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Provence and the British Imagination

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Claire Davison
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Béatrice Laurent
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Caroline Patey
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Early encounters

Contrasting Looks on Southern France: British Painters and the Visual Exploration of Provence in the 18th and Early 19th Centuries

Frauke Josenhans

Note de l’auteur

I would like to thank Olivier Bonfait, my PhD supervisor, for his counsel as well as Roland Courtot, who gave me numerous indications on Turner’s travels through southern France.

Texte intégral

  • 2 The presence of German landscape painters is the topic of my PhD dissertation, Avant le Sud, la Pro (...)
  • 3 Dorbec 1912, 257-81; Guillaud 1981; Pointon 1985; Noon 1991 and 2003.
  • 4 Noon 1991, 22-23. Several books on Normandy were published in the 1820s in England on the continent (...)

1With the increase of travels in Europe and beyond in the nineteenth century, tourists and artists started to explore further remote regions, outside of the traditional routes of the Grand Tour, which led them to Italy. Provence in particular became more and more popular with travellers who started to make it into a destination in its own right. In the eighteenth century, although many travellers merely crossed what is now southern France on their way to, or back, from Italy (Black 2003a: 26-27), the artistic interest in Provence started to rise. French artists, who were native of southern France, such as Claude-Joseph Vernet, Jean-Antoine Constantin and François-Marius Granet, were pioneers in the representation of Provence (Pomarède 2005: 2-5). They were followed in the nineteenth century by foreign artists, in particular British and German painters,2 who were eager to explore visually new territories outside the conventional circuit of the Grand Tour. Gradually, Provence became a genuine substitute for Italy, offering less known landscapes, a light different from the warm Italian one and possessing a similar rich heritage of ancient Roman remains. However, the visual attraction of this region for painters has long remained neglected whereas the presence of British painters in other parts of France, and more particularly in Normandy, has been studied extensively.3 The English landscape painter Richard Parkes Bonington became famous in the first quarter of the nineteenth century for his landscape paintings and watercolours, among them many views of Normandy, and his sojourn in the north of France had an important impact on the fascination this region exerted on artists in general.4 British painters crossing the Alps have equally been studied, especially from John Robert Cozens in 1776 (Sloan 1986: 109-25) to William Turner’s journey through the French and Swiss Alps in 1802 (Wilcox 1998; Hill 1992, 25-43). Thus, it seems appropriate to look more closely at the presence of British painters in Provence and to examine, from an aesthetic and technical point of view, the particularity of their approach to nature and culture in Provence. Indeed, British painters visited the same places as German or French artists, lured as they were by the ancient remains of the Roman Empire as well as by the shimmering Mediterranean sea near Marseilles and Nice, but they brought their very own sensibility and perception of nature to their depiction of southern France. This paper aims to focus on a few painters who illustrate the increasing interest in Provence and its changing aesthetic impact: William Marlow was one of the earliest British painters to travel to southern France in the 1760s and to depict its most remarkable monuments, such as the Popes’ Palace in Avignon or the Pont du Gard near Nîmes. The famous landscape painter William Turner as well, on his second trip to Italy in 1828, instead of going directly to Rome chose a route which allowed him to visit southern France. The painter and lithographer James Duffield Harding not only travelled extensively through but also provided many illustrations for publications on southern France. In the 1830s and 1840s more British artists went to Provence, notably those who spent a long part of their career in France, such as William Callow and William Wyld who lived and worked for several years in France and participated vividly in the French art scene.

Provence as Part of the Grand Tour

2The visual exploration of Provence is very much linked to the history of the Grand Tour (Black 2003, b and c). Travelling to the continent was an essential part of a nobleman’s education; indeed many British travellers crossed the Channel and traversed France on their way to Italy. After landing at Calais, they would ride on to Paris, their first major stop. From there they would head south to Italy, either choosing to cross the Alps or to travel by sea, taking a boat at Marseilles or Antibes and landing at Genoa or Livorno. These travels to Italy had an important cultural and economic impact; the Grand Tour generated indeed a whole new artistic market and in order to respond to the related demand for visual souvenirs, many late eighteenth-century artists, such as Pierre Jacques Volaire and Jakob Philipp Hackert in Naples, would specialise in these kinds of subject and make a living out of it (Beck-Saiello 2010). In the eighteenth century the South of France became more and more popular, thanks to the French painters Claude-Joseph Vernet (1714-1789, see Pomarède 2005, 2-15) and Hubert Robert (1733-1808). Both were among the earliest painters to represent southern France and its very distinctive monuments in official paintings. In 1786, Robert was commissioned by the Comte d’Angiviller to execute a series of paintings showing the ancient monuments in Provence and Languedoc, such as the Arc de Triomphe in Orange and the Pont du Gard by Nîmes destined to decorate Louis XVI’s new dining room at the palace of Fontainebleau. The finished paintings were shown at the Paris Salon in 1787 (Radisich 1998, 97-116). It was as a matter of fact the presence of numerous vestiges of classical architecture which appealed to connoisseurs and painters. Most of the British travellers in the late eighteenth century were thus familiar with the works of Hubert Robert through visits to the Salon in Paris and reproductions of his works.

  • 5 The Irish philosopher Edmund Burke (1729-1797) defends in his treatise, A Enquiry into the Origin o (...)

3Claude-Joseph Vernet’s fame reached far beyond the Channel and his artworks were collected in Great Britain. A native of Provence, he was born in Avignon and he received his first training in Aix-en-Provence. Vernet spent the years 1734 to 1752 in Rome, where he studied classical landscapes in the tradition of the classical French painters Claude Lorrain and Gaspard Dughet, as well as the dramatic paintings of Italian Baroque artist Salvator Rosa. Vernet was considered one of the century’s most accomplished marine painters who excelled in the representation of dramatic storm and shipwreck scenes. These themes responded to the idea of the ‘Sublime’, as it had been developed by the Irish philosopher Edmund Burke in his treatise A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, which had a tremendous impact on literature and painting in eighteenth-century Europe.5 After his return to France, Vernet received in 1753 the important royal commission for a series of large canvases representing the ports of France, including among others those of Antibes, Toulon and Bandol (Conisbee 1976). He achieved international fame with his topographical paintings and serene landscapes and he had many English clients and admirers in Rome, including Richard Wilson, whom Vernet is thought to have encouraged as a landscape painter (Conisbee 1976, 17). His series of the Ports of France as well as his other paintings had a huge impact on painters all over Europe, including William Marlow.

  • 6 An Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings by William Marlow, 1740-1813, 1956, London, hall Art Galler (...)

4Following in the footsteps of their French colleagues, British painters started to visually ‘discover’ Southern France as early as in the eighteenth century, bringing their own aesthetic and technical approaches to it. Among them was the British painter William Marlow (1740-1813) who became acknowledged for his painted souvenirs of the Grand Tour; but his work was soon forgotten after his death and his paintings were replaced by those of the younger generation. Still today the major part of his oeuvre remains unnoticed by the general public and the last exhibition of his work took place in 1956.6 Thus, the numerous landscapes showing French and Italian subjects (kept in various public and private collections) which he had studied during a visit to the continent in 1765 rarely attracted the attention of art historians, until the research undertaken by Michael Liversidge (1980, 547-51, 553; 2000, 83-99) provided a better insight into Marlow’s life and work. Marlow was a successful artist and presented his paintings on numerous occasions at the Society of Artists and at the Royal Academy in London. He was a pupil of the marine and landscape painter Samuel Scott from whom he inherited the topographical tradition (Morris; Liversidge 2000, 84-85). Following the example of other British painters who went to Italy, such as Richard Wilson whose Italian landscapes were extensively collected by British patrons (Solkin 1982), Marlow left in 1765 for the Continent. He followed the conventional route through France – from Paris to Châlons, down the Sâone to Lyons, along the Rhône to Avignon, and then on to Nîmes and Marseilles, to sail probably to Livorno. While the exact dates of his travels are uncertain, an inscription on a drawing of an English landscape by him, dated 8th July 1765, indicates that “William Marlow the Author of this Drawing… is now studying in Italy”. In 1766, Marlow was still recorded to be in Italy, figuring on John Hayward’s list of artists’ in Rome (Stainton 1983, 13). During his sojourn in Italy he visited most of the principal cities and sites and then travelled back to England, crossing the Alps. The itinerary of his tour in 1765-66 can be tentatively reconstructed from the drawings, often summary sketches which he made while travelling. Indeed, his works are characterized by their topographical character, with very identifiable landscapes from Italy as well as from France. As Liversidge pointed out, the primary purpose of Marlow’s tour of Italy and France was to assemble a body of material which he could exploit after returning home (2000, 85), thus satisfying British patrons who wanted souvenirs of their own travels to Europe. Indeed, Marlow became very popular after his return to Britain because he supplied ‘souvenir’ pictures to patrons who had made the Grand Tour, and his careful rendering of topographical details responded to their demand. Marlow’s work is composed mainly of seascapes, river scenes and landscapes in which he inserted carefully rendered architectural elements, such as bridges or castles.

5In order to distinguish himself from other painters presenting views of the Grand Tour, Marlow composed his paintings with easily identifiable views from Italy and Provence or even England, and picturesque landscapes in the manner of Claude-Joseph Vernet. Marlow most certainly saw paintings by the French seascape painter at the Paris Salon in 1765 where Vernet exhibited 25 works or, at least, he could have seen reproductions which circulated on the art market. Marlow chose the picturesque sites and monuments of Provence which were visited by British tourists (Black 2003b, 174), such as the Pont du Gard in Nîmes or the cities of Avignon and Villeneuve-lès-Avignon (Liversidge 2000, 89), as motifs for several of his paintings. These ‘inventions’ became particularly popular with amateurs and his commercial success is evidenced by the numerous autograph versions of particular compositions, especially his views of Lyons and Villeneuve-lès-Avignon, which he represented several times either in oil or in watercolour (An Exhibition 1956, 17-19). The medieval cityscape of Villeneuve-lès-Avignon became de facto one of his most popular motifs, which Marlow depicted in several paintings: both dated 1775-1780, one may be seen at the Musée Calvet in Avignon while the other is part of the collection at the City Museum and Art Gallery, Bristol. One reason for the success of Marlow’s paintings was the use of classical antiquities and the famous, very recognizable buildings they include, for instance the Popes’ Palace in Avignon, the old castle in Villeneuve, or the Pont du Gard, which give these painting a historical component although the represented sceneries suggest a timeless atmosphere. After his return to Great Britain, Marlow showed 134 pictures between 1767 and 1795 at the exhibitions of the Society of Artists and at the Royal Academy. The major part of these paintings, nearly two thirds as Liversidge remarked, was constituted by French and Italian views as is indicated in the catalogues (2000, 88). Marlow’s two most repeated compositions of Avignon and Lyons recur more regularly than any other subject in his œuvre, only matched by views of Naples. Marlow undeniably excelled in these views and his French landscape paintings, from Lyon along the Rhône to Avignon and Nîmes further south became signature works, making a very individual contribution to Grand Tour imagery. By 1795 there seems to have been rather less demand for works of this kind. The war with France prevented English travellers from venturing abroad and the demand for souvenirs therefore decreased, and there was less interest than previously in Grand Tour subjects such as those in which Marlow had specialized.

Jmw Turner’s Vision

  • 7 The drawings of the sketchbooks are visible on the Tate Gallery website with the following referenc (...)

6The presence of foreign painters in Provence was very much dependent upon the political and social history of the time, and the on-going wars made travelling between the Great Britain and the continent difficult for long periods of time. When the conflict between Britain and France had come to a temporary end with the signing of the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, a brief period of cross-channel travel allowed British painters to come to France. But with the resumption of war this soon stopped and it was only after the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 and the exile of Napoleon that travelling between France and Great Britain started again. Among the British travellers coming to France after the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 was the famous landscape painter William Turner (1775-1851). Turner had first come to France in 1802, during the Peace of Amiens, but this journey only brought him to Paris and to the Dauphiné and Savoy, as he headed towards the Alps. His first travels to Italy took place no earlier than 1819. Turner took the coach from Paris to Lyons and went through Chambéry to Modane and then traversed the Mont Cenis to Turin. He continued his journey via Venice, Bologna, and Rimini until he arrived in Rome where he stayed for several months, undertaking excursions also to Tivoli, Naples, Paestum and Florence (Finberg 1961, 256-72). But when Turner returned to Italy in 1828, he chose a different route from the one he had taken in 1819 and which had led him through the Alps. This time round he chose to cross southern France, making drawings of each different station of his journey in his sketchbooks (Guillaud 1981, 257-96). Turner left Paris on August 24th and headed south via Orléans, then along the Loire and Allier valleys to Clermont-Ferrand. According to Roland Courtot, in his study of Turner’s travels from a geographical point of view, the British painter passed through Lyons and then went down the Rhône by boat, arriving in Avignon in early September, where he sketched several views of the city and of the neighbouring Villeneuve-lès-Avignon (2006, 71). On the way he visited the famous cities and sites in Provence and Languedoc, besides Avignon, the cities of Arles, Nîmes, and Marseilles and recorded what he saw in two sketchbooks, entitled Orléans to Marseilles and Lyons to Marseilles (Finberg 1909, vol. 2, 702-704 and 705-707).7 Turner drew many sketches in pencil in order to capture quickly the views of the towns he visited and the architectural details of buildings. He executed several drafts for instance of the old Roman ruins in Nîmes, such as the arena or the famous Maison Carrée (Guillaud 1981, 274-76).

7The very distinctive cityscape of Marseilles obviously inspired him and he executed several drawings while in the Mediterranean port (Courtot 2009, 71-80). Although there are no known oil paintings of Marseilles, he painted two watercolours, either directly on the spot or more likely from his sketches soon afterwards (Courtot 2009, 71-80), The Lighthouse at Marseilles from the Sea and Marseilles: In the port (Courtot 2009, 75). It was in particular the port and its immediate surroundings which captured Turner’s attention and which he rendered in his drawings, almost completely disregarding other parts of the cities such as the Grand Théâtre or the Opera, only represented in one sketch (Courtot 2009, 73). In many of his drawings the artist quickly renders the harbour animated by various ships and deeply connected with the neighbouring urban space. According to Courtot, Turner then travelled along the coast, taking the boat to go from Fréjus to Nice (2008), sketching the cities of Cannes and Antibes from the sea. Turner continued his route by land towards Genoa relentlessly sketching the coastline. In his views of Marseille or Antibes and Cannes, one can see how much attention Turner paid to the description of the seacoast. Indeed, his particular interest is the description of the relation between the sea and the mountains or between the sea, the architecture of the city and the mountains. In his letters, Turner expressed an interest for the South of France for its own sake. Thus, in a letter sent to his friend George Jones on his arrival in Rome in October 1828 he wrote:

Two months nearly in getting to this Terra Pictura […]; but the length of time is my own fault. I must see the South of France, which almost knocked me up, the heat was so intense, particularly at Nismes [sic] and Avignon, and until I got a plunge into the sea at Marseilles, I felt so weak that nothing but the change of scene kept me onwards to my distant point. (Thornbury [1861] 1970, 101)

8The numerous drawings done by Turner during his trip through Provence, Languedoc and along the Mediterranean coast testify to his authentic interest in the region. They were apparently made for their own sake, since he seemingly did not use them afterwards for his paintings. In the highly finished watercolours of Marseilles, Turner used blue paper; the use of tinted ground was not in itself very new since it has been used in landscape drawing before. But these drawings show him exploiting the blue ground of the paper to give atmosphere to the scene, using fluctuating touches of colour upon it to suggest masses, objects and figures. He used vivid colours in order to recreate the sensation he felt there and to increase the atmospheric mood. Thus, he went beyond realism or the exactitude of topography in search of the poetic effect of the scenery.

9Turner travelled again to southern France between 1835 and 1840 on his way back to Great Britain after another trip to Italy. Although his second journey through Provence remains difficult to date, Roland Courtot managed to identify his itinerary. He discovered that the painter travelled along the coast from Genoa to Nice and then from Cannes to Sisteron through Provence and the Southern Alps up to Grenoble (2006, 91-101). Once again Turner used a sketchbook (Finberg 1909, vol. 2, 952-56), in which he recorded his journey with views of the bay of Nice, Cannes and the Cap d’Antibes and the distant Esterel.

Changing Perceptions

  • 8 These letters are conserved at the Bibliothèque Inguimbertine in Carpentras, with other personal pa (...)

10After the triumphal reception they were given at the 1824 Salon in Paris, more and more British artists worked in Paris. The most notable among them were the landscape artists John Constable (1776-1837) and Richard Parkes Bonington (1802-1828), who were acclaimed by the public and by an entire generation of young French Romantic artists. One of those painters who came to work in France was the landscape painter and engraver James Duffield Harding (1798-1863). He first trained with his father, a pupil of Paul Sandby (1731-1809). Harding also took lessons in watercolour painting from Samuel Prout (1783-1852) who was famous for his architectural landscapes in watercolour (Cordingly). He also learnt with the engraver John Pye (1782-1874) and became one of the first British painters to use the newly introduced medium of lithography. Harding frequently contributed to the exhibitions of the Watercolour Society, of which he became an associate in 1821 and a full member in 1822. He started to travel frequently in Europe from 1824 and also went to southern France (fig. 1). Harding was also very largely engaged in teaching, and published several books developing his views on art. He furthermore contributed to several publications, notably travel literature such as The Tourist in Italy (London, 1831) and The Tourist in France (London, 1834) by Thomas Roscoe for which he provided illustrations. Harding participated also in the famous Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l’ancienne France, by Baron Taylor (1789-1879), published between 1820 and 1878, a celebrated collection of lithographed drawings and paintings in which many British painters were involved, such as Bonington or Thomas Shotter Boys. Harding contributed to the Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l’ancienne France consacrés au Languedoc and made several illustrations of Nîmes for instance (Adhémar 1997, 36, 120). Although he produced various oil paintings both at the beginning and towards the end of his career, he was mainly a watercolour painter and a lithographer. The use of watercolour was particularly adapted to his views of British and European seaside towns allowing him to render quickly the agitated sea and the changing light effects. Besides representing southern France, Harding travelled extensively through the region; he was a friend of the French artist Jean-Joseph-Bonaventure Laurens (1801-1890), a native from Carpentras who later became secretary at the École de médecine in Montpellier. Laurens represented his home region in various works and often invited other painters to join him in excursions through Provence. The two artists maintained a regular correspondence8 which testifies to their shared interest in each other’s countries, their curiosity for contemporary artists, such as JMW Turner, and travelling in general. Harding visited Laurens in Montpellier several times and worked together with Laurens in the surrounding nature (Laurens 1849, 250, 388).

11Another English artist working in France was the English landscape painter, engraver and water colourist William Callow (1812-1908). Callow became an apprentice to the engraver Theodore Fielding (1781-1851) at the age of eleven and learned from him the technique of watercolour drawing and aquatint engraving (Reynolds 1980, 2-5). Callow travelled to Paris in 1829, in order to work for the publisher Jean-Frédéric d’Ostervald (1773-1850) and with Newton Fielding (1799-1856), a younger brother of Theodore, who had established himself as a successful engraver in France. In Paris he discovered the work of Bonington who had died the year before and was encouraged by Thomas Shotter Boys (1803-1874), a close friend of the latter, to concentrate on watercolour work (Reynolds 1980, 9-12). Callow became more and more popular for his work and he shared a studio with Boys in Paris. He participated in the Paris Salon in 1834 and was appointed drawing-master to the royal family of Louis-Philippe the same year (Reynolds 1980, 15-16) whilst his own works rapidly found favour in England. He travelled extensively in France, Holland, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. During his stay in Paris he undertook a walking tour through France which led him also to southern France in 1836. In the diary he kept during this journey he wrote down the places he visited, among which Avignon, Orange, and Marseilles. He depicted the Mediterranean coast (fig. 2) as well as the inland and small Provençal towns with their typical architecture. The places he visited during his travel inspired several paintings and even decades later he continued to use some of these motifs for his works. Another version of the Entrance to the Port of Marseilles was executed by Callow in 1884 and exhibited at the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolours in 1884. The picture is today part of the collection of the Towneley Hall Art Gallery and Museums, Burnley. He also participated regularly with his watercolours in the Paris Salons in the 1830s. Elected a member of the Old Watercolour Society, the painter returned to London in 1841, he continued to exhibit his work, among which several views of southern France, at the Society of Painters in Watercolours. Callow was still appreciated in the beginning of the twentieth century and his drawings of southern France count among his most admired works (Emanuel 1926, 23-24).

  • 9 Several watercolours of Monaco, a market in Nîmes, two watercolours of Menton and street in Toulon.
  • 10 Fountains of Vaucluse, August 11th 1845, London, Royal Academy of Art, inv: 05/1096; The Pont St Bé (...)

12William Wyld (1806-1889) is one more English artist who spent almost all his working life in France. As a result he has often been excluded from the group of English watercolourists by art historians and considered a member of the French school. Wyld held a position at the British Consulate in Calais and later worked in the wine trade (Pointon 1985, 68-72). He became acquainted with the work of Bonington, but it was only later, in 1836, that he abandoned his professional career and turned entirely to his art. Wyld travelled extensively during his career, through France and Italy, but also to Northern Africa. He used the medium of watercolour during his various travels, which enabled him to make rapid sketches of sites and landscapes encountered on his way. Several watercolours of southern France, such as The Pont du Gard, a loosely executed watercolour probably done on the spot, exemplify his technique and mastery of the medium, capturing the fugitive light and colour effects (Pointon 1985: 78). Frequently showing his works at the Paris Salon, he became quite appreciated in France and he won a gold medal at the Salon in 1839 and a second one in 1841, before being awarded the Legion of Honour in 1855 (Lacroix 1860, 73) for the role he played in encouraging French watercolour painting (Mallalieu 2002, 282). He also presented views of southern France at the Paris Salon such as the painting Le Pont du Gard in 1853 (Sanchez & Seydoux 2002: 205) and Une rue de Villefranche, près Nice, a watercolour exhibited at the Salon in 1869 (Sanchez & Seydoux 2004: 448). Provence inspired many of his works; indeed several watercolours of Provence feature in his posthumous sales catalogue (Chaîne and Simonson 1890).9 More examples of British artists discovering Provence could be evoked, such as the marine painter Edward William Cooke (1811-1880) who produced over 20,000 travel sketches throughout his career. He specialised in coastal views of England, Northern France and the Mediterranean coast (AKL, 54) but he also made sketches of Avignon and the Vaucluse valley.10

13These few examples of British painters attracted by Provence and the French Mediterranean coast emphasize the impact this part of France had on artists before the days of Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Cézanne or Impressionists such as Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet. By following the traces of these painters, from William Marlow to Callow, it becomes clear how the perception of Provence changed in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In the early stages of this visual exploration, artists such as Marlow were still attracted by its resemblances with Italy and focused on the Roman antiquities, thus responding to the demand of Grand Tour patrons. But little by little Provence was seen and appreciated for its very distinctive character, as defined by its rugged topography and local culture and also for its very particular light. Although British painters were still drawn to these famous sites in Provence, they were less interested in the exact topographical rendering, and more in the atmospheric description and the transcription of the vivid light, than their predecessors had been. The use of watercolour, a medium of choice for English artists while German painters were much more accustomed to pencil drawings and French artists to oil sketches, allows a subtle rendering of the light effects of the southern sun (Josenhans 2011). One also notices through these examples that British painters were particularly lured by the French Mediterranean coast, with Marseilles and its port in particular as a frequently depicted motif. These few examples also emphasize the attraction of Provence for foreign artists, the British as we have seen, but also for German painters, whose presence and artistic works have not yet been sufficiently analysed by art historians.

Fig. 1 - James Duffield Harding, Nice, 1824, Pencil, 26,7×37,1 cm, The Huntington Library

Fig. 1 - James Duffield Harding, Nice, 1824, Pencil, 26,7×37,1 cm, The Huntington Library

Fig. 2 - William Callow, Entrance to the Harbor of Marseilles, ca. 1838, watercolour with touches of gouache, overtraces of graphite, and scraping, on off-white wove paper, 207×297 cm, Art Institute Chicago

Fig. 2 - William Callow, Entrance to the Harbor of Marseilles, ca. 1838, watercolour with touches of gouache, overtraces of graphite, and scraping, on off-white wove paper, 207×297 cm, Art Institute Chicago

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Notes

2 The presence of German landscape painters is the topic of my PhD dissertation, Avant le Sud, la Provence vue par les peintres allemands (1760-1860), supervised by Olivier Bonfait, at the Université de Provence, Aix-Marseille I.

3 Dorbec 1912, 257-81; Guillaud 1981; Pointon 1985; Noon 1991 and 2003.

4 Noon 1991, 22-23. Several books on Normandy were published in the 1820s in England on the continent, among which: Cotman and Turner (1822); Ostervald (1823-25).

5 The Irish philosopher Edmund Burke (1729-1797) defends in his treatise, A Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, (1757), an aesthetic concept of the sublime, initiated by the grandeur or magnificence of certain objects in nature, as opposed to the pleasure due to beauty.

6 An Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings by William Marlow, 1740-1813, 1956, London, hall Art Gallery.

7 The drawings of the sketchbooks are visible on the Tate Gallery website with the following reference numbers: D20905-D20989; D40999-D41000 and D20990-D21015; D21018-D21132; D41001-D41003.

8 These letters are conserved at the Bibliothèque Inguimbertine in Carpentras, with other personal papers of Laurens. Carpentras, Bibliothèque Inguimbertine, Ms 2770.

9 Several watercolours of Monaco, a market in Nîmes, two watercolours of Menton and street in Toulon.

10 Fountains of Vaucluse, August 11th 1845, London, Royal Academy of Art, inv: 05/1096; The Pont St Bénezet, Avignon, August 1845, London, Royal Academy of Art, inv: 05/1095.

Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1 - James Duffield Harding, Nice, 1824, Pencil, 26,7×37,1 cm, The Huntington Library
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/798/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 168k
Titre Fig. 2 - William Callow, Entrance to the Harbor of Marseilles, ca. 1838, watercolour with touches of gouache, overtraces of graphite, and scraping, on off-white wove paper, 207×297 cm, Art Institute Chicago
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/798/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 120k

Auteur

She is curatorial assistant at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and is completing her Phd on German landscape painters in southern France (1760-1860) at Aix-Marseille Université. She has published several articles on German and French landscape painting.