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Insularité et développement durable

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François Taglioni

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1Jersey, the global drift to the use of identity: an expanded vision of sustainable development?

Christian FLEURY
Jersey provides an example of an island territory having gradually entered into global networks up to become an offshore financial center among the most active and the most reputed. This development has found expression in a sharp increase in its population and has important consequences on economic, environmental and social fields. But, as a territory whose cultural homogeneity had not been fundamentally called into question until the middle of the last century, it also fears a loss of identity. The paper examines the different consequences of this evolution as well as the main strategies carried out by the States of Jersey to face it. A special focus is given to cultural aspects, through the promotion of a Jersey nation endowed with symbolic attributes.

2Could islands be models of sustainable tourism?
A comparative analysis of the
strategies of public and private actors in Corsica and the Balearic Islands

Jean-Marie FURT
Marie-Antoinette MAUPERTUIS
Human and social development is still largely lacking in sustainable tourism strategies. Yet, beyond the environmental pressure and economic sustainability, tourism generates adverse effects on society and people, especially in insular regions. This is a comparative study of the strategies conducted by private and public actors in Corsica and the Balearic archipelago on the matter. Despite the many geographical and sociological analyses that have turned these islands into laboratories or experiments of research on tourism development since the 1990s neither of them seems to put forward a sustainable model. In both cases, but for different reasons, social sustainability of tourism development has been almost totally obscured.

3Balagne between territorial identities, landscape valuations and tourism development

Dominique CHEVALIER

This paper seeks to understand how the various actors of the Balagne which became “Country of Balagne” in 2003 and first destination within Corsica in 2007, try to set up development policies that meet at once the requirements of a tourism-based economic growth, the need to protect the coveted spaces, to preserve the natural and cultural heritages and respect to local “identities”.

4Population decline and the concept of “renewable island” in the archipelago of the Azores

Louis MARROU
Nina SOULIMANT
Is it possible
to use the potential handicap of low density of population as an asset, in a context of environmental safeguarding? Can the oceanic and slightly populated islands of the Azorean archipelago become models of “renewable islands”? The cross analysis of demography and environmental management policies of the islands of Flores and Pico leads us to answer it. Portuguese region, autonomous since 1975, the archipelago of the Azores is confronted with awesome issues of territorial management. Some islands never managed to reach the population level they had at the beginning of the xxth century, due to the demographic bleeding which happened between 1950 and 1975. These islands are on the way to, or already under the threshold of 30 inhab./km2. It is thus the development of the island itself which is jeopardized. How “to hold” the territory when the youth of the population is concerned, and when the cost and preservation of public services are at stake? How to integrate the environment? Which future scenarios are devised by the managers and the islanders?

5Perceptions of sustainable development by farmers in the highlands of Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island)

Laurent JAUZE
Stéphane ARNOUX
There are four cattle farming on the highlands of La Fournaise. An audit conducted with the breeders shows that there is a plurality in the perception they have of sustainable development. The results also indicate that there is a gap between the representation of the concept and the reality of the practices. Some processes are a copy/paste of the continental metropolitan model influenced by European sectoral plans. This demonstrates the complex implementation of the sustainable development in an island specific context.

6Shore fishing in the Chausey archipelago (France)
Contribution to an analysis of the sustainable management policies for the foreshore through the inclusion of recreation

Solenn LE BERRE
Louis BRIGAND
Picking shellfish and crustacean is still and has always been a popular recreational activity for coastal inhabitants. In Chausey (Manche), the archipelago surface is 70 times as big at low tide. This “extending” of insular area gives access to many sought-after natural resources. The management of these foreshores now comes first. To reach this purpose, precise data are essential to qualify these uses, to know the users, their practices, and to develop jointly a sustainable management policy for resources.

7The promotion of local resources: an environment-minded path towards economic development
The example of Bandrélé salt in Mayotte

Jean-Paul DANFLOUS
Céline BENINI
Anli ABDOU
Bernard DOLACINSKI
Island zones have several specific resources that are not always promoted, which could lead to a gradual and complete extinction of them: loss of knowledge and know-how held by the older generation and not transmitted to the young, loss of biodiversity... These resources, whether they be biological, natural, cultural, social represent a major asset and generate territoriality (the feeling of belonging to a territory). Their activation can contribute to the sustainable development of territories, providing they are in line with a reasoned approach.
In the food industry, this approach involves taking into account the relations man/product/territory (social/economic/environmental) where man best promotes the territory’s specificities by initiating special knowledge. This approach results in strongly specific territorial products (typicality) which, in return, leads to the recognition of the population (recognition of know-how and culture) and of the territory (reinforcing its attractiveness). Such a collective development approach is in line with the long term and is a source of social and economic wealth, all the more so if the products offered on the territory are firmly anchored to it and of good quality, and if the environment is protected. The territorial image then created can benefit tourist development, logically carried out to preserve the resource.

8The water as a pillar of sustainable development within insular spaces
The example of Reunion Island

David LORION
Like many other tropical islands, Reunion island had to handle with its scarce water resources developing long-distance water transfers. The shift of water from the east to the west part of the island has currently led to a major issue. But we are now aware that this limited supply of water is widely dedicated to the expansion of irrigated areas in the dry part of the island and that it may not solve the current disparities but may, to a certain extent, even make them worse.

9Timor-Leste between sustainable development and hydrocarbons: a false dilemma?

Marie REDON
The purpose of the study is to analyse the triangular relation between Timor-Leste (government and population), hydrocarbons (as needs and resources) and the notion of sustainable development. This State, both recently independent (2002) and rentier (2005), leads to study the different types of appropriation and instrumentalization of sustainable development’s discourse. Oil companies are using the respectability given by a label “sustainable development”; NGO which are working in favour of this measure found a decisive financial support with these less and less sulphurous donors; the young State could use financial autonomy conferred by hydrocarbons revenues to achieve its independency from international authorities.

10Industrial ecology, waste management and insular space
The example of the archipelago of Fiji

Jean-Baptiste BAHERS
Industrial Ecology is an operational concept for new capacity building in the field of Sustainable Development. Thus, projects of Industrial Ecology, like the ones enhanced in the University of South Pacific, are part of the new paradigm of sustainable production and consumption. The specific issue as the relevant scales and the spatial constraints of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) introduces a different point of view for the Material Flow Analysis tools. Hence, Industrial Ecology associated with a territorial governance strategy suggests a key lecture of industrial clusters, trade channels and sustainable development in the context of SIDS.

11What new strategies to make sustainable the export processing zones in the Dominican Republic and Mauritius?

Laurence BUZENOT
The free-trade zones have two different statutes in the Dominican Republic and Mauritian territories. They are economic enclaves for the first one whereas all the island is a free-trade zone for the second. These different statutes infer fundamental differences for the adoption of economic strategies to make long-lasting activities. However the major principles of environmental protection are applied (or in the course of application), namely the optimization of the solid and liquid wastes and energy resources management. The industrial ecology concept can be of use to consider and, afterward, concerned with practices for a development more impliment the island environment. The new strategies integrate the social dimension through the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSE).

Keywords: Sustainable development – Industrial district – Ecological industry -Corporate social responsibility.

12A sustainable human development index for small developing insular spaces

Sabine GARABEDIAN
Jean-François HOARAU
This study aims at measuring the sustainable development in the context of insularity. To this regard, we develop a modified human development index adapted to the small island developing countries. So, the standard human development indicator of the PNUD is augmented by integrating the impact of both economic and environmental vulnerabilities. Then, our main finding displays that the small island developing economies must be considered a special case among the developing world when one focuses on human development sustainability.

13Economic performance, governance and vulnerability of Small Island States: What typologies?

Jérôme JOUBERT
François FULCONIS
Pierre-Michel BOUSQUET
This chapter proposes a multidimensional approach to Small Island States through the systematic study of their economic, social and environmental characteristics. From recent databases, significant typologies are apparent. These are used to compare on the one hand the Small Island States selected with other homogeneous groups of countries, and on the other hand the Small Island States with each other. We tested in particular the discriminating and explanatory role of the insularity and of the development level, but also of the governance and socio-cultural characteristics in the vulnerability and economic performances of these Small Island States.

14Challenges and realities of ecotourism in Mozambique: The case of Bazaruto Archipelago

Fabrice FOLIO
Located in the province of Inhambane, the Bazaruto Archipelago is undoubtedly one of Mozambique’s natural jewels. Classified as a National Marine Park since 1971, its five islands are endowed with high biodiversity and protected species, in a paradisiac landscape of degraded shades of blue and emerald green edged with white dunes. Groups of fishermen live locally at the helm of traditional dhows. This idyllic setting has not left indifferent foreign hotel groups. Implanted since the 1990s and encouraged by the central government, they are located on a “low impact-high value” strategy. Combining these priorities is part of the trends at work in southern countries where the tourism development often occurs as ecological enclaves in an elitist and sanctuarising way. Because of the need to involve local communities in policy issues of conservation and tourism, the Mozambican State, inspired by environmental NGOs, has established an ambitious ecotourism policy, albeit fragile and not without uniformizing and paternalistic accents.

15Transports in Reunion Island, “on the way” of sustainable development?

Marie-Annick LAMY-GINER
In Reunion, an island marked by the reign of “everything automotive” and suffering a permanent congestion, the transport issue is crucial. Especially that the island lacks space and that the demographic pressure continues to be strong. In this context the current and future developments are they in line with a policy of sustainable development, in an island which wants to become exemplary on the matter, or are they only half-measures for lack of anything better? This small insular territory, and Ultraperipheric European Region, does it have the means of its ambitions?

16Planning on the islands with major hazards: new directions for sustainable development

Maurice BURAC
In the Caribbean island States and the American mainland territories, which are hard hit by natural disasters, international organizations, governments and stakeholders bring a significant contribution in the mitigation of natural hazards. Sustainable development strategies consider that Town and Country Planning permit to operate before the disaster, in reducing vulnerability of societies and territories. Different experiences in regional cooperation programmes during the last twenty years concern sismic islands and other countries of the Greater Caribbean which needed construction handbook or Natural Risk Reduction and Prevention Plans.

17The conditions for sustainable development posed by the island volcanic hazard in Miyake-jima (Japan): opportunities or threats?

Marie AUGENDRE
Julie PERRIN
Miyake-jima is a small volcano-island, south of Tokyo, evacuated after 2000’s eruption. Lingering gas emissions stigmatize its image, particularly due to continuous presence of sulfur dioxide exposition. Islanders’ return has been delayed until 2005, because of the important scale of reconstruction and building security, as well as hesitations of the authorities to engage their responsibility in an insecure and doubtful context.

Inhabitant persistence, constrained by a repetitive volcanic activity, makes Miyake an island sustainable development case work. Questions about durability of local community and sustainable economy also concern most of Japanese small islands. Analysing the return to Miyake and following reconstruction is an opportunity to reconsider the link of sustainable development pillars. It also raises the question of a relationship to the center, between dependency and economic rent.

18Sustainable rural development in New Caledonia
What articulation of local and global in public policies?

Gilles PESTANA
Vincent GERONIMI
Patrick SCHEMBRI
Jean-Michel SOURISSEAU
Through the rural development policies in New Caledonia, this paper explores issues underlying the construction of sustainable development policies facing the characteristics and dynamics of a small island economy with a double rent-seeking dependence, i.e. on nickel and on the financial transfers from France. What were the mechanisms of integration of “sustainable development” and what are its impacts on policies and local dynamics? What is the degree of integration of insularity in thinking about development in general and sustainable development in particular? The analysis of the emergence of sustainable development shows the weak international response to the injunctions of the 1990s. This demonstrates the strength of local concerns in the construction of policies and the weight and permanence of an economic model. The political backdrop largely restricted queries or challenges that could bring the concept of sustainable development. This also explains that the theme of insularity is absent (or almost) in the political rhetoric about sustainable development.

19Disparities and limits of sustainable development in the Lesser Antilles: The case of Martinique and Dominica

Jean-Valéry MARC
Pascal SAFFACHE
The decade which has just passed by saw the emergence in Lesser Antilles of voluntarist local politics in favour of the environmental protection and development. But in these Caribbean island territories, the political initiatives in favour of the sustainable development collide frequently with the natural environment (recurrence of the major natural risks, exiguity of territories, restless topography, fragility of the littoral ecosystems) as well as with the difficult economic and social realities (high unemployment rates, hypertrophy of the labor market, poverty, aggravated land pressure) and show in the end mixed results.
Through the examples about integrated management of the coastal spaces and the urban Creole garden, this paper tries to show on one hand how it is difficult at the moment to apply a sustainable development policy in the island (Martinique, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Santa Lucia); and on the other hand how, on the contrary, real ecological and economically can continue locally initiatives fruitful.

20Rethinking the relations between agriculture and environment in the insular territories
Interest and limits of the concept of environmental service

William’s DARÉ
Muriel BONIN
Xavier AUGUSSEAU
Jérôme QUESTE
Julie MICHALSKI
Élodie VALETTE
Martine ANTONA
The concept of Environmental Services (ES) is used to analyse how environmental issues are tackled by public policy. We conduct our analysis in two French tropical islands where European acts are applied: Réunion and Guadeloupe. We describe the general frame of agricultural policy, which is developed for environmental protection. We survey through interviews the history of one of these policy tools: the Agri-Environmental Measures. The assessment of these AEM is quite paradoxical as regards to the appropriation of the AEM and of their new rationale. In the Reunion Islands and in Guadeloupe, the agricultural institutions are still promoting intensification to fulfil easily the European administrative requirements. We discuss how the appropriation of the ES concept is a way to sustainable agricultural development.

21Operability of the concept of sustainable city in the Mascarene islands: application to Eastern Reunion island cities

Stéphanie LEPERLIER
Laurence RIVIÈRE
Sustainable development cannot be only the stake in great international principles, it must be translated locally in policies of country planning and urban development. How to reconcile the youth of the urban inheritance of Eastern Reunion cities with new environmental requirements? The sustainable management of the city can, in this context, preserve economic, ecological, social or territorial balances. The main issue remains the commitments and the strategies to implement in this perspective.

© IRD Éditions, 2011

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