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Le Concile Vatican II et le monde des religieux

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Christian Sorrel

L’événement conciliaire. Préparations et réalisations

The contribution of the Benedictine Confederation to the preparation of the constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium

Piero Doria

Texte intégral

1Before going deeply into the object of my research, I wish to formulate some very brief remarks concerning the archives of the commission De sacra liturgia present in the Archives of the Second Vatican Council, where I reviewed most of the documents used in the preparation of this essay. Unfortunately, I must point out that these Archives, also on account of the historical events that have characterized them (the replacement of the president and secretary), present, to say the least, a unique situation. In fact, next to its first section (Annibale Bugnini, cm, secretariat) which is particularly accurate and also complete with a register, at least until 1961, as well as a photo album of the members and consultors; by contrast, as second one (Ferdinando Antonelli, ofm, secretariat) appears very incomplete, despite the presence of four envelopes from the Antonelli private Archives. With the Antonelli secretariat, in fact, the gaps increase in quality and quantity. For example, Antonelli’s letter of appointment is missing, even though a copy is present in the Archives of the General Secretariat, but other letters of appointment of some conciliar committee members are also missing. Moreover, the lists of the conciliar subcommittees are not present and certainly, not all the speeches of the members are found within these Archives. But above all, the Archives lack a protocol register for 1962-1963. Nevertheless, despite these shortcomings, the Archives of the Liturgical Commission remain fundamental for anyone who wishes to start any study relating to the issues dealt with by the commission. In the course of the following pages, I will seek to reconstruct the Benedictine presence in the Liturgical Commission during the preparatory phase, as well as during the conciliar phase. Hence, though briefly, I will present the documentation regarding each member and consultor belonging to the Benedictine Order that was conserved in the Archives of the commission, and elaborated in preparation of the constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium.

The Benedictine presence in the preparatory and pre-conciliar period

  • 1 Francisco Gil Hellín (ed.), Concilii Vaticani II. Synopsis in ordinem redigens schemata cum relatio (...)
  • 2 Bernardo Cignitti and Cuthbert Rabnett only took part in the proceedings of the commission as consu (...)
  • 3 Within the Vatican there were strong doubts concerning the loyalty of the Benedictine Polykarp Radó (...)
  • 4 Filippo Merati, « Giovanni Bruno Cannizzaro, osb », in Profili di liturgisti, Roma, Centro Azione L (...)
  • 5 Bernard Capelle was born in Namur (Belgium) on 8 February 1884. He was ordained priest on 10 August (...)
  • 6 Simon Konrad Landersdorfer was born in Neutenkam (Germany) on 2 October 1880. He was ordained pries (...)
  • 7 Bernard Botte was born in Charleroi (Belgium) on 22 October 1893. He was ordained priest on 4 June  (...)
  • 8 Eugène Cardine was born in Courseulles-sur-Mer (France) on 11 April 1905. He was ordained priest on (...)
  • 9 Peter Siffrin was born in Bildstock (Germany) on 1 October 1888. He was ordained priest on 1 August (...)
  • 10 Godfrey Leo Diekmann was born in Roscoe (Minnesota, USA) on 7 April 1908. He was ordained priest on (...)
  • 11 Cipriano Vagaggini was born in Piancastagnano (Siena, Italy) on 3 October 1909. He was ordained pri (...)

2Eleven members of the Order of St. Benedict took part in the preparatory work of the Liturgical Commission1. Though the presence of three of them was only nominal (Bernardo Cignitti, Cuthbert Rabnett2 and Polykarp Radó3) and another two (Giovanni Cannizzaro4 and Bernard Capelle5) died before the commission concluded its proceedings and the constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium was approved by the conciliar Fathers and promulgated by Paul VI, the Benedictine presence was all the same widely represented by Simon Konrad Landersdorfer6, Bernard Botte7, Eugène Cardine8, Peter Siffrin9, Godfrey Leo Diekmann10 and above all by Cipriano Vagaggini11. Moreover, it is necessary to add that there are various conserved testimonies and documents gathered before Cannizzaro’s sudden death on 14th March 1961, as well as others relating to Capelle who died on 19 October 1961.

  • 12 Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 2 (membri).
  • 13 Ibid.
  • 14 Ibid. (consultori).
  • 15 Ibid., b. 380.
  • 16 Ibid., b. 1351.
  • 17 Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 3.
  • 18 Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 4 e b. 1351, fasc. 3.
  • 19 Ibid., b. 1351, fasc. 4.
  • 20 Ibid., bb. 1352-1353.
  • 21 Ibid., b. 1400.

3With the exception of Landersdorfer, who was nominated member of the commission on 8 March 196112, all the others were nominated on 22 August 1960 with a letter of appointment signed by Cardinal Domenico Tardini, Capelle13 as member and seven as consultors (Botte, Cannizzaro, Cardine, Diekmann, Radó, Siffrin, Vagaggini14). The letter of appointment for each member and consultor is conserved in the Archives of the General Secretariat15 and of the Liturgical Commission16, together with the letters of thanks for the nomination17, the Status personalis18, the Formula iuramenti19 and a file containing a rather short description of the activity carried out by every component20. Finally, and this concerns only the Liturgical Commission, a photographic album is also kept containing photos of nearly all the members and consultors21.

4Regarding the preparatory work of the commission, I need to mention that eleven sub-commissions were instituted within this same commission, sub-divided by themes, where single schemas were studied and prepared, to be successively submitted to the scrutiny of the same Liturgical Commission and the Central Commission, and finally passed on to the examination of the Hall. In this first phase, the contribution of the Benedictine congregation has been truly important. Seven sub-commissions on eleven could count on the presence of at least a member of the Order, subdivided as follows:

II Subcommissio: De concelebratione sacramentali – Relator: Bernard Capelle; Secretary: Bernard Botte; III Subcommissio: De officio divino – Consultor: Peter Siffrin; IV Subcommissio : De sacramentis – Consultor: Cipriano Vagaggini ; VI Subcommissio: De lingua latina – Consultor: Bernard Botte and Polykarp Radó; VIII Subcommissio: De fidelium participatione in sacra liturgia – Relator: Giovanni Cannizzaro – Consultor: Godfrey Leo Diekmann; IX Subcommissio: De liturgiae aptatione ad traditiones et ingenium populorum – Secretary: Godfrey Leo Diekmann – Consultor: Cipriano Vagaggini; XI Subcommissio: De musica sacra – Secretary: Eugène Cardine.

5Therefore there were two relators (Cannizzaro e Capelle), three secretaries (Botte, Cardine and Diekmann) and five consultors (Botte, Diekmann, Radó, Siffrin e Vagaggini).

The Benedictine presence in the conciliar period

  • 22 Cardinal Arcadio Larraona, cfm, to Ferdinando Antonelli, ofm. Copy. Romae, 4 octobris 1962, ibid., (...)
  • 23 Jean Prou was born in Nantes (France) on 17 November 1911. After having completed his studies in Na (...)
  • 24 Anselmo Maria Albareda, in the world Gioacchino, was born in Barcelona (Spain) on 16 February 1892. (...)
  • 25 The information about the appointment of Jean Prou is not present in the Archives of the Second Vat (...)
  • 26 Pericle Felici to Cardinal Anselmo Maria Albareda. Minute (31 octobris 1963), ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b (...)
  • 27 Cesario D’Amato, in the world Giuseppe, was born in Naples on 17 August 1904. After having obtained (...)
  • 28 Pericle Felici to Cesario D’Amato. Original. E Civitate Vaticana, 31 octobris 1962, in Historical A (...)

6Considering the conciliar period, which for practical reasons, I will initiate with the appointment of Antonelli as secretary of the conciliar commission on 4 October 196222, the Benedictine presence was drastically reduced to four members. Out of the original group, only Cipriano Vagaggini remained, with the addition of Jean Prou23 and cardinal Anselmo Maria Albareda24, who were nominated by the Pope on 2925 and 31 October 196226 respectively, and Cesario D’Amato27, who was elected by the Hall with 795 votes, likewise nominated member on 31 October 196228. As for the preparatory period, thirteen sub-commissions were also instituted during the conciliar phase, whom the above-mentioned Religious took part in, including cardinal Albareda, at least until he was substituted.

I Subcommissio theological – Member : Cipriano Vagaggini ; VIII Subcommissio ad expendendas animadversiones factas in Caput III De sacramentis et sacramentalibus – Member : Cipriano Vagaggini ; IX Subcommissio ad expendendas animadversiones factas in Caput IV De officio divino – President: Anselmo Maria Albareda (substitute); XII Subcommissio ad expendendas animadversiones factas in Caput VII De musica sacra – President: Cesario D’Amato – Member: Jean Prou

7Thus there were two presidents, Albareda and D’Amato, at least until the substitution of the former, and two members, Prou and Vagaggini, even though the latter was co-opted in two different sub-commissions.

Giovanni Cannizzaro29

  • 29 Abbot of the Abbey of S. Andrea Apostolo of Cornigliano (Genoa, Italy).
  • 30 ASV, Conc. Vat II, b. 1352, fasc. 7. See also ibid., b. 380, fasc. 3.
  • 31 Annibale Bugnini to Giovanni Cannizzaro. Minute (8 dicembre 1960), ibid., b. 1352, fasc. 7.
  • 32 Ibid., b. 1365, fasc. 2. Besides Cannizzaro, who was the relator, the sub-commission comprised: Pie (...)

8Cannizzaro was one of the close collaborators of Bugnini. This personal acquaintance earned him the nomination of consultor of the commission, as the same Benedictine annotated in his letter dated 29 August 1960, highlighting how, « in questo caso ci sia anche il dovere della gratitudine, perché non è difficile sos-pettare donde derivino certe designazioni30 ». Bugnini, who defined Cannizzaro as « il mio “Padre spirituale” per la liturgia31 », showed great concern towards the religious, to the point of requesting his nomination as relator of the VIII sub-commission De fidelium participatione in sacra liturgia32. This collaborative fellowship between both of them was immediately manifest when, and this is only an example, Cannizzaro wrote the following observation to Bugnini on 3 December 1960:

  • 33 Giovanni Cannizzaro to Annibale Bugnini. Genova, 3 dicembre 1960, ibid., b. 1352, fasc. 7.

Ora vorrei confidarle con ogni riservatezza una mia impressione particolare sulla prima sottocommissione che deve trattare del Mistero della S. Liturgia. Con tutto il rispetto e l’ammirazione che ho verso gli uomini di valore da cui quella sottocommissione è composta, fin dal primo incontro ho avuto l’impressione che in essa manchi una mente teologicamente precisa e complete; adatta a guidare il lavoro e a temperare e ad equilibrare i vari punti di vista dei singoli. L’impressione mi si è confermata in questi giorni ricevendo un elenco di questioni riguardante l’argomento che è stato redatto dal Rev.mo Can. Martimort. Non si potrebbe traslare il P. Vagaggini dalla sottocommissione dei Sacramenti, ove il suo apporto sarebbe minimo, alla sottocommissione De ministerio S. Liturgiae, che oggi forse nessuno conosce più profondamente e più completamente di lui? Perdoni la libertà che mi son preso, e se la proposta fosse non opportuna non ne tenga alcun conto e lo consideri come non presentata33.

9Another example of this fruitful collaboration between Cannizzaro and Bugnini is represented by a letter which the Benedictine sent to the secretary on 20 January 1961, concerning the study of lay people’s participation to the liturgy. Cannizzaro wrote:

  • 34 Giovanni Cannizzaro to Annibale Bugnini. Genova, 20 gennaio 1961, ibid.

Reverendissimo Padre, Penso che sia bene comunicarle la pagina introduttoria che D. Jounel premette al suo studio bello ed esauriente sulla partecipazione dei laici alla S. Liturgia. Lo sapevo già che i francesi sono minimisti a riguardo del sacerdozio dei fedeli. È il caso di affrontare in tutta profondità una disputa teologica? È il caso di domandare tutta la questione alla commissione mista con quella teologica? Oppure è il caso, dopo sentite l’opinione massimista e minimista, indicare una soluzione… centrista? che per conto mio è la vera, la più conforme alla Mediator Dei, alla tradizione e anche a quei pochi dati biblici, d’altronde molto discussi tra gli esegeti. Da tutto l’insieme del suo scritto mi pare che Jounel accederebbe ad una tale soluzione, che ammetterebbe il sacerdozio dei fedeli come fondamento secondario, ma non principale della loro partecipazione alla S. Liturgia34.

  • 35 Ibid., b. 1352, fasc. 7.
  • 36 Giovanni Cannizzaro to Annibale Bugnini. Genova, 12 marzo 1961, ibid., b. 1361, fasc. 1.
  • 37 Ibid., b. 1357, fasc. 1 e fasc. 2.
  • 38 Ibid., b. 1361, fasc. 1.

10This collaboration was interrupted on 15 March 1961 when a telegram was sent from the Prior of the Abbey of S. Andrea Apostolo of Cornigliano (Genoa), where Cannizzaro resided, briefly stating – « Abate Cannizzaro improvvisamente deceduto » – thus communicating the news of the death of the religious to the liturgical commission35. The day before his death (14 March 1961), Cannizzaro was already engaged with Jounel in the preparation of the document De participatione activa fidelium36. Apart from office correspondence, there only remain two written texts belonging to Cannizzaro: 1. De mysterio S. Liturgiae eiusque relatione ad vitam Ecclesiae (2 febbraio 196137); 2. Promemoria Subcommissio nona Commissionis Liturgicae. Genuae, 21 febbraio 196138.

Cipriano Vagaggini

  • 39 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1359, fasc. 1.
  • 40 Ibid.
  • 41 Ibid., b. 1369, fasc. 2, De Missa.
  • 42 Ibid., b. 1361, fasc. 3.
  • 43 Ibid., fasc. 5.
  • 44 Ibid., b. 1374, fasc. 1.
  • 45 Ibid.
  • 46 Ibid., fasc. 5.
  • 47 Ibid., fasc. 3.
  • 48 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2.
  • 49 Ibid., b. 1383, fasc. 6.
  • 50 Ibid., b. 1391, fasc. 2.
  • 51 Ibid., b. 1837, fasc. 8.
  • 52 Ibid., b. 1839, fasc. 2.

11Vagaggini, together with Cannizzaro, is the Benedictine consultor who has offered the foremost contribution in the preparation of the document on sacred liturgy, both in terms of quantity as well as quality. In fact, he presented fourteen written vota : 1. De sacramentis et sacramentalibus. Romae, 6 ianuarii 196139 ; 2. De sacramentis et sacramentalibus recognoscendis in genere. Romae, 9 aprilis 196140 ; 3. De lingua latina. s.l.d.41 ; 4. De liturgiae aptatione ad traditione et ingenium populorum. s.l.d.42 ; 5. De liturgiae aptatione ad traditione et ingenium populorum. Romae, 15 februarii 196143 ; 6. De liturgiae aptatione ad traditione et ingenium populorum. Romae, 8 aprilis 196144 ; 7. De institutione liturgica. Romae, 12 aprilis 196145 ; 8. De officio divino. Adnotationes ad alteram partem canonis 1° c. s.l.d46 ; 9. Delineamentum generale constitutionis de liturgia Concilio proponendae. Romae, 11 aprilis 196147 ; 10. Adnotationes ad schema constitutionis de sacra liturgia [...]. Romae, 9 augusti 196148 ; 11. « Canon 42 (correctiones a D. Cypriano Vagaggini osb, propositae) ». Romae, 4 ianuarii 196249 ; 12. Notae di Cipriano Vagaggini alla relazione di Martin (8 novembre 1963)50 ; 13. De recognoscendis numeris 1-9 schematis de sacra liturgia. Romae, 28 octobris 196251 ; 14. Circa canonem 13 litt. C, De obligatione officii divini. Romae, 28 iunii 196352.

Bernard Capelle

  • 53 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1352, fasc. 8. See also ibid., b. 1356, fasc. 14.
  • 54 Ibid., b. 1357, fasc. 5.
  • 55 Ibid.

12Even Capelle was not able to complete the work he had initiated. As in the case of Cannizzaro, Capelle died in the course of 1961, on 19 October. Regarding his activity as Relator of the II sub-commission, we still have some letters addressed to Bugnini53 and only one vota on De missa dated 16 November 196054. Moreover, in the Archives, we can also still find the text of a conference presented at the second international congress on liturgical studies (Mont-Sainte-Odile, France, 1952) entitled Fraction et commixtion: aménagements souhaitables des rites actuels55.

Simon Konrad Landersdorfer

  • 56 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1353, fasc. 32. See also b. 1364, fasc. 7; b. 1376, fasc. 2.
  • 57 « Responsio ad “Quaestiones E.mis Praesidibus Commissionum Liturgicarum penes Conferentias Episcopa (...)
  • 58 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2, Risposte generali.
  • 59 Ibid., b. 1383, fasc. 1.

13Besides office correspondence56, and the answer of the German Episcopal Conference to the questionnaire concerning the liturgical apostleship57, in the Archives, we find the following vota by the bishop of Passau: 1. Animadversiones Simonis Conradi osb, Episcopi Passaviensis ad Constitutionem de s. Liturgia fovenda atque instauranda (schema de 10.8.1961). Passaviae (Germania), 5 septembris 196158 ; 2. Ad schema Constitutionis diei 15 Nov. 1961. Osservazioni di Simon Konrad Landersdorfer osb et alii. Treviris (Germania), 15 decembris 196159.

Bernard Botte60

  • 60 Abbey of Mont-César (Louvain, Belgium).
  • 61 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1352, fasc. 4 e fasc. 8. See also b. 1353, fasc. 36; b. 1360, fasc. 3.
  • 62 Ibid., fasc. 1 e 2.
  • 63 Ibid., b. 1361, fasc. 1.
  • 64 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2.

14Also regarding Botte, there is only some brief correspondence61 and three vota: 1. De linguis liturgicis. s.l.d.62 ; 2. Osservazioni diverse (De linguis liturgicis, De concelebratione, De missa) (7 avril 1961)63 ; 3. Osservazioni. s.l.d.64.

Eugène Cardine65

  • 65 Abbey of Saint-Pierre de Solesmes (France).
  • 66 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1352, fasc. 9. See also: b. 1376, fasc. 2; b. 1383, fasc. 1.
  • 67 Ibid., b. 1362, fasc. 1.
  • 68 Ibid., fasc. 2.
  • 69 Ibid.
  • 70 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2. « Risposte generali ».

15The documentation concerning Cardine includes the correspondence66, the minutes drawn up as secretary of the sub-commission De musica sacra67 : 1. Subcommissio De musica sacra. Compte rendu des deux premières séances d’étude, a cura di Eugène Cardine osb. Roma, 10 décembre 1960; 2. Subcommissio De musica sacra: Compte rendu des deux séances d’étude des 30 et 31 janvier 1961, a cura di Eugène Cardine osb. s.l.d.; 3. Subcommissio De musica sacra. Compte rendu de la séance d’étude du 10 février 1961, a cura di Eugène Cardine osb. s.l.d. – and three vota: 1. De cantu gregoriano. s.l.d.68 ; 2. De cantu gregoriano atque de ejus laude, redatto con Igino Anglès. s.l.d.69 ; 3. Constitutio De sacra liturgia fovenda atque instauranda. Osservazioni di Eugène Cardine. Solesmes (Francia), 7 septembre 196170.

Peter Siffrin71

  • 71 Abbey of Sankt Matthias of Trier (Germany).
  • 72 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1353, fasc. 55. See also b. 1356, fasc. 13 e 14; b. 1376, fasc. 2.
  • 73 Ibid., b. 1358, fasc. 3.
  • 74 Ibid.
  • 75 Ibid., fasc. 4.
  • 76 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2. « Risposte generali ».

16Apart from some brief correspondence72, also for Siffrin, four vota are conserved: 1. Adnotationes Rev.mi P. Siffrin osb circa quaestiones De officio divino. s.l.d.73 ; 2. Votum P. Petri Siffrin osb. Treviris, 8 febbraio 196174 ; 3. Natura et necessitas precationis publicae Ecclesiae illustretur et gravis cleri obligatio illud implendi in plena luce ponatur. Trier, 24 dezember 196075 ; 4. Constitutio de Sacra Liturgia fovenda atque instauranda sodalibus commissionis die 10 augusti 1961. Osservazioni di Peter Siffrin osb. Treviris, 4 septembris 196176.

Godfrey Leo Diekmann77

  • 77 Abbey of St. John of Collegeville (Minnesota, USA).
  • 78 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1352, fasc. 12. See also b. 1353, fasc. 47; b. 1356, fasc. 5; b. 1376, fasc. (...)
  • 79 Ibid., b. 1369, fasc. 12. IV.
  • 80 Ibid., b. 1374, fasc. 1.
  • 81 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2. « Risposte generali ».

17Besides the usual correspondence78, which is kept in various containers, Diekmann’s vota are the following: 1. Ad. n. 23 in relatione De officio divino. (18 aprile 1961)79 ; 2. De liturgiae aptatione ad ingenium et traditione populorum. s.l.d.80 ; 3. Osservazioni. s.l.d.81. The archives of the De sacra liturgia commission also conserve pages 253-255 of an article published on a Benedictine review, Worship (XXXV, IV), of the abbey of St John of Collegeville (Minnesota, USA), where the author dealt with some points which were being studied by the commission, as the use of Latin and the reform of the Breviary. The article was disapproved by Bugnini and deemed inopportune in the following terms:

  • 82 Ibid., b. 1352, fasc. 12.

2 martii 1961 – Reverendissime Pater et carissime amice, Accepi paginas 253-255 anni XXXV, IV periodici Worship et illas approbare nequeo. Re is se non est improbanda, sed non est opportunum hanc quaestionem agitare nunc, cum bene noscis illam commissam esse Concilio Oecumenico. Non est conveniens praevenire iudicium Patrum, vel “manus illius premere” ut dicitur. De caetero meminisse iuvabit Membra et Consultores Pontificiae Commissionis habere quandam peculiarem responsabilitatem de re liturgica, et ab omnibus se debent abstinere, quae sive directe sive indirecte secretum praestitum tradere possint82.

Cardinal Anselmo Maria Albareda

  • 83 Ibid., b. 6, fasc. 2, n. 12. See too AS, I-II, p. 413-414.

18The name of card. Albareda never appears in the Archives of the Liturgical Commission. Concerning the former prefect of the Vatican Apostolic Library, there only remains the intervention delivered to the Assembly on 9 November 1962, in the course of the 15th general congregation83.

Jean Prou

  • 84 In this connection, please refer to volumes XVII and XX of my inventory on the Second Vatican Counc (...)
  • 85 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 3, fasc. 2, n. 16. See also AS, I-I, p. 477-478.
  • 86 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 6, fasc. 7, n. 4. See also AS, I-II, pp. 445-447.
  • 87 The animadversiones scriptae are in ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 88, fasc. 6, n. 6 (AS, I-II, p. 266); AS (...)

19Besides the correspondence present in the Archives of the Liturgical Commission and in Antonelli’s84 papers, Prou’s conserved texts on the liturgy only consist of two interventions which he delivered in the Hall in the course of the 7th (26 October 1962)85 and the 16th general congregation (10 November 1962)86 and the three written observations regarding the same commission, presented in the same period of time (October-December 1962)87.

Cesario D’Amato

  • 88 See ASV, Indice 1198, voll. XVII e XX, ad indicem.
  • 89 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1396, fasc. 4.
  • 90 Ibid., fasc. 9.
  • 91 Ibid.

20References to the activity of Cesario D’Amato (correspondence, minutes of the sub-commission De musica sacra, etc.) are kept in the Archives of the Liturgical Commission and in the « Antonelli Papers88 » containers. The following interventions delivered by D’Amato are kept as well: 1. Relatio Subcommissionis De musica sacra de emendationibus et animadversionibus a Patribus propositis circa caputt VII schematibus: De musica sacra. (6 aprilis 1963)89 ; 2. Caput VI: De musica sacra. Relatio […] circa Emendationes propositas, s.l.d.90 ; 3. Relatio circa cap. De musica sacra, s.l.d.91.

21In the course of the present study, I have tried to reconstruct the involvement of the Benedictine confederation in the proceedings of the Liturgical Commission and in the preparation of the constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium. For reasons of space, I have not been able to dwell on the single vota prepared by the religious. This would have offered greater dynamism to the work, whilst the contribution of ideas that emerged in the course of time would have been more evident. I will only present one example. In a letter of 27 November 1960, thus in the initial phase of the proceedings, Botte wrote the following two reflections to Bugnini, regarding the liturgical language and the concelebrations:

  • 92 Ibid., b. 1352, fasc. 4.

Le Concile n’est pas destiné uniquement à l’Église latine et il me semble qu’il faudrait tout d’abord établir des principes généraux qui s’appliquent à l’Église universelle et, par conséquent, à tous les rites. On peut alors traiter en particulier du latin pour le rite romain et les autres rites. Mais il ne faudrait pas admettre comme principes généraux des principes qui seraient démentis par l’usage oriental. Par exemple, si le latin est nécessaire pour le maintien de la pureté de la foi, comment justifier l’usage des langues vivantes dans les rites orientaux92?

22And with reference to the concelebration:

  • 93 Ibid.

Quant à la concélébration, j’estime que, si on part du principe que la concélébration sacramentelle comporte plusieurs messes, on fausse tout le problème. Quand trois évêques consacrent simultanément un évêque, il n’y a pas trois ordinations, mais une seule. La concélébration consiste précisément en ce que plusieurs prêtres exercent en même temps leur pouvoir sacerdotal d’offrir et de consacrer un seul sacrifice93.

23In spite of this gap which, in addition, must also be associated with an often incomplete documentation, I believe that the role and the contribution of the Benedictine confederation has emerged in a clear and evident manner.

Notes

1 Francisco Gil Hellín (ed.), Concilii Vaticani II. Synopsis in ordinem redigens schemata cum relationibus necnon Patrum orationes atque animadversiones. 5 : Sacrosanctum Concilium. Constitutio de Sacra Liturgia, Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2003; Angelo Lameri (ed.), La Pontificia Commissio De Sacra Liturgia preparatoria Concilii Vaticani II. Documenti, Testi, Verbali, Roma, CLV-Edizioni Liturgiche, 2013.

2 Bernardo Cignitti and Cuthbert Rabnett only took part in the proceedings of the commission as consultants and consequently pronounced the Formula iuramenti on 2 March 1961 and 24 December 1960 respectively. Archivio Segreto Vaticano [ASV], Conc. Vat. II, b. 1351, fasc. 4, n. 3 (consulenti).

3 Within the Vatican there were strong doubts concerning the loyalty of the Benedictine Polykarp Radó. In this regard, Antonio Samoré, secretary of the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs transmitted the following comment to Pericle Felici: « Policarpo Radó, benedettino, professore della Facoltà teologica a Budapest. Estremista nel gruppo dei sacerdoti “per la pace”. Nelle trasmissioni della radio ungherese per l’estero tenne parecchie conferenze sulla libertà della religione in Ungheria. Le trasmissioni di tali conferenze avvennero proprio in quei giorni del 1957, in cui un numero di chierici veniva incarcerato. Si ritiene che egli sia la causa del licenziamento di Gennert Bellon’s dal periodico “Vigilia”. Policarpo Radó ricevette spesso il passaporto per l’occidente: soltanto persone di particolare fiducia ottengono simili passaporti; si ritiene che egli abbia reso dei buoni servizi ai committenti. Sebbene egli sia uno specialista di prim’ordine, la sua nomina a consultore ha provocato grande costerna-zione nei circoli dei sacerdoti fedeli a Roma » (Antonio Samoré to Pericle Felici, with attached insert, Vaticano, 31 dicembre 1960, ibid., b. 380, fasc. 5, membri e consultori). Besides, on at least another two occasions, Annibale Bugnini, secretary of the preparatory commission De sacra liturgia, asked Pietro Borella and Lukas Brinkhoff not to send papers to Polykarp Radó in Budapest, on 22nd December 1960, ibid., b. 1352, fasc. 3 e 5).

4 Filippo Merati, « Giovanni Bruno Cannizzaro, osb », in Profili di liturgisti, Roma, Centro Azione Liturgica, 1970, p. 189-220.

5 Bernard Capelle was born in Namur (Belgium) on 8 February 1884. He was ordained priest on 10 August 1906; in 1904, he obtained a doctorate in Philosophy from the Pontifical Gregorian University and in 1908, a doctorate in Theology. Afterwards, in 1912, he obtained a doctorate in Biblical Studies and finally, in 1937, he was conferred with a Doctorate honoris causa in Historical Sciences from Louvain. From 1936 to 1958, he was professor of Sacred Liturgy at the Catholic University of Louvain and Lecteur of Theology and Patrology at the monastery of Mont-Cesar of Louvain. Capelle died in Louvain (Belgium) on 19 October 1961 (ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 380, fasc. 4 e b. 1351, n. 3, fasc. 1).

6 Simon Konrad Landersdorfer was born in Neutenkam (Germany) on 2 October 1880. He was ordained priest on 19 December 1903 and after obtaining a doctorate in Hebrew Philology and Sacred Liturgy (University of Freiburg, Germany), he was professor of Sacred Scripture at St. Anselm College in Rome, abbot of the Monastery of Schyren and apostolic visitor of the Benedictine Monasteries of Austria. On 11 September 1936, he was elected bishop of Passau (Germany), a see that he conserved until 27 October 1968, when he reached the age limit and retired. Landersdorfer died on 21 July 1971 (Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 4 e b. 1351, n. 3, fasc. 1).

7 Bernard Botte was born in Charleroi (Belgium) on 22 October 1893. He was ordained priest on 4 June 1922. He was lecteur of Sacred Liturgy at the University of Louvain and director of the Superior Institute of Liturgy in Paris. Botte died in Louvain (Belgium) on 4 March 1980 (Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 4 e b. 1351, n. 3, fasc. 2).

8 Eugène Cardine was born in Courseulles-sur-Mer (France) on 11 April 1905. He was ordained priest on 2 September 1934 and obtained a doctorate in Letters; he was professor at the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music. Cardine died in Solesmes (France) on 24 January 1988 (Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 4 e b. 1351, n. 3, fasc. 2).

9 Peter Siffrin was born in Bildstock (Germany) on 1 October 1888. He was ordained priest on 1 August 1912 and obtained a licence in Philosophy and Theology respectively; he taught classical Letters, Latin Exegesis and History of the Church. From 1949 to 1960, he taught Sacred Liturgy at St. Anselm College in Rome. On 6 December 1960, the University of Trier (Germany) conferred him the doctorate Honoris causa in Sacred Theology. He retired to the Benedictine abbey of Santa Maria Laach in Germany, and died in 1968 (Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 4 e b. 1351, n. 3, fasc. 2).

10 Godfrey Leo Diekmann was born in Roscoe (Minnesota, USA) on 7 April 1908. He was ordained priest on 28 June 1931 and having obtained the doctorate in Sacred Liturgy at St. Anselm College in Rome in 1933; he was professor of Patrology, Ecclesiastical History and Dogmatic Theology at St. John’s University (Minnesota, USA). Diekmann died on 22 February 2002 (Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 4 e b. 1351, n. 3, fasc. 2).

11 Cipriano Vagaggini was born in Piancastagnano (Siena, Italy) on 3 October 1909. He was ordained priest on 29 July 1934 and after having obtained doctorate degrees in Philosophy, Sacred Theology and Oriental Ecclesiastical Sciences, he was professor of Dogmatic Theology and vice-rector of the Pontifical University of St. Anselm. Vagaggini died in Camaldoli (Italy) on 18 January 1999 (Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 4 e b. 1351, n. 3, fasc. 2).

12 Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 2 (membri).

13 Ibid.

14 Ibid. (consultori).

15 Ibid., b. 380.

16 Ibid., b. 1351.

17 Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 3.

18 Ibid., b. 380, fasc. 4 e b. 1351, fasc. 3.

19 Ibid., b. 1351, fasc. 4.

20 Ibid., bb. 1352-1353.

21 Ibid., b. 1400.

22 Cardinal Arcadio Larraona, cfm, to Ferdinando Antonelli, ofm. Copy. Romae, 4 octobris 1962, ibid., b. 325, fasc. 1.

23 Jean Prou was born in Nantes (France) on 17 November 1911. After having completed his studies in Nantes and in Solesmes, he was ordained priest on 21 August 1938. He was elected abbot of Solesmes on 5 July 1959, and kept this position until 1992, when he presented his resignation. Prou died at Solesmes on 14 November 1999. Ibid., Appendice, b. 88.

24 Anselmo Maria Albareda, in the world Gioacchino, was born in Barcelona (Spain) on 16 February 1892. He entered the Benedictine Order and was ordained priest on 8 July 1915. After obtaining a doctorate in theology at St. Anselm College in Rome, he frequented the Biblical School of Jerusalem and the State University of Innsbruck (Austria). Abbot nullius of the monastery of Santa Maria Ripoll (Spain), Pius XI appointed him Prefect of the Vatican Apostolic Library on 19 June 1936. On 19 March 1962, he was created cardinal by John XXIII. Cardinal Albareda died in Barcelona (Spain) on 20 July 1966. Ibid., b. 398, fasc. 2.

25 The information about the appointment of Jean Prou is not present in the Archives of the Second Vatican Council. The original nomination signed by Cardinal Amleto Giovanni Cicognani and dated 29 October 1962, is instead present in Archives abbaye Saint-Pierre de Solesmes, Fonds Concile Vatican II, dossier n. 3. I am obliged to Philippe Roy’s kindness for having indicated the mentioned document.

26 Pericle Felici to Cardinal Anselmo Maria Albareda. Minute (31 octobris 1963), ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 326, fasc. 2.

27 Cesario D’Amato, in the world Giuseppe, was born in Naples on 17 August 1904. After having obtained a licence in Philosophy (1923) and a doctorate in Theology (1928) at the Lateran University, he was ordained priest in 1928. Afterwards, in 1931, he obtained a Diploma in Paleography and Archivistics at the School of the Vatican Secret Archives. He was lecturer of Liturgy at the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music and at the Lateran University and, on 7 November 1955, he was appointed abbot nullius of St. Paul outside the Walls and elected titular bishop of Sebaste in Cilicia. In 1964, he renounced to the government of the Abbey. D’Amato died at Santa Marinella (Rome) on 23 August 2000 (ibid., Appendice, b. 15).

28 Pericle Felici to Cesario D’Amato. Original. E Civitate Vaticana, 31 octobris 1962, in Historical Archives of St. Paul outside the Walls (Rome), Series Abbot Cesario D’Amato, Stand 39, Shelf B, D’Amato Conciliar Documents Container, file Ratio procedendi in laboribus Commissionis Conc. et Subcommissionibus. On D’Amato’s election as member, see the complete list of Fathers who constitute the conciliar commission De sacra liturgia, attached to the copy of the letter of Pericle Felici to Cardinal Arcadio Larraona. E Civitate Vaticana, 30 October 1962, ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 326, fasc. 2.

29 Abbot of the Abbey of S. Andrea Apostolo of Cornigliano (Genoa, Italy).

30 ASV, Conc. Vat II, b. 1352, fasc. 7. See also ibid., b. 380, fasc. 3.

31 Annibale Bugnini to Giovanni Cannizzaro. Minute (8 dicembre 1960), ibid., b. 1352, fasc. 7.

32 Ibid., b. 1365, fasc. 2. Besides Cannizzaro, who was the relator, the sub-commission comprised: Pierre Jounel, secretary; Carlo Rossi, bishop of Biella; Michael Pflieger; Giulio Bevilacqua, do; Lukas Brinkhoff, ofm; Godfrey Diekmann, osb, and Otto Spülbeck, bishop of Meissen, as consultors.

33 Giovanni Cannizzaro to Annibale Bugnini. Genova, 3 dicembre 1960, ibid., b. 1352, fasc. 7.

34 Giovanni Cannizzaro to Annibale Bugnini. Genova, 20 gennaio 1961, ibid.

35 Ibid., b. 1352, fasc. 7.

36 Giovanni Cannizzaro to Annibale Bugnini. Genova, 12 marzo 1961, ibid., b. 1361, fasc. 1.

37 Ibid., b. 1357, fasc. 1 e fasc. 2.

38 Ibid., b. 1361, fasc. 1.

39 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1359, fasc. 1.

40 Ibid.

41 Ibid., b. 1369, fasc. 2, De Missa.

42 Ibid., b. 1361, fasc. 3.

43 Ibid., fasc. 5.

44 Ibid., b. 1374, fasc. 1.

45 Ibid.

46 Ibid., fasc. 5.

47 Ibid., fasc. 3.

48 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2.

49 Ibid., b. 1383, fasc. 6.

50 Ibid., b. 1391, fasc. 2.

51 Ibid., b. 1837, fasc. 8.

52 Ibid., b. 1839, fasc. 2.

53 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1352, fasc. 8. See also ibid., b. 1356, fasc. 14.

54 Ibid., b. 1357, fasc. 5.

55 Ibid.

56 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1353, fasc. 32. See also b. 1364, fasc. 7; b. 1376, fasc. 2.

57 « Responsio ad “Quaestiones E.mis Praesidibus Commissionum Liturgicarum penes Conferentias Episcopales propositas” ». Passaviae (Germania), 7 septembris 1961, ibid., b. 1364, fasc. 9.

58 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2, Risposte generali.

59 Ibid., b. 1383, fasc. 1.

60 Abbey of Mont-César (Louvain, Belgium).

61 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1352, fasc. 4 e fasc. 8. See also b. 1353, fasc. 36; b. 1360, fasc. 3.

62 Ibid., fasc. 1 e 2.

63 Ibid., b. 1361, fasc. 1.

64 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2.

65 Abbey of Saint-Pierre de Solesmes (France).

66 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1352, fasc. 9. See also: b. 1376, fasc. 2; b. 1383, fasc. 1.

67 Ibid., b. 1362, fasc. 1.

68 Ibid., fasc. 2.

69 Ibid.

70 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2. « Risposte generali ».

71 Abbey of Sankt Matthias of Trier (Germany).

72 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1353, fasc. 55. See also b. 1356, fasc. 13 e 14; b. 1376, fasc. 2.

73 Ibid., b. 1358, fasc. 3.

74 Ibid.

75 Ibid., fasc. 4.

76 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2. « Risposte generali ».

77 Abbey of St. John of Collegeville (Minnesota, USA).

78 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1352, fasc. 12. See also b. 1353, fasc. 47; b. 1356, fasc. 5; b. 1376, fasc. 2; b. 1383, fasc. 1.

79 Ibid., b. 1369, fasc. 12. IV.

80 Ibid., b. 1374, fasc. 1.

81 Ibid., b. 1376, fasc. 2. « Risposte generali ».

82 Ibid., b. 1352, fasc. 12.

83 Ibid., b. 6, fasc. 2, n. 12. See too AS, I-II, p. 413-414.

84 In this connection, please refer to volumes XVII and XX of my inventory on the Second Vatican Council Archives, Index 1198, present in the Vatican Secret Archives.

85 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 3, fasc. 2, n. 16. See also AS, I-I, p. 477-478.

86 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 6, fasc. 7, n. 4. See also AS, I-II, pp. 445-447.

87 The animadversiones scriptae are in ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 88, fasc. 6, n. 6 (AS, I-II, p. 266); ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 88, fasc. 8, n. 13 (AS, I-II, p. 377); ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 89, fasc. 6, n. 2 (AS, I-II, p. 746-748).

88 See ASV, Indice 1198, voll. XVII e XX, ad indicem.

89 ASV, Conc. Vat. II, b. 1396, fasc. 4.

90 Ibid., fasc. 9.

91 Ibid.

92 Ibid., b. 1352, fasc. 4.

93 Ibid.

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