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From Empire to Republic

Peter Berger
Günter Bischof
Fritz Plasser

I. End of Empire/Early Republic: Political (Domestic and Foreign) Legacies

"A status Which Does Not Exist Anymore": Austrian and Hungarian Enemy Aliens in the United States, 1917-21

Nicole M. Phelps

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When exactly did Habsburg sovereignty in Central Europe end, and when did that of the successor states begin? Those seem like questions that should have succinct and precise answers, and, indeed, many scholars have provided answers of that nature. Their answers have not been the same, however. Some scholars, many of whom work in international and diplomatic history, take a “the king is dead; long live the king” approach: When Emperor Karl abdicated in November 1918, sovereign authority passed immediately and neatly to the governments of the successor states. Others put the end of Habsburg sovereignty several weeks earlier, when the Czecho-Slovak National Council received Allied approval to raise an army and then recognition as the “trustee” of a future independent Czechoslovak government; in this scenario, Habsburg sovereignty was rendered impotent and thus irrelevant, even if it still persisted in name. Another group argues that the transition occurred when the various successor go...

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