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The Schüssel Era in Austria

Günter Bischof
Fritz Plasser

Table des matières

Fritz Plasser et Günter Bischof


Topical Essays

I. Personality and Leadership

Peter Gerlich

The Political Personality of Wolfgang Schüssel

An Overiew of Schüssel’s Career
Personal Character and Life Experiences
Professional Achievements and Failures
Evaluating Schüssel’s Achievements and Failures
Fritz Plasser et Peter A. Ulram

Rollercoaster: Schüssels’ Electoral (Mis)fortunes and the Dynamics of Public Approval

Schüssel’s Public Approval
Candidate Image: Schüssel’s Public Persona
Candidate Voting: Personalization of the Voting Decision
Günther Lengauer

Schüssel and the Media: An Ambivalent Relationship

Chancellor Schüssel in the Austrian Media
Chancellor Schüssel’s Media Relationship
Chancellor Schüssel’s Media Policy
David Wineroither

Making Omelets and Breaking Eggs? Schüssel’s Leadership in Government and Party

Introduction: Governmental Influence and Prime Ministerial Power
Alleviating the Problem of Perceptibility in Studies of Executive Leadership
Shifts from Consensus to Majoritarian Democracy
The Majoritarian Turn in the Year 2000: Schüssel’s Targets and Policy Consequences
The Philosophy of “Change”: Blaming SPÖ-Led Governments
The Distribution of Power in the Executive Branch Schüssel and the ÖVP
The FPÖ in 2000: An Attractive Coalition “Bride”
The Chancellor’s Role in the Cabinet
Conclusion: Chancellor Democrat, Premier-President, or Indispensable Coordinator?
Kurt Richard Luther

Governing with Right-Wing Populists and Managing the Consequences: Schüssel and the FPÖ

Preparing to Break the Mold: 1995-1999
Internal Constraints and External Preferences
Schüssel’s First Attempt at the Chancellorship
Snatching Victory from the Jaws of Defeat
The First Schüssel Government (2000-2003)
Internal Relations
External Relations
The Second Schüssel Government (2003-2007)
Coalition Building
Internal Relations
External Relations
Ferdinand Karlhofer

The Politics of Asymmetry: (Non) Corporatist Policy Making, 2000-2006

The Profile of Austro-Corporatism
The Year 2000: Interests and Motives of the Ruling Parties
Industrial Relations and Political Turn
Labor on a Collision Course with the Government
The Broader Context of Change: Power Shift and Fragile Consensus
Latest Developments: Union Crisis and Collective Bargaining
Reinhard Heinisch

Unremarkably Remarkable, Remarkably Unremarkable: Schüssel as Austria’s Foreign Policymaker in a Time of Transition

Unremarkably Remarkable and Remarkably Unremarkable
The Accidental Foreign Policymaker
Foreign Policy and Austrian Party Politics
From Nation State to Member State—Schüssel as Party Leader and Foreign Minister
Austria as International Pariah—Schüssel Becomes Chancellor in 2000
Between Euro-Skepticism, Populism, and Business as Usual—Schüssel’s Chancellorship 2000-2002
Political Calculus and the Troublesome Freedom Party
The Center-Right’s Embrace of Foreign Security Policy
Austria and the Question of Turkey’s Accession to the European Union
At the Zenith of His Power and Influence—Schüssel’s Final Years as Chancellor

II. Policies and Policy Changes

Otmar Höll

Wolfgang Schüssel and Austrian Foreign Policy

The First Phase: Continuity and Adaptation (1995-2000)
The Highlight: First Presidency of the Union
The Second Phase: From Squeeze to Triumph to Agony
The Other Highlight: The Second Presidency
Changes in Substance and Priorities of Austrian Foreign and Security Policy
Heinrich Neisser

The Schüssel Years and the European Union

Austria’s First Stage as a Member of the European Union (1995-2000)
The Case of Austria: A New Government Takes Over Responsibility (2000)
How the New Government Came into Office
The “Sanctions” by Fourteen EU Member States against Austria
Austria’s Role within the European Union during the First Six Months of 2000
The Report of the “Three Wise Men” and the Lifting of the Ban
Austria’s Presidency in 2006 (1 January to 30 June)
Essence of the Presidency
Organizational Challenges
Programs of the Presidency
EU Summits and External Relations
The Fourth Summit Meeting with Latin America and the Caribbean
The European Union and Russia
The European Union-United States Summit
Financial Planning
Policy Development
Final Remarks: A General Assessment
The Challenge of Enlargement for the European Union
Austria’s Link to the “West Balkan Region”
The Application of Turkey: A Special Agreement
Günter Bischof et Michael S. Maier

Reinventing Tradition and the Politics of History: Schüssel’s Restitution and Commemoration Policies

Restitution and Compensation during the Schüssel Years
The Year of Historical Memory 2005
Conclusion: Legacies—Was bleibt?
Johannes Ditz

Economic Policies and Economic Change

Change of Course during the Vranitzky-Mock Government
Budget Policy
Tax Reform Policy
EU Entry: Prerequisite for Export Dynamics and Internationalization
Restructuring and Privatization of Nationalized Industry
Economic Policy under Federal Chancellor Wolfgang Schüssel, 2000-2007
Reduction of Government Spending and Debt Ratios
Strengthening of Austria as a Location for Industry
Development of an Austrian Capital Market
Return to Private Ownership and Reduction of Government-Backed Debts through the ÖIAG
Increase of the Total Tax Rate: A Growing Burden for Mid-Sized Companies
Summary and Outlook
Max Preglau

Schüssel and the Welfare State

Initial Conditions
The Austrian Welfare System: The Status Quo before Schüssel
Transition from Fordism to Post-Fordism as a Challenge of the Welfare State
Restrictions and Options for Social Policy in the Age of Post-Fordism
The Transformation of the Austrian Welfare State in the Schüssel Years, 2000-2006
“Neo-Liberal” Social Policy
Labor and Labor Market Policy
Pension Reform
Health Reform
Taxes and Fees
Poverty Reduction
Conservative Family and Gender Policy
Restrictive Immigration and Integration Policy
Final Evaluation of the Social Policy of the Schüssel Years
Josef Leidenfrost

The Demise of “Minoritenplatz-Schleicherei”: Eighty-Four Month of Wende Higher Education Policy in Austria

Elisabeth Gehrer and the Resetting of the Higher Education Policy Agenda
The 1990s: The Maastricht Criteria Confront the Mass Universities
From Kowtowing to Autonomy: The University Act of 2002 and the Demise of the “Minoritenplatz-Schleicherei”
The Minister Leaving Through The Back Door: The Difficult (Re) Introduction of Tuition Fees
A European Court of Justice Decision and Its Consequences for Austrian Higher Education
The Brave New World of “Bologna”: Systemic Challenges and Changes Far Beyond 2010
Anton Pelinka

Legacies of the Schüssel Years

Westernization in Policies
Westernization in Politics
Remaining Austrian Peculiarities

Book Reviews

Evan Burr Bukey

Gerhard Botz, Nationalsozialismus in Wien: Machtübernahme, Herrschaftssicherung, Radikalisierung 1938/39 (Vienna: Mandelbaum Verlag, 2008)

Hans Petschar, Anschluss. “Ich hole Euch heim”: Der “Anschluss” Õsterreichs an das Deutsche Reich. Fotografie und Wochenschau im Dienst der NS-Propganda, Eine Bildchronologie (Vienna: Christian Brandstätter Verlag, 2008)

Annual Review

Reinhold Gärtner

Austria 2008

Elections in Tyrol, 8 June 2008
Parliamentary Elections, 28 September 2008
Jörg Haider, 26 January 1950-11 October 2009
Elections in Carinthia and Styria, 1 March 2009
Economic and Statistical Data
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