Version classiqueVersion mobile
OpenEdition Books

The Identity of the Contemporary Public Library

 | 
Margarita Pérez Pulido
, 
Maurizio Vivarelli

1. History, Present and Future of the Public Library

The Public Library Today: State of the Art as an Ethical Organization

Margarita Pérez Pulido

Texte intégral

Introduction

  • 1 Lluís Anglada, Are Libraries Sustainable in a World of Free, Networked, Digital Information? «El (...)

1This paper is part of a study carried out after the reading of Luis Anglada’s article Are Libraries Sustainable in a World of Free, Networked, Digital Information? published in «El Professional de la Información» in 20141. Starting from his own concept of sustainability («the capacity of endure over the time»), the author argues that libraries are less sustainable with the past of the time, if we consider the sustainability as the relationship stablished between the value added and the management and maintenance costs. The current period that libraries are experimenting, characterised by the digitalization and the use of electronics resources, is very expensive from an economic standpoint and, nevertheless, the society continues linking them to the physical space and to the management of “printed books”.

2Another interesting aspect that the above-mentioned article refers, lies the key element defended by the author in order to achieve the sustainability of the libraries: the perception. According to Anglada, the sustainability is related to a mental attitude, the perception of the library, that is forged by different groups of interest. In order to achieve the sustainability of the library it is necessary to refer to the emotional side and not only to the use of facts and rational data. Upon the arrival of new technologies, the role played by libraries has faded away over the time due to users’ perception and, subsequently, it should be developed a mental image of the library in the society as an organization that transforms the information in knowledge, instead of a physical space that contains information in different supports.

3The last aspect of interest refers to the library as organizations that, nowadays, extol the values of sociability and intermediation and the sustainability depends of the capacity of showing these values independently of the value attributed to them and the information presents in the library. In this sense, it is necessary carry out an analysis of the library, not only from an economic and social point of view but from an ethical one as well.

4The perception of the public library, therefore, respond to the emotional part of the user and those who keep it and the ethical analysis is seen as a value for knowing and evaluation the library as organization and its capacity of endure over the time.

5Starting from Anglada’s considerations, explained in the above-mentioned article: the sustainability in the sense of enduring over the time and its evaluation from the premise of relationship value - cost, the perception as fundamental element of the analysis, and the adaptation to a new paradigm about the identity of the public library, we can establish the fundamental points of analysis from the ethical perspective by using the following questions:

  • Does the evaluation of the ethical values in a library contribute to its sustainability?
  • Does the management of the Social Responsibility as ethical value contribute to change the perception of the library as organization?
  • Does the application of ISO 26000:2010 favour the management of the complexity of the public library?

6The proposal in this paper refers to the realization of an analysis of the perception of the library as organization, which expects the sustainability of the application of the social responsibility as ethical value regulated in a recognize ISO(26000:2010) in order to give a visibility to the community that serves and to the society in general.

Values, social responsability and sustainability

7From a conceptual perspective, when we speak of value of the public library, we can refer to the economic, social or ethical value. The last one inspired our aim which is to provide an answer to the aforementioned questions. For this reason, we will start establishing a difference between economic or social values and ethical values, between the concepts of social responsibility and sustainability.

8A difference between the social, economic and ethical value of the library is found in the norms that rule its management and evaluation. In this way, the economic and social value is related to impact studies and it is evaluated through the ISO 16439:2014 and the ethical values, explicit in the codes of conduct, can be evaluated by applying the ISO 26000:2010, a guide of social responsibility management.

  • 2 L’impatto delle biblioteche accademiche: un progetto e un seminario, a cura di Giovanni Di Domeni (...)

9According to Di Domenico, the ISO 16439:2014 is valid for the strategic planning and quality management in libraries, promotes the value of the library for learning and educational, cultural, social and economic research, and for taking political and financial decisions at services and strategical levels2. Hence, the analysis of the impact can generates changes in individuals, institutions and the community where the library is located. From this point of view, the ISO 26000:2010 proves that the ethical principle of the social responsibility is not only related to the society but to the organization and professionals as it is outlined by traditional codes of conduct, and it helps to the ethical management of the library.

  • 3 Riccardo Ridi, La responsabilità sociale delle biblioteche: una connessione a doppio taglio, «Bib (...)
  • 4 G. Di Domenico, La responsabilità sociale nella gestione delle biblioteche, «Bibliotime», 14, 201 (...)

10Ridi expresses it in this way: «the library can represents at the same time an economic value for the community (measured by the social impact) and the deontological value as result of the searching of the social consensus in the application of the social value»3. The impact is a norm of quality management and social responsibility. It is a deontological norm and both can be complementary in the evaluation of the public library. Both Ridi and Di Domenico4 find elements in common: the union with the society and the decision about what types of impacts must be intensified in a library.

  • 5 Aldo Olcese – Juan Alfaro – Miguel Ángel Rodríguez, Manual de la empresa responsable y sostenible (...)

11The social responsibility is an ethical principle applicable to an organization that leads into values that may be managed5. It is an ethical principle in opposition to the Social Utility (the profit for the majority) as all the parts involved are taken in consideration, including the minorities.

  • 6 G. Di Domenico, Conoscenza, cittadinanza, sviluppo: appunti sulla biblioteca pubblica come serviz (...)

12In this sense, it is interesting to approach the concept of public library as a Good. According to Di Domenico6, it is possible to stablish a characterization of the Good in such context and with different tradition depending on the countries: public good, social good, private good and common good. Following this typology we can define the knowledge as common good and the library as public social good financed by the State or the community of reference and with useful services for such community or cofinanced both by the community and an external third party supported by the State.

13If we promote the library as social public good we are outlining the library as a public physical space (or virtual), a formative and informative supply for all the groups of the community of reference, that contains useful services for the community which allow the claim of its fundamental rights, and contribute to its social and economic development.

  • 7 L. Anglada, Are Libraries Sustainable.

14The sustainability is a philosophy of behaviours and management principles (sustainable development) in order to preserve the future based on three pillars: social, economic and environmental. We have already commented that according to Anglada7 the evaluation of the sustainability of the library consists in analysing the relationship between the value added and the cost. He maintains that the sustainability of the library lies in the capacity of showing that libraries provide values not only related to printed books and physical documents, and also he affirms that with the new technologies the role of the libraries has been devaluated over the time: this means that libraries were more sustainable in the past than now.

15The social responsibility is the practical application of the sustainability in a specific organization in relation to the ethical behaviour of its members, to the society, the community and other organizations, and to those who support them.This approach entails a model of internal and external management in the institution and a normative system beyond the legal or purely managerial perspective. We measure the impact of a library (economic, social and cultural) in order to see if it contributes to the development of the community, but if we associate the concept of sustainability to a library, we are also measuring it from the ethical point of view, applying, with the social responsibility, principles and ethical values as part of the sustainability development (Fig.1).

Fig. 1 - Sustainable Management of the Library

Fig. 1 - Sustainable Management of the Library
  • 8   IFLA, Declaración acerca de las Bibliotecas y el Desarrollo Sostenible, Glasgow, 2002, <http://ww (...)

16Regarding the ambit of the public library, in 2012 the Declaration of Glasgow on libraries and sustainable development 8 already recommended to libraries and general information services to promote the free access to the information, to respect the equality and the environment, to recognise the importance of the access to education for everybody, the learning along the life, to preserve the intellectual freedom, to respect user’s privacy, to reduce the inequality through the cooperation in networks and, generally speaking, to defend the principles of sustainable development. Nowadays, these are ethical values present in all codes of conduct of our profession.

17Recently, as part of the Agenda of Development post – 2015 the United Nations, IFLA recognised in 2014, as consequence of the contribution of the libraries to the sustainable development, the inclusion of the access to the information to facilitate the exercise of the information right, propitiate the access to the cultural heritage or help the government to achieve the development targets, 7 big targets, nowadays converted in 17 according to a document recently approved by the United Nations 9, in which the library has increased its leading role regarding the information access, the wealth fare in the education, the sustainably development, the sustainable economic, the equality of development and its capacity to prevent the poorness.

Evolution of the ethics in the library: the ISO 26000:2100. Guide of the social responsability

18The public library as organization has to gain the social legitimation and for this it must respect the rights recognised by the society and the values shared in such social context. Demanded and expected values are socially integrated in three different levels: individual level, through the individual shared values; organization level, through the activities carried out directly by the organization; social level, as part of the society where the library operates.

  • 10Angeles López Cabarcos – Paula Vázquez Rodríguez, ¿Puede certificarse el comportamiento ético? SA (...)

19The ethical management of a library, nowadays, must have continuity in the quality management. The application of an ethical standard to the management of the library provides a value added: it shares the values with the society, reinforce its integration, increase the sustainability and intensifies the reputation10.

20Traditionally in the business world standards for the certification of the ethical management have been applied, i.e. the Social Accountability 8000 (SA 8000), a process that is developed through an audit in which the Social Organizations, NGOs and trade units have a leading role in order to achieve such certification. The audit process in this case is similar to quality management processes, and for this reason the ethical evaluation is considered an extension of the implemented quality management system.

21However, we are not in favour of using this ethical evaluation system (certification) for the public library due to its own philosophy of public Good, that is far away of the private business parameters. Nevertheless, we believe that it is necessary to build a solid process of evaluation linked to the specific quality management system of the library. For this reason, the recent ISO 26000:2010 can contribute to an evaluation from the ethical point of view of the public library, due to the fact that this ethical standard is not certifiable (fundamental principle of its creation) and it doesn’t constitute a management system rule (as the rules that analyze the impact) but is compatible and complementary to the rules and quality management models (EFQM).

  • 11International Standard Organization. ISO 26000:2010. Guidance on Social Responsibility, <http://ww (...)

22The ISO 26000:2010 is an international standard11, through which it is possible to make a comparison between different institutions, to analyze the ethical behaviour of the library based on ethical norms and the behaviour rules commonly accepted by everybody (human rights) and to contribute to sustainable development management (i.e. we can consider sustainable to introduce an ethical conduct in the training programmes, ensure the free access to the information or elaborate codes of conduct).

  • 12Principios, prácticas y beneficios de la responsabilidad social, coords. Jesús Morena Olías, Yolan (...)

23We can e stablish a general performance standard of the ISO 26000:201012. It is based on seven principles or fundamental pillars for decision making, according to a perspective oriented to the realization of ethical behavior. These principles are: accountability, transparency, ethical behaviour, respecting the interest of the group, respecting the legality principle, respecting international rules of behaviour and human rights. Taking in account these principles, the norm enumerates seven core subjects where specific social responsibility actions occurr: Organizational Governance, Human Rights, Labour Practices, The Environment, Consumer Issues and Community Involvement and Development and Fair Operations Practices (relationship with stakeholders, providers, customers, competitors, other organizations). Each operational area is described in detail and it is fully defined, and gives rise to the identification of a series of ethical conducts and good practices (Fig. 2).

  • 13Sociedad Española de Documentación e Información. Grupo de Trabajo de ética, Hacia un código deont (...)

24We can provide some examples of ending war conflicts and good practices related with each of the areas included in the ISO standard. These examples are grounded in preliminary studies of the Ethical Group of the Spanish Society of the Documentation and Information (Sedic), and they were undertook in order to elaborate the professional code of conduct, which consisted in an inquiry about ethical values. Professionals were questioned about specific ethical conflicts and good practices cases experimented by them in their workplace13.

Fig.2 - Graphic of ISO 26000: 2010 operation process

Fig.2 - Graphic of ISO 26000: 2010 operation process

25The first subject treated in the ISO 26000:2010 is Community government. The management of the community recommends the accountability, the transparency, the declaration of mission, vision and values of the library, the elaboration of a code of conduct, the definition of measurable objectives, of actions and of specific projects, with particular reference to procedures and processes. The group has identified, as examples of ethical conflicts, the existence of strategic plans without values and of uncompleted internal rules, the lack of acceptance of the ethical concepts by professional librarians, and, as examples of good practices, the elaboration of services lists, creation of groups for conflicts resolution, diffusion of good practices through the intranet (Fig.3).

Fig. 3 - Relationship among the core subject 1, ethical conflicts and good practices

Fig. 3 - Relationship among the core subject 1, ethical conflicts and good practices

26The second core subject is Environment, which, according to the description that appears in the standard, is related to pollution prevention, to sustainable use of the resources promotion, and to the mitigation of the climate change and of the protection of the biodiversity. The identification of ethical conflicts in a public library according to this matter can be related, for example, to the use of air conditioning systems that use electricity generated from fossil fuel, instead of low consumption electricity system; or to the fact that old computers aren’t replaced. The good practices can be represented by the use of recycled materials, divulgation of environmental information and creation of the so called “green libraries” (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4 - Relationship among the core subject 2, ethical conflicts and good practices

Fig. 4 - Relationship among the core subject 2, ethical conflicts and good practices

27In the case of the third core subject, Human rights, we can identify these actions related to the rights of the 1st,2nd and 3rd generation, and to those which are not contained in the Charter of Right, but that have been incorporated into such document through conventions and declarations undertaken from the sixties to our days (peace, multiculturalism, environment). In this case, ethical conflicts in public libraries can be related to the neutrality principle, such as the protection of minority issues not contemplated in the formation of the collections manager’s censorship, due to ideological reasons, unequal access to the information, prohibition of internet, discrimination on users. The good practices can be the actions undertaken by the library in relation with countries that have suffered major disasters, or that they need to build new libraries, or a strict acquisition policy (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5 - Relationship among the core subject 3, ethical conflicts and good practices

Fig. 5 - Relationship among the core subject 3, ethical conflicts and good practices

28In the case of Labor practices (core subject four) it is advisable to take in consideration library employees’ work conditions, the social dialogue to find solutions to these issues, the training, the health and safety conditions. In this way, eventual ethical conflicts that might appear are related with workers’ levels and categories, employees’ training and retraining, irregular recruitment, staff management and assignation of tasks or respect among colleagues. The good practices would be the explanation of the code of conduct to new workers incorporated to the organization, equal genre practices, fair promotion of employees (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6 - Relationship among the core subject 4, ethical conflicts and good practices

Fig. 6 - Relationship among the core subject 4, ethical conflicts and good practices

29Regarding Users issues (core subject 5) we should take in consideration the privacy, the knowledge of user´s information needs, users care services, access to information and trainings. In a library, many cases of ethical conflicts are associated to preserving users’ data and privacy regarding books search and borrowing data. We can highlight, among the good practices, the participation of users in the development of collections, to provide documents to external users without restrictions through the website (Fig. 7).

Fig. 7 - Relationship among the core subject 5, ethical conflicts and good practices

Fig. 7 - Relationship among the core subject 5, ethical conflicts and good practices

30Regarding the Community involvement and development (core subject 6) we can consider ethical the cooperation with other organizations, associations, NGOs, or programming information literacy activities, or working with local providers, or developing partnerships with the voluntary sector or promoting cultural activities. In this case, the ethical conflicts detected are referred to unplanned digitization activities, or to the lack of attention to minorities. The good practices are related to the attention to emigrants and disadvantaged groups, to disabled people and to the establishment of programmes on information literacy (Fig. 8).

Fig.8 - Relationship among core subject 6, ethical conflicts and good practices

Fig.8 - Relationship among core subject 6, ethical conflicts and good practices

31In the fair Operational practices (core subject 7) the rule recommends the cooperation, the associationism, the respect of the physical and intellectual property, the adoption of fair marketing practices and of fair contractual relationships. Thus, ethical conflicts detected among Spanish professional are related to the incorrect use of associations, the influence of the publisher company in the development of the collections, the lack of respect to licences agreements of the digital resources, and to plagiarism. Good practices are related to cooperation with others institutions, to respect of intellectual property and to the provision of data to other communities as a specific service of cooperation (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9 - Relationship among core subject 7, ethical conflicts and good practices

Fig. 9 - Relationship among core subject 7, ethical conflicts and good practices

Methodology for the implementation of the ISO 26000:2010

32In order to put into practice and integrate the Social Responsibility in the library, according to this ISO standard, it is necessary to understand the principles, identify the cores subjects, detect the ethical conflicts and developing solutions with the creation of fair practices. From this methodological perspective, the implementation of this standard is based on two fundamental ideas: the approach of the interest groups and the respect to the current legislation and international laws. The ISO standards divided into four phases, with different methodological characteristics: the theoretical base, the study of the stakeholders, the internal management procedure and the communication.

33*

341) The theoretical base. It is necessary to know rules, directives, declarations, national and international legislations and international codes of conduct. A library as organization must consider the assumed commitments with the Social Responsibility, these commitments can be reflected in the codes of conduct, in the directives, in the legislation or in the association membership (Fig.10).

Fig.10 - Methodology for the application of ISO Standard. Theoretical base

Fig.10 - Methodology for the application of ISO Standard. Theoretical base

352) Analysis of stakeholders. We must identify stakeholders and take in consideration how their decision impact and how they interact with the society, to detect the possibility of an ethical conflict, through quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The study of the user must comprehend the potential and the real users, face-to-face and virtual users, and active and passive virtual users (Fig. 11).

Fig.11 - Methodology for the application of ISO. Analysis of stakeholders

Fig.11 - Methodology for the application of ISO. Analysis of stakeholders

363) Internal management procedure. It is important that Social Responsibility is embedded with management, systems and processes of the library. As we have already commented, the standard of ethical evaluation is compatible and complementary to the quality management rules. The library works with a model of quality management, and this facilitates the incorporation of Social Responsibility into the structure of the organization, into its mission, vision and values. Similar approaches are referred to the description and development of processes and procedures (Fig. 12). In these last ones we can identify, for example, ethical conflicts related with the cataloguing process and services.

37In this manner, the adaptation of the EFQM model and the evaluation of the impact provide information to the ethical evaluation process, and, in the same way, studies of the values help to identify the ethical conflicts and good practices, and to elaborate codes of conduct.It may be useful to the preparation of other instruments of ethical nature, asservices charters, work teams and ethical conflicts resolutions. The application of quantitative and qualitative indicators measures the ethical management, and any other qualitative research technique helps to achieve more information (interviews, observation, focus groups, networks analysis).

Fig. 12 - Methodology for the application of ISO. Internal management procedure

Fig. 12 - Methodology for the application of ISO. Internal management procedure

384) The last part of the methodology, Communication, helps to be aware about the strategies, performances and challenges of the Social Responsibility. It is useful for committing, for creating a dialogue, for showing how the commitments are fulfilled; it facilitates the information about impacts in activities, product and services; it eases the comparison, increases the visibility and the reputation of the library. The internal and external communication strategic must be analysed and we have to take in the consideration the diffusion of the outcome of whatever study, analysis or the investigation carried on in the library, especially the so called “studies of values”.

  • 14 Sociedad Española de Documentación e Información. Grupo de Trabajo de ética, Hacia un código deon (...)

39The over-mentioned study about ethical values of the Spanish professionals14 aimed to understand, in a general way, the importance of the ethic in the profession and, in particular, in the organizations. It consists in an investigation about the transmission of basic behaviours based on such values, trying to understand if they are considered necessaries for activities, and professionals’ making-decision processes in their workplace.

40In the following table (Fig. 13) we can appreciate the importance of values for functioning of institutions, minimizing the importance of those related with technical processes (borrowing, classification) and with relationship with authority.

Fig. 13 - Importance of the ethical values for functioning of the institution Source: Hacia un código deontológico, 2011

Fig. 13 - Importance of the ethical values for functioning of the institution Source: Hacia un código deontológico, 2011

41In relation with the diffusion of ethical values in the institution, Spanish professionals say that it happened through the ethical values, the mission and the vision of the institution and the current legislation, and to a lesser extent, by the managers’ behaviour and the professional librarians (Fig. 14).

42We can appreciate how the ethical behaviour is related to the management of the quality, and how Spanish professionals perceive a difference between legal rules and ethic values, or how the ethical practice is based on the common ethical behaviour to both the group in each case and not on the professionals codes of conduct.

Fig. 14 - Diffusion of ethical values in the institution Source: Hacia un código deontológico, 2011

Fig. 14 - Diffusion of ethical values in the institution Source: Hacia un código deontológico, 2011

43When Spanish professionals were questioned about initiatives related with ethical values implemented in their organizations they mention, first of all, qualities plans, list of services and ISO and EFQM certifications, that is to say, they link quality management and ethical management in their organization, as we have already commented. Other initiatives are deontological commissions, ethical codes, work groups and the area of social responsibility.

44*

  • 15Nerea Nieto Pino, Ética profesional: análisis de percepción en los profesionales de la Comunidad A (...)

45Other example of studies of values dates back to 201415, and are referred to the perception of issues of professional ethic among managers of the institutions in Extremadura. They were asked about the importance of some ethical values previously extracted from codes of conduct. In relation with libraries, they answered by the following priority order: access to the information, privacy and professionalism and, to a lesser extent, intellectual freedom and respect for the cultural and ideological diversity. Issues related to protection of copyright and loyalty to the organization were the less valorised (Fig. 15).

Fig. 15 - Importance of the ethical values among the librarians Source: Nerea Nieto Pino, Ética profesional, 2014

Fig. 15 - Importance of the ethical values among the librarians Source: Nerea Nieto Pino, Ética profesional, 2014

46Regarding the importance of different organization operations, the librarians of Extremadura coincide with the national survey in relation with the fact that they give more importance to the values related with users, and with relations of library with society. The technical processes are placed in a secondary position (Fig. 16).

Fig. 16 - Importance of the ethical values for the organization operations Source: Nerea Nieto Pino, Ética profesional, 2014

Fig. 16 - Importance of the ethical values for the organization operations Source: Nerea Nieto Pino, Ética profesional, 2014

47Librarians, when they were asked to identify the mode of communication of values, felt important the face-to-face communication and after this, the use other work documents and codes of conduct (Fig. 17).

Fig. 17 - Modality of communication of the ethical values in the organization Source: Nerea Nieto Pino, Ética profesional, 2014

Fig. 17 - Modality of communication of the ethical values in the organization Source: Nerea Nieto Pino, Ética profesional, 2014

48In both studies of values, one with national range and another related to a regional area, the conclusions are the same: professionals haven’t a clear representation of their ethical behaviour as part of an organization, and they tend to solve ethical conflicts recurring to their personal values. This implies that the management of the ethic in the organization needs to be normalised in order to give more visibility to a correct ethical behaviour.

49Generally, values related to the society or to the users are considered more important than those related to technical processes or to the relationship with the authorities, but the importance of the society and community of reference, assumed as essential part of the ethical library management, not contribute to its visibility if we don’t valorise the ethical values of the technical processes and the relationships with the authority like a important part of the ethic of the organization.

50Finally, the values can be transmitted through written or oral documents, but most of the people thinks that they are incorporated to the own quality management of the institution, circumstance that, as we have already affirmed cannot be enough.

5. Conclusion

51Through this paper we have tried to find an answer to those questions put in the introduction and that have the general objective of valorising the public library through the ethical management, in order to achieve sustainability.

52In the survey about the values undertaken by the Ethical Group of Sedic, for the elaboration of a code of conduct in Spain, as well as the other survey conducted in the Region of Extremadura, the majority of the ethical conflicts detected by the Spanish professionals are related with the ethics of the organization, it means, with the ethical behaviour of professionals as part of the organization.This means a necessity of change in the management of the ethic in order to improve library services, and consequently, the perception of the users. The ethical behaviour associated to the society and communities are highly estimated but the application of the ethic to the technical processes and the relationship with the authorities contribute in the same way, to the betterment of the institution and to the change in the users’ perception, and the society perception in general.

53In this way, we can say that the application of the ISO 26000:2010 identifies the ethical factors of change that join the social and economic factors previously analysed in order to achieve a deeper analysis of the complexity of the library. The ethical management, through the use of this rules, creates an unique methodology and an unique tool that favors the in depth analysis and the comparison, allows the identification of key factors for the libraries evaluation. Finally the results are intertwined with the outcomes of other management rules, equally focused to the sustainable development.

54The ethical evaluation in the library as organization, according to the principles of Social Responsibility, takes in consideration the “emotional attitude” of citizens, supporters and workers of the library, from the perspective of ethical behaviours as factor of change and following the Anglada’s utterances about the power of the perception.

55The correct management of the public library as ethical organization guarantees the improvement of the visibility conditions to the society, fundamental element to achieve a sustainable library.

Notes

1 Lluís Anglada, Are Libraries Sustainable in a World of Free, Networked, Digital Information? «El Profesional de la Información», 23, 2014, 6, p. 603-611, <http://dx.doi.org/10.3145/epi.2014.nov.07>.

2 L’impatto delle biblioteche accademiche: un progetto e un seminario, a cura di Giovanni Di Domenico, Roma, Associazione italiana biblioteche, 2014.

3 Riccardo Ridi, La responsabilità sociale delle biblioteche: una connessione a doppio taglio, «Biblioteche oggi», 32, 2014, 3, p. 26-41.

4 G. Di Domenico, La responsabilità sociale nella gestione delle biblioteche, «Bibliotime», 14, 2014, 1, <http://www.aib.it/sezioni/emr/bibtimenum-xiv-1/didomenico.htm>.

5 Aldo Olcese – Juan Alfaro – Miguel Ángel Rodríguez, Manual de la empresa responsable y sostenible: conceptos, ejemplos y herramientas de la Responsabilidad Social Corporativa o de la empresa, Madrid, McGraw Hill, 2008.

6 G. Di Domenico, Conoscenza, cittadinanza, sviluppo: appunti sulla biblioteca pubblica come servizio sociale, «AIB studi», 53, 2013, 1, p. 13-25. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2426/aibstudi-8875.

7 L. Anglada, Are Libraries Sustainable.

8   IFLA, Declaración acerca de las Bibliotecas y el Desarrollo Sostenible, Glasgow, 2002, <http://www.ifla.org/ES/publications/declaraci-n-acerca-de-las-bibliotecas-y-el-desarrollo-sostenible>.

9 Suistainable Development Goals, 2014, <http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?menu=1300>.

10Angeles López Cabarcos – Paula Vázquez Rodríguez, ¿Puede certificarse el comportamiento ético? SA 8000, «Investigaciones Europeas de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa», 8, 2002, 2, p. 133-148, <http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=306041>.

11International Standard Organization. ISO 26000:2010. Guidance on Social Responsibility, <http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=42546>.

12Principios, prácticas y beneficios de la responsabilidad social, coords. Jesús Morena Olías, Yolanda Villaseñor Sebastián, Madrid, AENOR, 2012.

13Sociedad Española de Documentación e Información. Grupo de Trabajo de ética, Hacia un código deontológico común: resultados de la encuesta. Seminario de Análisis, en: Jornadas Españolas de Documentación: una profesión, un futuro, Málaga, 25-27 de mayo de 2011, <http://www.sedic.es/Fesabid-2011-codigo-deontologico.pdf>.

14 Sociedad Española de Documentación e Información. Grupo de Trabajo de ética, Hacia un código deontológico.

15Nerea Nieto Pino, Ética profesional: análisis de percepción en los profesionales de la Comunidad Autónoma de Extremadura. Trabajo Fin de Grado, realizado bajo la tutela de la profesora Margarita Pérez Pulido, Setiembre 2014, <http://hdl.handle.net/10662/2160>.

Table des illustrations

Titre Fig. 1 - Sustainable Management of the Library
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 45k
Titre Fig.2 - Graphic of ISO 26000: 2010 operation process
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 48k
Titre Fig. 3 - Relationship among the core subject 1, ethical conflicts and good practices
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 210k
Titre Fig. 4 - Relationship among the core subject 2, ethical conflicts and good practices
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 121k
Titre Fig. 5 - Relationship among the core subject 3, ethical conflicts and good practices
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 183k
Titre Fig. 6 - Relationship among the core subject 4, ethical conflicts and good practices
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 137k
Titre Fig. 7 - Relationship among the core subject 5, ethical conflicts and good practices
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 143k
Titre Fig.8 - Relationship among core subject 6, ethical conflicts and good practices
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 160k
Titre Fig. 9 - Relationship among core subject 7, ethical conflicts and good practices
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 204k
Titre Fig.10 - Methodology for the application of ISO Standard. Theoretical base
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 162k
Titre Fig.11 - Methodology for the application of ISO. Analysis of stakeholders
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 125k
Titre Fig. 12 - Methodology for the application of ISO. Internal management procedure
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 194k
Titre Fig. 13 - Importance of the ethical values for functioning of the institution Source: Hacia un código deontológico, 2011
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 132k
Titre Fig. 14 - Diffusion of ethical values in the institution Source: Hacia un código deontológico, 2011
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 114k
Titre Fig. 15 - Importance of the ethical values among the librarians Source: Nerea Nieto Pino, Ética profesional, 2014
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 86k
Titre Fig. 16 - Importance of the ethical values for the organization operations Source: Nerea Nieto Pino, Ética profesional, 2014
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 74k
Titre Fig. 17 - Modality of communication of the ethical values in the organization Source: Nerea Nieto Pino, Ética profesional, 2014
URL http://books.openedition.org/ledizioni/docannexe/image/3601/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 116k

Acheter

Volume papier

amazon.fr