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Bioetica, ambiente e alimentazione

 | 
Francesco Del Pizzo
, 
Pasquale Giustiniani

Tra bioetica e ambiente, spunti per una discussione

Giorgio Berchicci et Agata Bonaudo

Texte intégral

1. Riflessioni giuridico-legali in tema di tutela ambientale di Agata Bonaudo

1La bioetica declinata nella formazione e nell’educazione dei bambini e dei giovani al rispetto profondo dell’ambiente inteso come habitat dell’uomo e della natura è l’unica chance per far sì che si operi il necessario cambiamento radicale della rotta che sta, del tutto evidentemente, portando alla distruzione del pianeta.

2La fittissima rete di norme statuali e sovrastatali vigenti e di diretta applicazione sul nostro territorio si declina in modi differenti in funzione dello specifico tribunale competente.

3L’accertamento dei reati e la raccolta degli elementi di prova appartiene alla funzione della Polizia Giudiziaria che opera sul territorio.

4Reati ambientali (tra i quali si annoverano anche i reati in materia di abusivismo edilizio e danno paesaggistico) vengono accertati e denunziati.

5A seguito di tali attività si incardina il procedimento penale.

6Va precisato che l’efficacia del controllo dipende dall’estensione del territorio, dalla numerosità degli impianti industriali ed artigianali, dal numero degli operanti e dalle loro competenze specifiche.

7Sotto il profilo pratico ci si trova quindi di fronte a realtà diverse, velocità diverse ed una diversa efficacia dei controlli.

8Una volta trasmessa la notizia di reato alle Procure ed instaurato il procedimento penale, non sempre si approda rapidamente a giudizio ed i tempi dei processi nei tribunali con maggiore carico di lavoro sono molto lenti con notevole rischio di prescrizione dei reati, con particolare riferimento alle contravvenzioni che ne costituiscono la gran parte.

9Ne consegue che in uno stesso territorio, a parità di leggi vigenti, fattispecie analoghe di reato vengono accertate e represse con modalità diverse, con esiti processuali diversi.

10La mentalità dei soggetti va pertanto radicalmente modificata affinché ciascuna persona, in ogni singola azione, anche minima, della sua esistenza abbia già sviluppato un habitus quotidiano ed una sensibilità volti alla tutela ed alla salvaguardia dell’ambiente.

11Il problema è così imponente e vitale per la sopravvivenza del genere umano e dell’intero pianeta che, a causa delle sopra citate difficoltà, è evidente che non possa poggiare esclusivamente su di un fondamento normativo e neppure sulle sanzioni irrogate in sede processuale.

12È dalla educazione del singolo individuo che si deve partire: il risultato poggia sulla sensibilità e sull’apporto di ognuno e da ciascun gesto, azione e stile di vita.

13L’educazione al rispetto delle norme, alla loro puntuale applicazione, alla gestione delle risorse naturali, il contenimento degli sprechi ed il risparmio energetico vanno trasmessi con l’insegnamento e con l’esempio.

14La sensibilizzazione deve necessariamente partire anche dalla scuola e dalla famiglia le quali possono e devono dare impulso all’imperativo ecologico, ormai imprescindibile.

15Tutti dobbiamo prendere coscienza che la cultura della legalità non si riferisce esclusivamente ai gravi fatti criminosi e di mafia e solo dall’educazione e dal senso etico trae origine la necessità del rispetto di ogni singola legge.

2. Human food and diseases social prevention di Giorgio Berchicci

16On the tomb’s lapidstone of Bertoldo, the cunning peasant born from the fantasy of Giulio Cesare Croce in 1620, that had a very great goodlook in the Alboino’s court, there was written:

17«In this dark tomb lie down a peasant with very bad aspect, but very clever! His name was Bertoldo, was very grateful to his king, but died with terrible pains, as he didn’t can eat turnips and beans».

18Could be this the first known trace of vegetarian diet benefit? No, we know that from the beginning of our civilization always people ate vegetables, also because often they are disposable without growing necessity.

19And Greek Gods food was Ambrosia, that, coming from a-brotos, means immortal… And only Immortals can eat Ambrosia and Nectar, common people eating bread.

20But returning in our era, there is a very interesting trial made by EuroDish consortium (that is the acronym of Determinants, Intake, Status and Health) chaired by Prof. Pieter Van’t Veer of Wageningen University, from which results that «in Europe 86 % of deaths and 77 % of the diseases burden are related to our diets and lifestyles».

21A possible answer to these important results, could come from the last «border» of nutritionists, the molecular diet.

22According to this new theory, we don’t must calculate calories but we must look at molecular composition of a dish, and overall in which way the different molecules can influence three hormones key action: insulin, cortisol, glucagone. Molecular diet model, than, put under control glycemia’s bounces – as increasing glycemia means an insulin increasing, and this favour to accumulate fats –, to activate glucagone, to limit cortisol increasing values, the stress hormone that can influence in negative way intestinal equilibrium and functions.

23So, to choice foods and the best way to cook them, is a good strategy to avoid and win cellulite. Into all the food is possible to calculate AGES (Advanced Glycation End Products), produced by the different ways to cook food and able to damage connective tissue.

24This mean that pasta, bread, grilled meat, UHT milk boiled, cakes, soft drinks are full of AGES; fresh vegetables, fresh milk, steamed food are AGES free. With very different consequences on connective tissue and fibroblasts receptors wall cells, fragile connective and skin more vulnerable for fat accumulate.

25To confirm this trial is arrived a very important new, an Italian research coming from Cancer National Institute of Milan, that discovered a very strong linkage between high use of carbohydrates and stroke risk!

26This study demonstrated that people eating a large quantity of sugar, white bread, pasta, pizza, honey, rise and jam is running a very high risk 87 % to have a stroke. This trial called EPICOR, it’s a satellite of an oncologic trial EPIC (European investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), and they did on 47000 volunteers.

27In the while Italian researchers were underlining as a high glycemic index diet was linked with an high risk of breast cancer, they discovered too this increased risk of stroke.

28Not only, also the intestinal flora could be responsible of an high number of strokes and heart infarct. It is the origin of the production of Tmao, a very bad drug for arteries, born from lecitine and carnitine presents in our diet.

29«The production of Tmao from dietary phosphatidylcholine is dependent on metabolism by the intestinal microbics. Increased Tmao levels are associated with an increased risk of incident major adverse cardiovascular events (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others)».

30These are the conclusions of an interesting scientific article «Intestinal Microbial Metabolism of Phosphatidylcholine and Cardiovascular risk» published on English J Med (25 April 2013).

31An important remark, in my opinion, we could do, is that Mediterranean Diet, based on a large precence of carbohydrates, could have a lower impact on diseases cure, despite it has been indicated as UNESCO World Heritage: till now, in all diet guidelines the % of carbohydrates is around 50 % in diabetes cure, maybe now could be lower.

32In the same time, we are looking at the increasing obesity in children, adults and adolescents, caused by junk food, sugar from soft drinks (that is very fast adsorbed by our body more than glucose), chips and frites (full of satured fat acids), alcohol in all its versions… and a very low use of roughage. Just some days ago, dry prunes received an indication by EFSA on European Official Magazine as the best solution in intestinal problems prevention. This is the first official health claim for foods.

33All metabolic diseases are the consequence of society wellbeing, despite world financial crisis.

34A Finnish sentence says that water is the oldest and best medicine: all our tissues are made by water, and dry water is essential to live well and prevent diseases. Dry water in the early morning is essential to «wash» intestine and kidney, to hydrate our organism, to introduce chemical elements as calcium, magnesium, potassium that are very important for a good function of our body. Water favours elimination of free radicals, is avoiding cellulite, reduce blood pressure.

35Green and white tea have some other interesting properties: a very famous green tea called Gabalong reduce hypertension more than some ACE inibitors, OOLONG tea reduce the fat accumuled around internal organs, white and green tea are very rich of Catechine and polifenols (expecially epigallocathechine EGCG), reduce glycemia levels, GU ZHANG MAO JIAN is rich of Vitamin C and so on.

36On the other side, «red meat» is accused to favour cancer and diabetes, in the grain and mais there are a lot of «aflatoxines», responsible of DNA mutagenesis and cancer (expecially B1 and M1 types, the second one in the milk).

37But, there is always a «But» speaking about scientific trials in Medicine:

38After a very large advertising «Battage» on the fantastic qualities of Resveratrolo, the researcher who discovered it was constricted to aknowledge that all trials were false, and he made this to favour himself and his University

39And despite this public confession, also today on newspapers and magazine is possible to read interview with diet specialists speaking about Resveratrolo benefits…

40Of course, is possible to say the same for a lot of other foods.

41There is only one solution: to eat a little bit, drink water and to have fitness.

Auteurs

Medico, UeMS treasures.

Avvocato.

© Mimesis Edizioni, 2014

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