculated that this giant was 17 feet tall. He made a model of this proportion that remained for a very long time at the town hall of Lucerne, which the inhabitants of Lucerne took as support for their heraldry. This supposed giant was in fact nothing more than an elephant.65

  • 66 [Volcher Coiter (also spelled Coyter or Koyter) (born 1534, Groningen; died 2 June 1576, Brienne-l (...)
  • 67 [Rondelet, see Lesson 1, note 42.]
  • 68 [Coiter’s published works, Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis partium tabulæ, a (...)

24A man who would have been more skilled in this explanation is Volcher Coiter of Groningue.66 He was a student of Falloppio, and then of Rondelet67 in Montpellier. He produced some plates illustrating human anatomy and the skeletons of a large variety of animals; they were all published in Nuremberg from 1573 to 1575.68 He was the first to provide rather good illustrations of osteology; his illustrations engraved on copper are quite numerous. The town of Nuremberg contained numerous artists. Coiter benefited from it to publish his illustrations of skeletons. It was the first collection on this scale to be produced by engraving.

  • 69 [Fabrizio is Fabricius d’Aquapendente; see Lesson 1, note 66.]
  • 70 [The State of the Church or Stato della Chiesa (also Stato Pontifico) refers to the Papal States, (...)

25This concludes the list of anatomists who were not from Italy but who worked in the spirit of Vesalius. Vesalius’s method of comparison and generalization took, however, more substance in the school of Padua when Fabrizio was named professor there.69 Fabrizio was from Aquapendente, in the State of the Church.70 This is where his surname, d’Aquapendente comes from. A disciple of Falloppio in Padua, he became professor in Padua in 1565 and taught there for fifty years during which time he acquired a strong reputation.

  • 71 [Paolo or Pietro Sarpi (born 14 August 1552, Venice; died 15 January 1623, Venice), a Venetian pat (...)

26At that time, there lived a man who was very famous in church history, Fra Paul Sarpi or Fra Paolo Sarpi.71 In his memoirs, while referring to the argument that Venice had with Rome, he voiced his support for the Republic, thus making enemies who later stabbed him at the door of his convent. Fabrizio was in charge of his healing, and to compensate him for that, the Republic of Venice made him knight. Fabrizio became wealthy but died of sorrow for having an ungrateful heir.

  • 72 [William Harvey (born 1 April 1578, Folkestone; died 3 June 1657, Roehampton), an English physicia (...)

27In spite of this event, his life brought a significant contribution to anatomy, especially related to physiology. The various books he wrote and published were undertaken with a new method. He did not take organs from animals to make up for what could not be observed in humans, as Galen and Vesalius did —although Vesalius had criticized Galen for doing it too— but he examined both the organ in man and in various animals to determine what was common in all species and what was different. Then he investigated the consequences of these similarities or differences. You can imagine that this method was very illuminating for the description of the functions of each organ and even of each part of the organs. This is how Fabrizio researched vision, speech, and hearing; how he dealt with a description of the larynx, a treatise on the fetus and one on the inside of the blood vessels, and on the esophagus, the stomach, the intestines, the movements of different animals, and a treatise on the egg and its development. These writings fill up only one folio volume, including the plates, but they include new observations rich in consequences. In his treatise on the blood vessels, he describes the inside of the veins that had not been noticed before, which could have led him to discover blood circulation. He had observed that the valves of the veins that Sylvius had discovered are all directed toward the heart. If he had compared this disposition to the valves in the heart and the arteries that lack these valves, then he could have reached the conclusion that blood travels differently in arteries and in veins, thus discovering blood circulation; but, this honor went to William Harvey,72 which shows that often we are at the edge of a discovery without knowing it.

28Tradition tells us that Fra Paolo was the first one to talk about the direction of the valves, but maybe he learned this discovery from Fabricius while he was staying at his house for the treatment of his wounds; furthermore, this tale is not supported by any evidence. In his treatise on the ear, Fabricius does not know yet that there are only three semicircular canals; he thinks that there are many of them.

29In his treatise on the larynx, he describes how voice is produced by air blown in the bronchial tubes and the windpipe.

30His treatise on the fetus gives details on the fetal membranes in animals, which are not always similar to the human ones.

  • 73 [Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (born 28 January 1608, Naples; died 31 December 1679, Rome), an Italian (...)

31He was the first one to study the differences in partial movements that compose motion in general, which is called, depending on the species, running, flying, jumping, swimming, or crawling. Thus, he preceded Borelli, student of Galileo, who in the seventeenth century wrote a treatise on the subject and who did a better job at it because his research was supported by strong mathematical knowledge.73

  • 74 [De formatione ovi et pulli, found among Fabricius’s lecture notes after his death, was published (...)
  • 75 [The Bursa of Fabricius (in Latin, the Bursa cloacalis or Bursa fabricii), present in the cloaca o (...)

32His treatise on the egg and the chicken is very valuable.74 For the first time we find illustrations that represent the development of the chicken since its inception, which is barely noticeable, until when the chick breaks its shell. He also wrote a treatise on the organs of the chicken, which caused a part of this bird to be named after him, the Bursa of Fabricius.75 He had prepared 300 plates for a book that would have been called Totius fabricate animalis theatrum. This general treatise on anatomy was to be designed in the same spirit as his more focused treatises and it would have probably sped up the development of comparative anatomy; but his plates met a more unfortunate fate than those of Eustachio. They were lost at his death never to be found again.

  • 76 [Jules or Julius Casserius, also Giulio Casserio (born 1561, Plaisance, Province of Piacenza; died (...)
  • 77 [Adrien Spigel, Adriaan van den Spiegel, or Adrianus Spigelius (born 1578, Brussels; died 7 April (...)
  • 78 [On the contrary, Casserius died on 8 March 1616.]

33His student and successor, Jules Casserius of Plaisance who became professor in Padua where he lived until 1616 wrote two books.76 One called “Of the Organs of the Voice and of Hearing” was printed in Ferrarra in 1600. This work is outstanding for its large number of anatomical illustrations copied after man and animals; yet it does include a few errors in neurology as might be expected. His other treatise called “Of the Five Senses” includes several discoveries. It includes many details of comparative anatomy. By then, Fabricius’s method was commonly used in Italy; many other anatomists worked in the same spirit and tried to generalize the principles of anatomy. Instead of looking at the specific and unique problems of human anatomy, they tried to understand the modifications that organs composed of the same principles and only different in their proportions can occur in different beings. Casserius had also prepared a large number of anatomical plates of which seventy-eight were engraved; they were not completely lost because they were published in the work of his successor Spigel, along with explanations that Spigelius added.77 The muscles are well illustrated. New information is apparent, especially regarding the muscles of the back, which are described in more detailed than by Vesalius. Casserius died in 1627.78

  • 79 [For Spigelius, see note 77, above.]

34So you see how anatomy evolved gradually, especially within the School of Padua, which was strongly supported by the Republic of Venice. Adrien Spigelius, an anatomist from Brussels,79 also went to Padua. Nations were not as divided as today. Scholars were rare at that time and countries competed to attract the most famous ones. They each made offers and counter-offers to encourage them to choose their institution. The drawback of the diversity of language did not exist for scholars at that time since all lectures and writings were in Latin, the universal language of scholars. Thus, a man from Brussels could teach in Padua and a man from Padua could teach in Brussels without any problem. This would be very difficult today since almost everywhere classes are given in the native language of the country in which they are taught.

  • 80 [For Spigelius’s De humani corporis fabrica, see note 77, above.]

35While it is possible to be fluent in a foreign language it is far more difficult to lose the accent that always contributes to push auditors away. Thanks to the common use of Latin, we can understand how Vesalius and Spigelius managed to be professors in Padua. Spigelius succeeded to Casserius. He was professor from 1616 to 1625. His writings were published only after his death, which happened to many anatomists and is easy to explain: indeed, in spite of all the efforts governments made to provide them with cadavers, anatomists could never get as many as their research required in order to make science develop faster. As I mentioned earlier, one of them got seven in a year; with such a small number, anatomists could not complete their discoveries and descriptions as we do today. Thus, observations remained pending further investigations for long periods of time, and books were completed extremely slowly. This is what happened with Spigelius’s book called De humani corporis fabrica that was published in Venice only in 1627.80 This book features Casserius’s illustrations and is outstanding by the elegance of the style but it does not include many new facts, not even the small lobe of the liver called Spiegel’s lobe. While this part of the liver had been described by two authors prior to Spigelius, Spigelius was the one to have a part of the liver named after him only because he emphasized it more and described it in a more refined way.

  • 81 [The Fourth Ottoman-Venetian War, also known as the War of Cyprus, was fought between 1570 and 157 (...)

36After Spigelius, the school of Padua declined. The troubles created by the war that the Republic of Venice fought against Turkey81 prevented the school from receiving the same level of support as before. As a result, both anatomy and botany waned considerably.

  • 82 [Gaspare Aselli or Asellio (born about 1581, Cremona; died 14 April 1626, Milan), an Italian physi (...)
  • 83 [Spigelius died on 7 April 1625; see note 77, above.]
  • 84 [For Erasistratus of Ceos, see Volume 1, Lesson 7, note 38.]
  • 85 [Ptolemy II Philadelphus, see Volume 1, Lesson 1, note 21, and p. 236.]
  • 86 [The correct title of Asellius’s book is De lactibus sive Lacteis venis, quarto vasorum mesaraicor (...)

37At the same time, there lived in different parts of Italy and Germany other scholars who are worth mentioning here. One of them, Gaspare Aselli from Cremona was professor in Pavia.82 He died in 1626, the same year as Spigelius.83 We owe to him a treatise on the lacteal channels of the thorax. We saw that these channels had been discovered by Erasistratus84 in Antiquity at the time of Ptolemy.85 Asellius was the first one to give them full attention; he described them in a treatise called De venis lacteis, cum figuris elegantissismis, which was printed in Milan after his death in 1627.86 This work is remarkable for being the first one to show anatomical illustrations in color. The arteries and blood vessels are represented in red, the lacteal channels in black, etc.

  • 87 [Marcus Aurelius Severino (born November 1580, Tarsia, Calabria; died of the plague, 12 July 1656, (...)
  • 88 [Julius Jasolinus or Giulio Jasolino (born 1538, died 1622), author of Collegium anatomicum claris (...)
  • 89 [Zootomia Democritea, idest anatome generalis totius animantium opificii: libris quinque distincta (...)
  • 90 [Democritus of Abdera, see Volume 1, Lesson 5, note 33.]
  • 91 [Johann Georg Wolckammer or Wolckamer (born 1616, Nuremberg; died 1693, Nuremberg), physician and (...)

38Another anatomist of that time, a professor in Naples, was Marcus Aurelius Severino;87 he was born in 1580 in Tarsia, a town in the province of Calabra, and was a student of Jasolinus88 who was in turn a student of Ingrassius. He is worthy of mention for his book Zootomia democritea, id est anatome generalis totius animantium opificii, published in 1645.89 It is the first ex professo book in comparative anatomy. It contains what we already knew from the research conducted by the philosopher Democritus whom we talked about at the beginning of the course90 and who was one of the first ones to compare animals to humans. This book was not published by Severino but by Wolckammer, a German anatomist who was one of his students.91 The illustrations that we find sporadically in the book are roughly represented. The book was probably based on Severino’s lessons, which were not intended for publications. It contains, however, very valuable generalities that became a starting point to comparative anatomy and have similarities with Aristotle’s statements. Severino talks about several animals that had never been dissected before such as the octopus and the squid.

  • 92 He was born on 2 April [actually 1 April] 1578 [M. de St.-Agy].

39But the most famous anatomist of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth centuries is William Harvey. Harvey was born in 157792 in Folkstone in the county of Kent; he studied first in Cambridge then went to Padua where Fabricius d’Aquapendente drew from all over those who wanted to study anatomy and physiology. Excited by the discoveries of the valves of the blood vessels that his master made and thinking about the directions of the valves at the base of the veins and at the end of the arteries, he decided to conduct some experiments to determine the direction of blood flow in the blood vessels. He tied the arteries of several animals and noticed that they inflated above the tying in the part that is closer to the heart rather than to the tying point. He performed similar tying on veins and he observed that the veins inflated not above, but under the tying point, in the part located farther from the heart and closer to the tying point. Relating these facts to the direction of the valves, he concluded that blood is pushed by the left side of the heart in the arteries all the way to the extremities of the body from where it comes back through the veins to the right side of the heart. He connected the phenomena of the pulse and what happens when we open the blood vessels to the anatomical structure of the vascular system; he proved not only that blood circulates through the heart but also that it goes through the lungs. This is how double circulation was established. It did not take long afterward to discover the true function of the respiratory system, which represented a huge step forward in physiology since the consequences of this discovery had the most significant impact on all the other branches of animal physiology.

  • 93 [Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus, Frankfurt: Guilielmi Fitzeri, 16 (...)

40Harvey taught his discoveries in 1619 but his experiments occurred in 1616 and 1618; he published them only in 1628 in his book Prima exercitation anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus.93

  • 94 [James Primrose or Primerose (born at St. Jean d’Angély, now in Charente-Inférieure, France; died (...)
  • 95 [Jean Riolan (the Younger) (born 15 February 1577 or 1580; died 19 February 1657), a French anatom (...)
  • 96 [Johannes Antonides van der Linden (born 13 January 1609, Enkhuizen; died 5 March 1664, Leiden), a (...)
  • 97 [Johannes Hartmann (born 1568, Amberg; died December 1631, Kassel), a German chemist, first profes (...)
  • 98 [Theodoor Jansson van Almeloveen (born 24 July 1657, Mijdrecht, near Utrecht; died 28 July 1712, A (...)
  • 99 [George Ent (born 6 November 1604, Sandwich, Kent; died 13 October 1689, St. Giles-in-the-Fields), (...)
  • 100 [Primrose, see note 94, above.]

41None of what his predecessors had said for the past fifty years had impressed anybody; when his book was published, it first triggered a large opposition as it always happens when a significant discovery occurs in a science that is studied by many and that is linked to so many other sciences. A Scottish physician called James Primrose94 was the first one to contradict Harvey, followed by Riolan,95 a French professor at the Collège of France. Both men wrote approximately at the same time. A few others such as Vanderlinden,96 Hartmann,97 and Almeloveen98 wanted to credit Hippocrates with the discovery of blood circulation but all these protests were only the result of envy or the natural inertia of the human spirit that does not like to turn its knowledge around and accept changes. Harvey was defended by one of his students, G. Ent,99 who built his defense mostly through a written response to Primrose.100

  • 101 [Charles I (born 19 November 1600, Dunfermline, Scotland; died 30 January 1649, London), monarch o (...)
  • 102 [See Harvey (William), Exercitationes de generatione animalium, quibus accedunt quaedam de partii: (...)
  • 103 [René Descartes, see Volume 1, Lesson 6, note 7; the earliest published version of his Treatise on (...)

42Harvey became principal physician to Charles I, king of England;101 he modestly defended himself with his Exercitaciones two and three.102 Finally his discoveries were soon adopted almost as a general concept because it was easy to repeat his experiments and to check his observations. Riolan ended up denying circulation in the small blood vessels; this opinion is still believed by several physiologists of today. The use of local bloodletting that has become so common is based on this belief. Harvey’s discovery became very popular when Descartes took it as the basis of physiology that he teaches in his Treatise on Man.103 In his book, he supports Harvey’s discovery with a lot of honesty and courage, even adding illustrations to Harvey’s doctrine. Thus Harvey experienced the rare happiness of seeing his discovery accepted during his lifetime.

43Later he wrote a book that did not decrease his fame although the discoveries he describes in his book are not as important and could be criticized; this book is called Exercitationes de generatione animalium and was published in 1651 in London.

  • 104 He lost another book that his title alone makes us regret it was lost: A practice of physic, confo (...)

44Charles I had provided him with everything he needed to conduct the experiments required for the writing of his book. He sacrificed many pregnant does from Windsor Park to that effect; however, Harvey mostly studied egg fertilization and its successive developments in the chicken, thus repeating and improving what Fabricius had already observed. His book was much more extensive than the version we have available today. Indeed, during the upheavals that followed the death of Charles I, Harvey’s house was ransacked; he lost the whole section of his book that dealt with the procreation of insects.104 Since by then he was already old, he could not write it again; furthermore, he had lost with the revolution all his protections and fortune. In 1651, however, two years after the death of Charles I, he published what remained of his book.

45Harvey’s work is in a sense the development of Fabricius’s first observations, but he describes the development of the chicken with much more detail and perfection than this famous anatomist. However, he did not use illustrations because the troubles of that time did not allow him to engrave any. Harvey also talks about the fetus of quadrupeds and follows its development. These observations are more difficult to make because it is not possible to have daily access to fetuses of these species. However, his book includes very significant facts. Harvey died in 1657 at the age of eighty.

  • 105 [Jean Riolan, see note 95, above.]
  • 106 [Schola anatomica nouis et raris obseruationibus illustrata. Cui adiuncta est accurata foetus huma (...)
  • 107 [Osteologia ex veterum et recentiorum praeceptis descripta. In qua continentur Isagogica de ossibu (...)
  • 108 [Anthropographia. Ex propriis, & novis observationibus collecta, concinnata. In qua facilis, ac fi (...)
  • 109 [Gui or Guy Patin (born 1601 in Hodenc-en-Bray, Oise; died 30 August 1672, Paris), a French doctor (...)
  • 110 [Louis XIII (born 27 September 1601, Chateau de Fontainebleau; died 14 May 1643, Paris), a monarch (...)
  • 111 [Enchiridion anatomicum et pathologicum, in quo ex naturali constitutione partium, recessus a natu (...)

46The most famous Frenchman of that time in natural history was Jean Riolan105 who was professor in Paris for fifty years. His father was also professor of medicine; he was born in 1580. He took the defense of the Ancients almost as harshly as Sylvius and Eustachius. He weighed down heavily on the Moderns and even pretended to despise illustrations that were, according to him, Vesalius’s only merit. It was once more a wrongdoing on his part. At the age of 27, in 1608, he published a book called Schola anatomica novis et raris observationibus illustrate.106 It is a draft of the artwork that immortalized him. Later in 1614, he wrote a treatise on human osteology based on the knowledge inherited from the Ancients.107 It includes a good osteology of the monkey, like in Eustachio’s book. His anthropography was published in 1618.108 Gui Patin109 published his book while Riolan was in Koln where he had followed Marie de’ Medici, mother of Louis XIII.110 In his book, Riolan argues against Harvey’s discovery of the small vessels. He asserts that blood circulation is not as fast as Harvey states. In the later years of his life, in 1648, he wrote Enchiridion anatomicum et pathologicum, kind of an abridged version of his work that is not very outstanding.111 He died in 1657 at the age of sixty-seven.

  • 112 [Gaspard or Caspar Bauhin (born 17 January 1560, Basel; died 5 December 1624, Basel), a Swiss bota (...)
  • 113 [Constanzo Varolio, see note 44, above.]
  • 114 [Franz Josef Gall, see note 46, above.]
  • 115 [De hermaphroditorum monstrosorumque partuum natura, Openheim: Johann Theodor de Bry, 1614, 594 p. (...)

47To end this period in which criticism still stood out and pure observation was only starting, I will add to the list the famous botanist Gaspard Bauhin, a student of Fabricius who wrote Theatrum anatomicum.112 It is a very good summary of what was known at that time. He gives names to muscles that are still used today. What stands out in his book is the description of the brain based on Varolio’s113 method that had been ignored by most anatomists until the publication of Doctor Gall’s work.114 He also published a book on monsters.115

48This concludes, messieurs, an analysis of the writings of most students of anatomy in the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth centuries. They contributed heavily to its development. We will see, however, that a lot remained to be done in terms of details that required a method of experimentation and observation more precise than the method used so far. These anatomists actually lost a lot of time discussing the work of the Ancients and writing explanations and commentaries about them.

49We are now going to examine the other sciences that were studied during the same period of time. We will see how scholars also spent more time and efforts commenting on the work of the Ancients rather than making their own observations.

50In the next lesson, we will talk mostly about zoology and the authors that helped it flourish during the same period that we covered in our study of the history of anatomy.

Notes

1 [Philip II of Spain (born 21 May 1527, Valladolid; died 13 September 1598, El Escorial), King of Spain as Philip II (in Castille and Aragon) and of Portugal as Philip I. During his marriage to Queen Mary I, he was King of England and Ireland and pretender to the kingdom of France; and as heir to the Duchy of Burgundy, he was lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. Under his rule, Spain reached the height of its influence and power, directing explorations all around the world and settling the colonization of territories on all the known continents including his namesake, the Philippine Islands. He coined the expression “The Empire on which the sun never sets.” However, he was also responsible for the disastrous fate of the 1588 invasion of England.]

2 This fact is accepted only by a few authors; others, like [George] Martine [Scottish physician, born 1702, died 1741] and Haller [see Lesson 1, note 16,] assert that he was not a student of Vesalius [M. de St.-Agy].

3 [Falloppio’s Observationes anatomicae, a detailed critical commentary on Vesalius’s De humani corporis fabrica (see Lesson 1, note 76), was first published by Marco Antonio Ulmo and Gratioso Perchachino, in Venice, in 1561].

4 [The trigeminal or fifth cranial nerve; both sensory and motor, it receives sensation from the face and innervates the muscles of mastication.]

5 This is how far the great Duchy of Tuscany extended its protection: Princeps jubet ut nobis dent hominem quem nostrao modo interficimus, et illum anatomisamus [“The Prince orders that they should give us the man whom we kill by our own method, and dissect him.”]. These men were actually all criminals; it is difficult, however, not to shiver when reading this sentence [M. de St.-Agy].

6 [Falloppio’s De principio venarum may be found in his collected works, Opera genuine omnia, see Falloppio (Gabriele), Gabrielis Falloppij Mutinensis, physici ac chirurgici praeclarissimi... Opera quae adhuc extant omnia: in vnum congesta, & in medicinae studiosorum gratiam nunc primum tali ordine excusa... omnia multo accuratius nunc edita, & praeter indicem capitum in limine positum, altero etiam indice alphabetico adaucta, Francofurti: apud haeredes Andreae Wecheli, 1584, [12] + 848 + [32] p., illus., in-folio.]

7 [Gabriellis Fallopii Mutensis physici praeclarissimi ac... expositio in librum Galeni de ossibus. Huic accesserunt observationes anatomicae eiusdem authoris. Atque haecomnia a Francisco Michino de Sancto Arcangelo eius discípulo ex fidelisimo codice, dum ille ea publice profiteretur descripta fuerunt, ac nunc primum in lucem edita ... Vnetiis: apud Simonem Galignanum de Karera, 1570, [4] +76 p., illus., in-4°.]

8 According to the most common opinion, it is in San Severino, in [the province of] Ancona [in the] Marche [region of central Italy]. [Nicolò] Toppi and [Lionardo] Nicodemo [authors of Biblioteca napoletana, Naples, 1678] share Mr. Cuvier’s opinion [see Toppi (Nicolò), Biblioteca napoletana, et apparato a gli huomini illustri in lettere di Napoli, e del regno delle famiglie, terre, citta, e religioni, che sono nello stesso regno. Dalle loro origini, per tutto l’anno 1678. Opera del dottor Nicolò Toppi, patritio di Chieti, archivario per S.M. Cattolica nel Grande Archivio della Regia Camera della Summaria. Divisa in due parti. Nelle quali vengono molte famiglie forastiere lodate, e varij autori illustrati, & emendati, Napoli: Antonio Bulifon, 1678, [8] + XVIII + 400 + [56] p.] [M. de St.-Agy].

9 [For Sylvius, see Lesson 1, note 41.]

10 [De renum structura, the first work devoted specifically to the kidney, see Bartholomaei Eustachii,... Opuscula anatomica... [De Renum structura... De Auditu organis. Ossium examen. De motu capitis. De Vena quae Graecis dicitur... De Dentibus. Annotationes horum opusculorum ex Hippocrate, Aristotele, Galeno, aliisque authoribus collectae], Venice: Vincentius Luchinus excud, 1563, 3 parts in 1 vol. ([48] + 323 p.; [8] + 96 p.; [164] p.), in-4°.]

11 [Taille-douce, the French term for a type of engraving on copper plates in which the design is made up of a series of lines; its use was formerly common for postage stamps and paper currency.]

12 [Bartholomaei Eustachii sanctoseverinatis libellus de dentibus, Venice: printed by Vincentius Luchinus, 1563, 95 + [1] p., in-4°.]

13 [Bernhard Siegfried Albinus, see Lesson 1, note 78.]

14 [Ossium examen see note 10, above.]

15 [The azygos vein, a vein running up the right side of the thoracic vertebral column that provides an alternative path for blood to the right atrium by allowing the blood to flow between the venae cavae when one vena cava is blocked; described in 1563 by Eustachius in De vena quae azygos graecis dicitur, see note 10, above.]

16 Jean Pecquet [born 1622, Dieppe, Seine-Maritime; died 1674; a French anatomist and physiologist who is credited with the discovery of the course of the lacteal vessels, including the receptaculum chyli, or reservoir of Pecquet, as it is sometimes called, and the termination of the principal lacteal vessel, the thoracic duct, into the left subclavian vein. He also dissected the eye and measured its dimensions, maintaining that the retina, not the choroid, was the principal organ of vision], whom we will talk about later, was born in Dieppe. The discovery of the thoracic duct that is wrongly credited to Pecquet confirmed thelaw of the blood circulation discovered by Harvey [see note 72, below]. Pecquet was a very sought after personality in the high circles of society to which Minister Fouquet, his friend and physician, had introduced him. Fouquet enjoyed hearing Pecquet explain the most important laws of physiology and physics. Madame de Sevigne sweetly called him “the little Pecquet.” In her letter dated 19 December 1664, she mentions his devotion to Fouquet [M. de St.-Agy]

17 [De auditu organis, see note 10, above.]

18 [Even in ancient times the existence of an open pathway between the ear and the respiratory tract was assumed, but the first anatomical description of the tube was provided by Eustachius in his Opuscula anatomica (see note 21, below). However, Eustachius regarded the tube only as a pathway for draining pathological matter from the tympanic cavity and failed to realize that its primary function is to replace and adjust the pressure of the air in the tympanic cavity.]

19 [On the discovery of the stapes, see note 32, below.]

20 [Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, see Lesson 1, note 85.]

21 [A group of anatomical treatises written by Eustachius in 1561 and 1562 on the kidneys (De renum structura), the organ of hearing (De auditus organis), the venous system (De vena quae azygos graecis dicitur), and the teeth (De dentibus), which he issued together under the title Opuscula anatomica, first printed by Vincentius Luchinus, see note 10, above.]

22 [Eustachius’s Tabulae anatomicae or “Anatomical engravings,” first published in 1714 by Giovanni Maria Lancisi (born 26 October 1654, Rome; died 20 January 1720, Rome; an Italian physician, epidemiologist, and anatomist who made a correlation between the presence of mosquitoes and the prevalence of malaria), and again in 1744 by Cajetan Petrioli, followed by Bernhard Siegfried Albinus in 1744, and subsequently at Bonn in 1790. The engravings in Tabulae anatomicae show that Eustachius had dissected with the greatest care and diligence, and taken the utmost pains to give just views of the shape, size, and relative position of the organs of the human body (see Tabulæ anatomicæ clarissimi viri Bartholomæi Eustachii quas è tenebris tandem vindicatas et sanctisissimi domini Clementis XI. Pont. Max. Munificentiâ dono acceptas. Praefatione, notisque illustravit, ac ipso suae Bibliothecae dedicationis die publici juris fecit Jo. Maria Lancisius Intimus Cubilarius, & Archiater pontificius, Romæ: ex officina typographica F. Gonzagæ, 1714, xliv + 115 p., 47 pls). The fact that his book became a bestseller more than a century after his death shows the extent of the religious restrictions on anatomists all through the Renaissance.]

23 Lancisi was helped by his counselors and even by [the Italian physicians and anatomists] [Antonio] Pacchioni [born 1665, died 1726; who worked chiefly on the structure of the outermost meningeal layer of the brain, the dura mater], [Francesco] Soldati [dates unknown], [Giovanni Battista] Morgagni [born 1682, died 1771; called the father of anatomical pathology], and [John] Fantoni [born 1675, died?; a native of Turin where he became professor of anatomy and physician to the prince of Piedmont] [M. de St.-Agy].

24 [For Albinus, see note 22, above; see also Lesson 1, note 73.]

25 [For Haller, see Lesson 1, note 16.]

26 [For Guinther, see Lesson 1, note 38].

27 [For Sylvius, see Lesson 1, note 41].

28 [Fabricius d’Aquapendente, see Lesson 1, note 66; and Volume 1, Lesson 9, note 38.]

29 [Jean-Baptiste Cannanus (also Cannani or Canano) (born 1515, Ferrare; died 1579), professor of anatomy at the University of Ferrare and primary physician to Duke Alphonso II and to Pope Julius III.]

30 [Jean-Philippe Ingrassias, see Lesson 1, note 85.]

31 [Ingrassius’s In Galeni librum de ossibus doctissima et expectatissima commentaria, in which he corrected many errors and, among other things, gave a correct account of the conformation of the ethmoid and sphenoid bones of the skull. See Ingrassia (Giovanni Filippo), In Galeni librum de ossibus doctissima et expectatissima commentaria, nunc primum sedulo in lucem edita,... quibus appositus est Graecus Galeni contextus, una cum nova & fideli ejusdem Ingrassiae in latinum versione, Panormi (Sicily): ex Typographia Io. Baptistae Maringhi, 1603, [6] + 276 + [10] p., illus., in-4°.]

32 [The discovery of the stapes in the mid-16th century remains a subject of controversy in medical literature, even if most historians credit the Italian Ingrassius, in 1546, for this discovery. Between 1546 and 1564, numerous anatomists, including Jimeno, Collado, Valverde, Colombo, Lusitanus, Paré, Falloppio, Eustachio, and Vesalius, described this ossicle in their respective publications, and Ingrassius only in his posthumous work of 1603. A step by step chronology of the narrated and published events demonstrates that Ingrassius could be the first to have discovered and mentioned the stapes in public lectures in 1546, but Pedro Jimeno (fl. mid-sixteenth century; Spanish physician and anatomist, a disciple of Vesalius at Padua and chair of anatomy at the University of Valencia) was the first to publish it in 1549 (see Mudry (Albert), “Disputes surrounding the discovery of the stapes in the mid-16th century”, Otology and Neurotology, April 2013, vol. 34, n ° 3, pp. 588-592).]

33 [The facial nerve, or seventh (VII) of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves, which controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and oral cavity.]

34 According to l’abbé Gouget [(Claude-Pierre), Mémoire historique et littéraire sur le Collège Royale de France, Paris: Chez Augustin-Martin Lottin, l’aîné, 1758, 3 vols (XII + 621 + [3] p.; 477 + [3] p.; 614 + [2] p.), in-duodecimo] and Eloi, his real name was Vital-Viduro [M. de St.-Agy]

35 [Francis I, king of France, see Lesson 1, note 39].

36 [Vidius’s posthumous work, titled Anatome corporis humani libri VII, Venise: apud Juntas, 1611, [14] + 342 + [8] + 12 p., illus.]

37 [Realdus Columbus or Realdo Colombo (born about 1516, Cremona; died 1559, Rome), an Italian professor of anatomy and a surgeon at the University of Padua between 1544 and 1559; he made several important advances in anatomy, including the discovery of the pulmonary circuit, which paved the way for William Harvey ‘s discovery of circulation years later.]

38 [De re anatomica, Colombus’s only published work, which appeared shortly before his death in 1559 (see Realdi Colvmbi Cremonensis, in almo Gymnasio Romano anatomici celeberrimi, De re anatomica libri XV, [s.l.], Italy: printed by Nicolò Bevilacqua, 1559, [269] + [3] p., in-folio). Many of the contributions made in De Re Anatomica overlapped the discoveries of Falloppio (see Lesson 1), most notably the claims of having discovered the clitoris.]

39 [Mucous bags of tendons or tendon sheaths —layers of membrane around a tendon that permit the tendon to move and which consist of two layers, a synovial sheath and a fibrous tendon sheath.]

40 [Michael Servius or Miguel Servetus (born 1509 or 1511, Villanueva, Aragon; burned at the stake, 1553, Geneva), celebrated Spanish theologian and physician who is said to have understood the pulmonary circulation causing some writers to ascribe to him the discovery of the circulation of the blood.]

41 [Italian physician and anatomist Leonardo Botal or Botallo, born 1530, Asti, Piedmont; died after 1571.] He was physician to kings Charles IX [of France, born 27 June 1550, died 30 May 1574; a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled from 1560 until his death] and Henry III [of France, born 19 September 1551, died 2 August 1589; also of the House of Valois who ruled from 1574 until his death]; he traveled to Holland and England where he followed [Francis] the Duke of Alençon [born 18 March 1555, died 19 June 1584; the youngest son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de’Medici] [M. de St.-Agy].

42 [The foramen Botalli or foramen ovale, not to be confused with the foramen ovale of the skull, an opening that allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium of the heart; it is one of two fetal cardiac shunts that normally close at birth, the other being the ductus arteriosus, which allows blood that still escapes to the right ventricle to bypass the pulmonary circulation.]

43 [Julius Cesar Arantius, Giulio Cesare Aranzio, or Aranti (born 1529/1530, Bologna; died 7 April 1589, Bologna), provided the first accurate account of the anatomical peculiarities of the fetus, and was the first to show that the muscles of the eye do not, as was previously imagined, arise from the dura mater, but from the margin of the optic foramen. He also, after considering the anatomical relations of the cavities of the heart, the valves and the great vessels, corroborated the views of Colombus (see note 37, above) regarding the course that the blood follows in passing from the right to the left side of the heart.]

44 [Constanzo Varolio or Constantius Varolius (born 1543, Bologna; died 1575, Rome), an Italian anatomist and a papal physician to Gregory XIII (born 7 January 1502, Bologna; died 10 April 1585, Rome; head of the Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death; best known for commissioning and being the namesake for the Gregorian calendar, which remains today the internationally accepted civil calendar), best remembered for his work on the cranial nerves, described in De nervis opticis nonnullisque aliis praeter communem opinionem in humano capite observatis, Patauii: apud Antonium & Paulum Meiettos fratres, 1573, [81] p., illus.]

45 [Raymond Vieusseus or Vieussens (born c. 1635, died 1715), professor of anatomy at Montpellier, author of Neurographia universalis published by Jean Certe in 1684) in which he added significantly to our knowledge of the brain and cranial and peripheral nerves. He is credited, among other things, with the first description of the pyramids, the inferior olive, the centrum ovale, and the semilunar ganglion; he also provided names of a great many parts of the brain that are still used today. See Vieussens (Raimond), Neurographia universalis. Hoc est, omnium corporis humani nervorum, simul & cerebri, medullaeque spinalis descriptio anatomica.... Lyon: Apud Joannem Certe, 1684, [8] + 252 + [2] p., 24 pls (16 fold.), illus., in-4°.]

46 [Franz Josef Gall (born 9 March 1758, Baden; died 22 August 1828, Paris), a pioneer in the study of brain-stem anatomy, the first to describe the origins of several cranial nerves, but remembered primarily for this research in craniofacial morphology that gradually evolved into the pseudoscience of phrenology.]

47 [André Césalpin, Andrea Cesalpino, or Andreas Caesalpinus (born 1524 or 1525, died 23 February 1603), an Italian physician, physiologist, philosopher, and botanist who classified plants according to their fruits and seeds, rather than alphabetically or by medicinal properties. As a physiologist, he theorized a circulation of the blood; however, he envisioned a kind of “chemical circulation” consisting of repeated evaporation and condensation of blood, rather than the concept of a “physical circulation” as described later by Harvey.]

48 [Pope Clement VIII (born 24 February 1536, Fano, Marche; died 3 March 1605, Rome), head of the Catholic Church from 30 January 1592 until his death.]

49 [Charles or Carlo Ruini (born 1530, died 1598), author of Anatomia del cavallo, infermità, et suoi rimedii: Opera nuova, degna di qualsiuoglia prencipe... In Venetia: Appresso Gasparo Bindoni, 1599, 2 vols, illus.]

50 [Gaspard de Saunier (born 1663, died 10 August 1748), author of L’art de la cavalerie, ou La manière de devenir bon écuyer par des règles aisées et propres à dresser les chevaux à tous les usages, que l’utilité et le plaisir de l’homme exigent; tant pour le manège, que pour la guerre,... le tournois, ou carousel,... Accompagné de principes certains pour le choix des chevaux,... Avec une idée générale de leurs maladies, des remarques curieuses sur les haras,... et des observations sur tout ce qui peut blesser ou gêner les chevaux, Amsterdam; Berlin: Jean Neaulme, 1756, 216 p., illus., in-folio.]

51 [Ambroise Paré (born about 1510, Bourg-Hersent, northwestern France; died 20 December 1590, Paris) a French anatomist and barber surgeon, considered one of the fathers of surgery and modern forensic pathology, and a pioneer in surgical techniques and battlefield medicine, especially in the treatment of wounds; he invented several surgical instruments.]

52 [Henry II (born 31 March 1519, Château de Saint-Germainen-Laye, near Paris; died 10 July 1559, Place des Vosges), a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his untimely death, in a jousting tournament held to celebrate the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis at the conclusion of the Eighth Italian War. The king’s surgeon, Ambroise Paré (see note 51, above), was unable to cure the infected wound inflicted by Gabriel de Montgomery (born 5 May 1530, beheaded 26 June 1574,) captain of his Scottish Guard.]

53 According to [Pierre de Bourdeille, seigneur de] Brantôme [born about 1540, Périgord, Aquitaine; died 15 July 1614; a French historian, soldier, and biographer], Charles IX [see note 41, above] asked for him and had him sit in his bedroom and cloakroom, where he asked him not to move from there, saying that it was not wise to have such a useful person to so many people be killed [M. de St.-Agy].

54 [Saint Bartholomew’s Day massacre, a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants), during the French Wars of Religion. The massacre began on 23 August 1572 (the eve of the feast of Bartholomew the Apostle), two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the military and political leader of the Huguenots. The king ordered the killing of a group of Huguenot leaders, including Coligny, and the slaughter spread throughout Paris. Lasting several weeks, the massacre expanded outward to other urban centers and the countryside. Modern estimates for the number of dead vary widely, from 5,000 to 30,000.]

55 His father who lived in Laval had put him in a boarding house with a chaplain named Orsoy; but since Orsoy received very little money to teach Latin to Ambroise, he tried to get compensated by having him work in his yard, taking care of his mule, and using him for other chores; thus, when Paré left his house, he knew barely anything [M. de St.-Agy].

56 [Briefve collection de l’administration anatomique: Avec la maniere de côioindre les os et d’extraire les enfans tânt mors que vivans du ventre de la mère, lors que la nature de soy ne peult venir a son effect. Composée par Ambroise Paré..., Paris: Guillaume Cavellat libraire, 1549, [8] + 96 + [1] p., in-8°.]

57 [Henry IV (born 13 December 1553, Pau, Navarre; died 14 May 1610, Paris), king of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and king of France from 1589 to 1610, the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon. Considered a usurper by Catholics and atraitor by Protestants, Henry was not accepted by a majority of the population and escaped at least twelve assassination attempts; but his luck ran out in Paris on 14 May 1610 when he was stabbed to death by a Catholic fanatic in the Rue de la Ferronnerie.]

58 [André Dulaurens or du Laurens (born 1558, Arles; died 1609,) a French physician, gerontologist, rector of the medical school at Montpellier, and physician to Henry IV (see note 57, above).]

59 [Historia anatomica humani corporis, singularum ejus partium multis controversiis & observationibus novis illustrata, authore Andrea Laurentio..., Paris: apud Marcum Orry, 1600, [16] + 602 + [36] p.]

60 [Leonhard or Leonhart Fuchs (born 1501, Wemding, Duchy of Bavaria; died 10 May 1566, Tübingen), a German physician and botanist, author of De humani corporis fabrica epitomes pars prima first published in 1551. He is much better known, however, for his De historia stirpium commentarii insignes, a book about plants and their uses as medicines, first published in 1542, containing about 500 accurate and detailed drawings of plants, printed from woodcuts. The drawings are the book’s most notable advance on its predecessors. Although drawings were in use beforehand in other herbal books, Fuch’s contribution proved and emphasized that high-quality drawings were the most telling way to specify what a plant name stands for. See Fuchs (Leonhart), De Humani Corporis fabrica Epitomes Pars Prima [...] Duos, unum de oßibus, alterum de muscilis, libros complectens, Lugduni: Excudebat Ioannes Frellonius, 1551, 338 p., in-8°; De Historia stirpium commentarii insignes, maximis impensis et vigiliis elaborati, adjectis earundem vivis plusquam quingentis imaginibus, nunquam antea ad naturae imitationem artificiosus effictis & expressis, Basel: in officina Isingriniana, 1542, [26] + 896 + [4] p.), illus., in-folio.]

61 [Felix Plater or Platter (born 28 October 1536, Basel; died 28 July 1614, Basel), a Swiss physician, well known for his classification of psychiatric diseases, he was the first to describe an intracranial tumor (a meningioma). He is said to be the first person to dissect the human body in a German-speaking country.]

62 [De corporis humani structura et usu Felicis Plateri Bas. medici antecessoris libri III. Tabulis methodicè explicati, iconibus accuratè illustrati, Basel: ex officina Frobeniana per Ambrosium Frob, 1583, [8] + 197 + [6] p., 50 pls, illus., in-folio, the first published work in which the retina, and not the lens, is identified as the target of light; the book appeared again in 1603, see Plater (Felix), De Corporis humani structura et usu libri III. Tabulis methodice explicati, iconibus accurate illustrati... [In Fel. Plateri opus anatomicum Petrus Monavius medicus Vratislaviensis; Bartholomaeus Hubneru Erford. med.; Thomas Moufetus anglus medicus; Jo. Spondanus Mauleenensis gallus; Petrus Castaneus ad Fel. Platerum medicum], Basel: apud Ludevicum König, 1603, 2 parts in 1 vol., [V] + 197 + [96] p., illus., in-folio.]

63 [Camera obscura (Latin for darkened room or chamber), an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings on a screen. Used in drawing and for entertainment, it was one of the inventions that led to photography and the camera.]

64 [The talus or ankle bone is an element in the collection of bones in the foot called the tarsus. The tarsus forms the lower part of the ankle joint through its articulations with the lateral and medial malleoli of the two bones of the lower leg, the tibia and fibula. Within the tarsus, it articulates with the calcaneus below, and navicular in front, within the talocalcaneonavicular joint. Through these articulations, it transmits the entire weight of the body to the foot.]

65 [In 1557, some immense bones were exposed to view by the uprooting of an oak tree near the cloisters of Reyden, in the canton of Lucerne, in Switzerland, which the celebrated physician Felix Plater (see note 61, above) declared to be those of a giant that he pronounced to be nineteen feet high. He proceeded to put the skeleton together and sent it with an explanatory drawing to the Council of Lucerne. The anatomist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (born 11 May 1752, died 22 January 1840; a German physician, naturalist, physiologist, and anthropologist) later recognized the bones as those of an elephant. The good people of Lucerne in the meantime had adopted the image of the pretended giant as the supporter of the city arms.]

66 [Volcher Coiter (also spelled Coyter or Koyter) (born 1534, Groningen; died 2 June 1576, Brienne-le-Château, northern France), a Dutch anatomist and ornithologist who established the study of comparative osteology and first described cerebrospinal meningitis; he also performed detailed anatomical studies of birds, producing a classification of birds based on structure and habits, as well as an early dichotomous key to bird identification.]

67 [Rondelet, see Lesson 1, note 42.]

68 [Coiter’s published works, Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis partium tabulæ, atque anatomicæ exercitationes observationesque variæ, novis, diversis, ac artificiosissimis figuris illustratæ, philosophis, medicis, in primis autem anatomico studio addictis summè utiles, Nuremberg: in officina Theodorici Gerlatzeni, 1573, [16] + 133 + [1] p., tables and pls, in-folio; and the treatise “De avium sceletis et praecipius musculis”, in Lectiones Gabrielis Fallopii de partibus similaribus humani corporis ex diversis exemplaribus a Volchero Coiter... collectae... auctore eodem Volchero Coiter, Nuremberg: in officina Theodorici Gerlatzeni, 1575, 2 parts in 1 vol., pls, in-folio.]

69 [Fabrizio is Fabricius d’Aquapendente; see Lesson 1, note 66.]

70 [The State of the Church or Stato della Chiesa (also Stato Pontifico) refers to the Papal States, territories of the Italian peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the Pope, from the 500s until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the sixth century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. After 1861 the Papal States, in less territorially extensive form, continued to exist until 1870.]

71 [Paolo or Pietro Sarpi (born 14 August 1552, Venice; died 15 January 1623, Venice), a Venetian patriot, scholar, scientist, and church reformer, but primarily a canon lawyer and historian, active on behalf of the Venetian Republic.]

72 [William Harvey (born 1 April 1578, Folkestone; died 3 June 1657, Roehampton), an English physician, first to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the body by the heart, though earlier writers had provided precursors of the theory (see notes 37 and 40, above).]

73 [Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (born 28 January 1608, Naples; died 31 December 1679, Rome), an Italian physiologist, physicist, and mathematician who contributed to the modern principle of scientific investigation by continuing Galileo’s approach of testing hypotheses against observation. Trained in mathematics, Borelli also made extensive studies of Jupiter‘s moons, the mechanics of animal locomotion and, in microscopy, of the constituents of blood. He also used microscopy to investigate the stomatal movement of plants, and undertook studies in medicine and geology. Borelli’ s major scientific achievements are focused around his investigation into biomechanics, which originated with his studies of animals. His publications, De motu animalium I & II. Alphonsi Borelli neapolitani matheseos professoris: Opus posthumum (Romae: ex typographia Angeli Bernabò, 1680-1681, 2 vols, in-4°), relate animals to machines and utilize mathematics to prove his theories.]

74 [De formatione ovi et pulli, found among Fabricius’s lecture notes after his death, was published posthumously. See Fabricius (Hieronymus), Hieronymi Fabrici ab Aquapendente olim anatomici patavini celeberrimi de formatione ovi, et pulli tractatus accuratissimus, Padova: Ex officina Aloysii Bencii, [1621], [4] + 68 p. + 4 pls, illus., in-folio.]

75 [The Bursa of Fabricius (in Latin, the Bursa cloacalis or Bursa fabricii), present in the cloaca of birds, and named after Hieronymus Fabricius who described it in 1621 (see note 69, above), is the site of hematopoiesis, a specialized organ that is necessary for B cell (part of the immune system) development.]

76 [Jules or Julius Casserius, also Giulio Casserio (born 1561, Plaisance, Province of Piacenza; died 8 March 1616, Padua), a pupil of Fabricius at Padua, to whom he was successively servant, assistant, and eventually deputy, Casserio was a signatory to William Harvey’s doctoral diploma from Padua in 1602, as teacher of anatomy, physic, and surgery. He greatly extended the knowledge of human anatomy, in particular refining the anatomy of the sense organs and the laryngeal apparatus. His contributions are collected in three anatomical works: De vocis auditusque organis historia anatomica... tractatibus duobus explicata ac variis iconibus... Ferrara: excud. Victorius Baldinus, 1600-[1601], 2 parts in 1 vol., in-folio; Pentaestheseion, hoc est de quinque sensibus liber, Venice: apud N. Misserinum, 1609, VIII + 363 p., in-folio; and Tabulae anatomicae LXXIIX, omnes nec ante hac visae, Venice: apud Evangelistam Deuchinum, 1627, [2 + 198] p., illus., in-folio.]

77 [Adrien Spigel, Adriaan van den Spiegel, or Adrianus Spigelius (born 1578, Brussels; died 7 April 1625, Padua), a Flemish anatomist who for much of his career practiced medicine in Padua, considered one of the great physicians associated with that city. His best written work on anatomy is De humani corporis fabrica libri decem, tabulis XCIIX aeri incisis elegantissimis, nec ante hac visis exornati... Opus posthumum, Venice: [Apud Euangelistam Deuchinum.], 1627, 2 parts: [330 + 12 p.; 97 fol.], in-folio. He borrowed the title from De humani corporis fabrica, written by his fellow countryman, Vesalius, who had also studied in Padua. The book was intended as an update in medical thinking (a century later) about anatomy. In his treatise De semitertiana libri quatuor (Francofurti: apud haered J. T. de Bry, 1624, [14] + 160 p., in-4°) he provided the first comprehensive description of malaria.]

78 [On the contrary, Casserius died on 8 March 1616.]

79 [For Spigelius, see note 77, above.]

80 [For Spigelius’s De humani corporis fabrica, see note 77, above.]

81 [The Fourth Ottoman-Venetian War, also known as the War of Cyprus, was fought between 1570 and 1573. It was waged between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice, the latter joined by the Holy League, a coalition of Christian states formed under the auspices of the Pope, which included Spain (with Naples and Sicily), the Republic of Genoa, the Duchy of Savoy, the Knights Hospitaller, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and other Italian states.]

82 [Gaspare Aselli or Asellio (born about 1581, Cremona; died 14 April 1626, Milan), an Italian physician, professor of anatomy and surgery at the University of Pavia, noted for the discovery of the lacteal vessels of the lymphatic system. His description of the lacteals, De lactibus sive Lacteis venis, was published at Milan (see Asellio (Gasparo), De lactibus, sive lacteis venis, quarto vasorum mesaraicorum genere novo invento... Mediolani: Apud Jo Baptistam Bidellium, 1627, [14] + 79 + [8] p., 4 fold. col. pls.]

83 [Spigelius died on 7 April 1625; see note 77, above.]

84 [For Erasistratus of Ceos, see Volume 1, Lesson 7, note 38.]

85 [Ptolemy II Philadelphus, see Volume 1, Lesson 1, note 21, and p. 236.]

86 [The correct title of Asellius’s book is De lactibus sive Lacteis venis, quarto vasorum mesaraicorum genere, genere, novo invento; see note 82, above.]

87 [Marcus Aurelius Severino (born November 1580, Tarsia, Calabria; died of the plague, 12 July 1656, Naples) an Italian surgeon and anatomist; despite his brilliant career, his works present an ambiguous inclusion of mystic speculations.]

88 [Julius Jasolinus or Giulio Jasolino (born 1538, died 1622), author of Collegium anatomicum clarissimorum virorum, Frankfurt: Hermann a Sande, 1668, 3 parts in 1 vol., in-4°.]

89 [Zootomia Democritea, idest anatome generalis totius animantium opificii: libris quinque distincta, quorum seriem sequens facies delineabit: opus, quod omnes omnium bonarium artium studios, nedum professores anatomicos decet, Nuremberg: Literis Endterianis, 1645, [24] + 408 p., illus., in-4°; recognized by some as the earliest comprehensive treatise on comparative anatomy, Severino (see note 87, above) emphasized throughout the relationship of human anatomy to that of other animals.] This book features the seed of several modern discoveries such as Poyer’s glands, Graaf’s tubes of the urethra, and Lieutaud’s trigone [M. de St.-Agy]

90 [Democritus of Abdera, see Volume 1, Lesson 5, note 33.]

91 [Johann Georg Wolckammer or Wolckamer (born 1616, Nuremberg; died 1693, Nuremberg), physician and botanist, author of Flora Noribergensis, sive, Catalogus plantarum in agro Noribergensi: tam sponte nascentium, quam exoticarium, & in philoboutanicon viridariis ac medico praecipuè horto aliquot abhinc annis enutritarum, cum denominatione locorum in genere, ubi proveniunt ac mensium quibus vigent florentque: addita singulis exoticis cultura propagandique ratione, cum generum & specierum..., Nuremberg: Sumtibus Michaellianis, 1700, [22] + 407 + [3] p., [24] pls.]

92 He was born on 2 April [actually 1 April] 1578 [M. de St.-Agy].

93 [Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus, Frankfurt: Guilielmi Fitzeri, 1628, 72 p.; introducing to biology the doctrine of the complete circulation of the blood, this work is widely recognized as one of the greatest and most famous contributions to physiology.]

94 [James Primrose or Primerose (born at St. Jean d’Angély, now in Charente-Inférieure, France; died December 1659, Hull), an English physician whose Exercitationes et Animadversiones in Librum Gulielmi Harvaei de Motu Cordis et Circulatione Sanguinis (London: Excudebat Gulielmus Iones, pro Nicolao Bourne, 1630, 6 + 108 p.), is an attempt to refute Harvey’s demonstration of the circulation of the blood. Primrose’s subsequent works, including Animadversiones In Iohannis Wallæi, Medicinæ apud Leydenses Professoris, disputationem Medicam, quam pro circulatione sanguinis Harveanâ proposuit: Cui addita est, Ejusdem de usu Lienis adversus Medicos recentiores sententia (Amsterdam: Apud Ioannem Ianssonivm, [1640], 56 p., in-4°); Animadversiones in theses uas, pro circulatione sanguinis in Academia. Ultrajectensi D. Henricus Le Roy,... disputandes proposuit (Leiden: Ex off J. Maire, 1640, [18] p., in-4°); and Antidotum Adversus Henrici Regii ultraiectensis Medicinae Professoris venetam spongiam sive Vindiciae Animadversionum (Leiden: ex officina Joannis [Maire, 1644, 2 parts in 1 vol., 51 + 104 p., in-4°), are further [arguments on the same subject. Harvey made no reply.]

95 [Jean Riolan (the Younger) (born 15 February 1577 or 1580; died 19 February 1657), a French anatomist and influential member of the Medical Faculty of Paris, remembered for his the teachings of Galen. In arguing against Harvey‘s theory of the traditional views towards medicine, being a major proponent of Quæ nunc primùm in lucem prodeunt. Instauratio magna blood circulatory system (see his Opuscula anatomica nova. Physicæ & Medicinæ, per novam Doctrinam De motu circulatorio sanguinis in corde. Accessere Notæ in Joannis Wallæi duas Epistolas de Circulatione sanguinis, London: typis Milonis Flesher, [1649], [4] + 536 p., in-4°), he calculated that blood traveled through the blood vessels to the body’s extremities and returned to the heart only two or three times a day. He also postulated that blood often ebbed and flowed in the veins and that it was taken in as nourishment by different parts of the body. Riolan also did not believe that the heart propelled the blood, instead he proposed that the blood kept the heart in motion, analogous to a stream moving the wheel of a water mill.]

96 [Johannes Antonides van der Linden (born 13 January 1609, Enkhuizen; died 5 March 1664, Leiden), a Dutch physician and botanist, author of Hippocrates De circuitu sanguinis exercitatio X (Leiden: Johannem Elsevirius, 1660, [12] p.)]

97 [Johannes Hartmann (born 1568, Amberg; died December 1631, Kassel), a German chemist, first professor of chemistry at the University of Marburg (1609), and author of Praxis chymiatrica, recognita et emendata præ omnibus hactenus (see note 96, above)], Leiden: apud J. Voorn, 1663, 366 p., in- editionibus [edited by Johannes Antonides van der Lindenduodecimo.]

98 [Theodoor Jansson van Almeloveen (born 24 July 1657, Mijdrecht, near Utrecht; died 28 July 1712, Amsterdam), a Dutch physician and editor of various classical and medical works. In his Inventa nov-antiqua, he discusses in detail, with a strong bias toward antiquity, the question of how far the discoveries in contemporary medicine were anticipated by ancient physicians. See Almelooven (Theodor Jansson van), Inventa nov-antiqua Id est brevis enarratio ortus & progressus artisrime in ea repertis. Subjicitur ejusdem rerum inventarum medicae ac praecipue de inventis vulgo novis, aut nuper onomasticon... Amsterdam: Apud Janssonio-Waesbergios, 1684, [32] + 249 + [7] p.]

99 [George Ent (born 6 November 1604, Sandwich, Kent; died 13 October 1689, St. Giles-in-the-Fields), an English anatomist, member of the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians, best known for his association with William Harvey, particularly his Apologia pro circulatione sanguinis, qua respondetur Aemilio Parisano... (London: Guillaume Hope, 1641, 284 p., in-8°), a defense of Harvey’s work.]

100 [Primrose, see note 94, above.]

101 [Charles I (born 19 November 1600, Dunfermline, Scotland; died 30 January 1649, London), monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England, attempting to obtain royal revenue while Parliament sought to curb his royal prerogative, which Charles believed was divinely ordained. Many of his subjects opposed his attempts to overrule and negate parliamentary authority, in particular his interference in the English and Scottish churches and the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, because they saw them as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. He was eventually arrested and then beheaded with one clean stroke on 30 January 1649. That morning, he called for two shirts to prevent the cold weather causing any noticeable shivers that the crowd could have mistaken for fear or weakness.

102 [See Harvey (William), Exercitationes de generatione animalium, quibus accedunt quaedam de partii: de membranis ac humoribus uteri & de conceptione, London: Typis Du-Gardianis, 1651, [28] + 301 + [1] p., illus.]

103 [René Descartes, see Volume 1, Lesson 6, note 7; the earliest published version of his Treatise on Man was a Latin translation (De homine) produced by Florentius Schuyl, Leiden: apud Petrum Leffen & Franciscum Moyardum, 1662, [36] + 121 + [10] pls, illus., in-4°; the second, the now better-known French version (Traité de l’homme), edited by Descartes’s self-appointed literary executor Claude Clerselier (born 1614, Paris; died 1684, Paris). See Descartes (Rene), L’homme; Et un Traitté de la formation du foetus / du mesme autheur; Avec les remarques de Louys de La Forge... sur le Traitté de l’Homme de René Descartes; & sur les figures par luy inventées [edited by Clerselier Claude], Paris: Charles Angot, 1664, [70] + 448 + [8] p., illus., in-4°.]

104 He lost another book that his title alone makes us regret it was lost: A practice of physic, conformable to the doctrine of the circulation [M. de St.-Agy].

105 [Jean Riolan, see note 95, above.]

106 [Schola anatomica nouis et raris obseruationibus illustrata. Cui adiuncta est accurata foetus humani historia, Paris: Apud Adrianum Perier, 1608, [6] + 369 + [1] p., in-8°.]

107 [Osteologia ex veterum et recentiorum praeceptis descripta. In qua continentur Isagogica de ossibus tractatio, cum osteologia infantium usque ad septennium, per Ioannem Riolanum, Paris: ex officina Adriani Perier, [1614], [8] + 574 p., in-8°.]

108 [Anthropographia. Ex propriis, & novis observationibus collecta, concinnata. In qua facilis, ac fidelis, & accurata manductio. Ad anatomem traditur, prout ab ipso quotannis publicè, & privatim, docetur, administratur, & demonstratur. In celeberrima Parisiensi academia, Paris: Apud Hadrianum Perier, 1618, 2 parts in 1 vol., in-8°.]

109 [Gui or Guy Patin (born 1601 in Hodenc-en-Bray, Oise; died 30 August 1672, Paris), a French doctor and man of letters, dean of the Faculty of Medicine in Paris (1650-1652), and professor in the College de France starting in 1655. His scientific and medical works are not considered particularly en lightened by modern medical scholars. He is best known today for his extensive correspondence, his letters considered important documents for historians of medicine. He was responsible for the publication of Jean Riolan’s Opera anatomica vetera, recognita, & auctiora, quam-plura nova, Paris: Sumptibus Gaspari Meturas, 1650, [28] + 872 + 56 p., in-folio.]

110 [Louis XIII (born 27 September 1601, Chateau de Fontainebleau; died 14 May 1643, Paris), a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged to the French crown. Louis succeeded his father Henry IV as king of France a ew months before his ninth birthday. His mother, Marie de’ Medici (born 26 April 1575, Florence; died 4 July 1642, Cologne), acted as regent during Louis’s minority. Mismanagement of the kingdom and ceaseless political intrigues by Marie de’ Medici and her Italian favorites led the young king to take power in 1617 by exiling his mother and executing her followers.]

111 [Enchiridion anatomicum et pathologicum, in quo ex naturali constitutione partium, recessus a naturali statu demonstratur, ad usum Theatri Anatomici adornatum, a Ioanne Riolani filio, Paris: Apud Gasparus Meturas, 1648, [28] + 618 + [18] p., in-duodecimo.]

112 [Gaspard or Caspar Bauhin (born 17 January 1560, Basel; died 5 December 1624, Basel), a Swiss botanist who wrote Pinax theatric otanici (Basel: Sumptibus et typis Ludovici Regis, 1623, [24] + 522 + [24] p., in-4°), which described thousands of plants and classified them in a manner that draws comparisons to the later binomial nomenclature of Carolus Linnaeus (born 23 May 1707, Smaland, southern Sweden; died 10 January 1778, Hammarby, near Uppsala). His principal work on anatomy was Theatrum anatomicum infinitis locis auctum, ad morbos accomodatum & ab erroribus ab Authore repurgatum, observationibus & figuris aliquot novis aeneis illustratum ([Frankfurt]: Theodori De Bry, [1621], [16] + 664 + [18] p., illus., in-4°).]

113 [Constanzo Varolio, see note 44, above.]

114 [Franz Josef Gall, see note 46, above.]

115 [De hermaphroditorum monstrosorumque partuum natura, Openheim: Johann Theodor de Bry, 1614, 594 p., in-8°.]

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