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Diasporas scientifiques

 | 
Rémi Barré
, 
Valeria Hernández
, 
Jean-Baptiste Meyer
, 
et al.

Seconde partie. Chapitres analytiques

Chapitre 1. Quantification of the Scientific Diaspora

Jean Johnson

Volltext

Introduction

1The quantification of expatriate scientists and engineers (S&Es) provides information in three main sections: 1) the international comparison of foreign S&E graduate student flows and stay rates; 2) the presence of foreign-born scientists and engineers in the U.S. labor force, and 3) the reverse flow of S&E knowledge. The international flow of foreign students compares their graduate enrollment in the United States, the United Kingdom and France, and includes some information on Japan and Germany. Doctoral degrees earned by foreign students and their stay rates are compared across the three major countries. The section on foreign-born scientists and engineers provides an overview of their level of education, fields of study, fields of occupation, sector of employment, visa status and whether they perform R&D. A final section describes some modes for the transfer of S&E knowledge by foreign-born scientists to their home countries.

Background

  • 1 From 1880 to 1920, immigrants entering the United States represented an annual rate of 10 immigran (...)
  • 2 New air routes fly jumbo jets directly between South India and Kuwait; most of the skilled labor i (...)

2The international flow of foreign students and professional scientists and engineers is a subset of a larger phenomenon of increased migration of labor to advanced industrial countries. The wave of immigration during the past three decades, both legal and illegal, is a search for economic opportunities, as were prior large migrations. Migration to the United States increased after the Immigration Reform Act of 1965, but is on a smaller scale than migrations of the late 19th century1. The migration of people to Western Europe has also increased in the last several decades. The breakup of the Soviet Union accelerated the flow of Central and Eastern Europeans into Western Europe, and increased the migration that had already begun from Africa via southern Italy. For several decades, laborers from the Indian subcontinent have traveled to Southeast Asian developing countries and the Middle East. The availability of plane travel has increased such worker mobility2. Just as the larger phenomenon of migration of labor is increasing in the world, the subset of the international flow of foreign students and scientists and engineers is also increasing.

International Comparison of Foreign Student Enrollment, Degrees and Stay Rates

Enrollment

  • 3 Almost 68 percent of the foreign-born scientists and engineers conducting research in the United S (...)
  • 4 The decline in foreign students in the United States from 1993 to 1996 is partly explained by fewe (...)

3The major conduit for foreign-born scientists and engineers to the United States is through enrollment in advanced S&E degree programs3. The flow of foreign students into graduate science and engineering departments in the United States (and other major industrialized countries) is increasing, despite a temporary decline in foreign graduate student enrollment in the United States from 1994 through 19964. (See Appendix figure 1.).

4Some of the factors that have fostered this flow to advanced countries are an increasing focus on academic research and declining college-age populations. The recruitment of foreign S&E graduate students to maintain and strengthen academic R&D efforts is considered to be of increasing importance to innovation. The policies of the European Union (EU) to foster comparable degrees and transferable credits also augment the inter-European mobility of students and faculty (NSB, 2002).

United States

5The U.S. Survey of Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering shows that more than 120,000 foreign students were enrolled in U.S. S&E graduate programs in 2000. Foreign graduate students represent a significant proportion of total graduate students in engineering (45 percent), mathematics (39 percent) and computer science (46 percent) (NSF 2002). Except for Canada, the 10 top countries of origin of foreign students to the United States are in the Asian region. Trends in enrollment from particular Asian countries and economies show a decline through most of the 1990s for students from Taiwan, a leveling off of students from South Korea, and an increasing number of students from China and India, after a temporary drop (NSB, 2002).

United Kingdom

6The United Kingdom (U.K.) has traditionally educated numerous foreign students, many of whom have come from Britain’s former colonies in Asia and North America (particularly India, Malaysia, and Canada). U.K. universities increased enrollment of foreign students within their graduate S&E departments from 28,848 in 1995 to 36,631 in 1999, raising the overall percentage of foreign S&E students at the graduate level from 28.9 to 31.5. Percentages in some S&E fields are higher: 37.6 percent in engineering and 40 percent in social and behavioral sciences (NSB, 2002).

7With recent EU policies fostering mobility, U.K. universities are receiving more students from within EU countries. By 1999, the number of foreign graduate students from other EU countries was three times higher than the number of foreign students from Britain’s former colonies (Malaysia, Hong Kong and India). Graduate students from EU countries represent approximately 7 percent of the graduate students in sciences in U.K. universities and approximately 11 percent of the graduate engineering students. Chinese students, who represent about one-third of foreign S&E graduate students at universities in the United States, make up only 4 percent of S&E graduate students at U.K. universities. After Greece, German students account for the highest number of foreign graduate students at U.K. universities (NSB, 2002).

France

8Foreign students also are attracted to France for graduate programs in S&E fields. French universities have a long tradition of educating foreign students and have a broad base of countries of origin of foreign doctoral students (more than 150), primarily developing countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Approximately 15 percent of the foreign students in French doctoral programs come from neighboring European countries. In 1998, most of the 17,000 foreign doctoral students who entered French universities enrolled in S&E fields. Foreign students enrolled in S&E doctoral programs represent about 26 percent of S&E doctoral enrollment, somewhat smaller than the proportion of foreign students in U.S. graduate enrollment (NSB, 2002).

Japan and Germany

9Japan and Germany also are attempting to bolster their enrollment of foreign students in S&E fields. Japan’s goal of 100,000 foreign students, first promulgated in the early 1980s, has never been met but is once again being discussed as a serious target. In 1999, 55,000 foreign students enrolled in Japanese universities, mainly at the undergraduate level (34,000) and concentrated in social sciences (13,000) and engineering (3,000). In that year, about 22,000 foreign students enrolled in graduate programs in Japan, mainly from China and South Korea, representing 10 percent of the graduate students in S&E fields. Germany is also recruiting foreign students from India and China to fill its research universities, particularly in engineering and computer sciences (NSB, 2002).

Doctoral Degrees Earned by Foreign Students

  • 5 Numbers include students on both temporary and permanent visas but not naturalized citizens.

10In the past decade, a significant number of foreign students have entered advanced industrial countries to earn S&E doctoral degrees. In the United States, the number of such degrees earned by foreign students increased much faster (7.8 percent annually) than the number earned by U.S. citizens (2 percent annually). The number of foreign students earning doctoral degrees in S&E increased from 5,000 in 1986 to almost 11,000 in the peak year of 1996, with declines in succeeding years and an upturn in 20005. (See Appendix figure 2.) During the 19862000 period, foreign students earned approximately 128,600 doctoral degrees in S&E fields from U.S. universities. China is the top country of origin of these foreign students; more than 26,000 Chinese earned S&E doctoral degrees at universities in the United States during this period (NSF/SRS, 2001).

11Like the United States, the United Kingdom and France have a large percentage of foreign students in their S&E doctoral programs. In 1999, foreign students earned 44 percent of the doctoral engineering degrees awarded by U.K. universities, 30 percent of those awarded by French universities, and 49 percent of those awarded by universities in the United States. In that same year, foreign students earned more than 31 percent of the doctoral degrees awarded in mathematics/computer sciences in France, 38 percent of those awarded in the United Kingdom, and 47 percent of those awarded in the United States (NSB, 2002). In addition, Japan and Germany have a modest but growing percentage of foreign students among their S&E doctoral degree recipients.

12The major providers of doctoral S&E education in the world, the United States, the United Kingdom, and France, serve different countries and regions. In 1999, Germany was the top country of origin of foreign S&E doctoral degree recipients in the United Kingdom; China was the top country of origin of foreign students earning S&E doctoral degrees in the United States; and Algeria was the top country of origin of foreign students studying for S&E doctoral degrees in France (NSB, 2002).

Stay Rates

13Historically, around half of the foreign students who earned S&E degrees at universities in the United States reported that they planned to stay in the United States, and a smaller proportion had firm offers to do so. In 1990, for example, 45 percent of all foreign S&E doctoral degree recipients planned to remain in the United States after completing their degree, and 32 percent had received firm offers (NSB, 1998). With the declining number of foreign doctoral recipients in the United States (See Appendix figure 2) and increasing employment opportunities of the late 1990s, however, these percentages increased significantly. By 1999, more than 72 percent of foreign doctoral recipients in S&E fields planned to stay in the United States, and 50 percent accepted firm offers to do so (NSB, 2002). These firm offers were mainly for postdoctorate appointments and industrial employment in research and development (R&D) (NSB, 1998).

14Foreign doctoral students’ plans to stay in the United States differ by region of origin. Those from East and South Asia receive the highest number of doctoral degrees by far and constitute the highest percentage of students who plan to stay in the United States. Countries within regions also differ significantly. In Asia, China and India have higher-than-average firm stay rates in the United States, and South Korea and Taiwan have lower-than-average firm stay rates. In North America, Mexico has a far lower stay rate than Canada. The United Kingdom has the highest stay rate among European countries; in 1999, 79 percent planned to stay in the United States after earning their doctorate in S&E fields, and 62 percent had firm offers to do so (NSB, 2002).

  • 6 SED shows that 64 percent of African doctoral recipients planned to stay in the United States; how (...)

15Recently, the Social Science Research Council surveyed the rates of return of African Ph.D. recipients trained in U.S. and Canadian universities between 1986 and 1996. The survey found that 63 percent of these recipients were employed in their home country or a neighboring African country by 19996.The factors that correlated with returning home were the home country of the degree holder, field of study, and type of funding for graduate study. Economic opportunities, political stability, and institutional conditions for establishing a professional career correlated with high return rates. The fields of agricultural and biological sciences, which receive high funding priorities in some African countries, also correlated with high return rates (NSB, 2002).

16Data somewhat similar to “plans to stay” in the annual Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) are available on the first destination of foreign doctoral students in the United Kingdom and France after earning their degree. Data from the U.K. Higher Education Statistics Agency show that, in 1998, most foreign S&E doctoral degree recipients at U.K. universities returned home after earning their degree. All doctoral recipients from Malaysia and Turkey at U.K. universities returned to their home country. Ireland is the only exception, with 45 percent of doctoral recipients returning to Ireland as their first destination after receiving their degree (NSB, 2002).

17Doctoral survey data from the French Ministry of Education, Research, and Technology show that the return rate for foreign S&E doctoral recipients is lower in France than in the United Kingdom. Data are not available on the return rates of French foreign doctoral recipients by countries of origin, but return rates are available by S&E field of study. In 1998, the overall return rate of foreign doctoral recipients from France to their countries of origin was 28 percent in natural sciences and 20 percent in engineering fields (NSB, 2002).

Foreign Born Scientists and Engineers in the U.S. Labor Force

18The international flow of scientific personnel is an integral component of the modern world’s creation and diffusion of knowledge and much research is attempting to quantify this flow and determine its significance. Some recent research has shown that foreign-born scientists and engineers make exceptional contributions to U.S. science in several areas, including membership in S&E academies, publication of highly cited research, and the founding of innovative companies (Stephan and Levin, 1999). Compared to their presence in the U.S. S&E labor force, foreign-born scientists and engineers are disproportionately represented in the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. Foreign-born scientists and engineers are among the most highly cited authors in their fields and the founders/chairs of biotechnology firms (NSF/SRS, 2001).

19Data presented in this section provide minimum estimates of foreign-born scientists and engineers in the United States based on the National Science Foundation’s, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), for 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999. After 1993, these SESTAT data include only foreign-born individuals with a degree from the United States, and do not reflect the results of the rising immigration into the United States during the 1990s.

20These data include several characteristics of foreign-born science and engineering degree holders in the United States, including their level of education, field of study, field of occupation, sector of employment, citizenship status, and whether research is their primary work activity. Text tables and figures provide overall trends of foreign-born scientists and engineers residing in the United States in the 1990s. See Appendix tables A-1 to 6 for these characteristics of foreign-born scientists and engineers in the United States by individual country of origin, listed alphabetically. A second set of Appendix tables (B-1 to 6) sorts these countries by region.

Level of Education

  • 7 These data include residents who hold a degree in science or engineering at any level; a resident’ (...)
  • 8 Because NSF’s demographic data collection system in unable to refresh its sample of those with S (...)

21Foreign-born S&E degree holders7 residing in the United States are concentrated at the highest levels of educational qualifications. In 1999, they represented around 26 percent of the total doctoral degree holders in the United States, 15 percent of the total master’s degree holders and nearly 11 percent of the total bachelor’s degree holders. The percentages in the 1999 survey are very likely an underestimation8. These percentages remained relatively stable during the 1990s. (See Appendix text table 1.)

22If one considers only individuals with their highest degree in S&E fields, over the decade of the 1990s, the number of foreign born S&E degree holders at the doctoral level reached over 190,000, and at the master’s level, over 360,000. (See Appendix text table 1a and figure 3.)

23Among the foreign-born S&E degree holders in the United States, the majority (65 percent at all levels, and 69 percent at the doctoral level) are from Asia and Western Europe. (See Appendix text table 2.) The 10 top countries of origin of foreign-born S&E degree holders at the doctoral level include China, India, the United Kingdom, Taiwan, Canada, Germany, Iran, countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU), Korea and the Philippines. China and India alone make up 35 percent of the foreign-born S&E doctoral degree holders in the United States. (See Appendix text table 3.)

Field of Study

24Foreign-born degree holders residing in the United States are more likely than native-born to hold their degrees in engineering, math and computer sciences and physical sciences. In 1999, over 30 percent of foreign-born degree holders held their degrees in engineering, compared to 17 percent of native-born degree holders. In contrast, native-born degree holders are more likely than foreign-born to hold their degrees in the social and behavioral sciences. (See Appendix text table 4.) But the reader is reminded that the SESTAT data after 1993 include only foreign-born individuals with a degree from the United States.

25Throughout the 1990s, foreign-born degree holders in engineering in the United States increased from 420,000 to almost 470,000. In this same time period, foreign-born degree holders in mathematics and computer sciences increased from 166,000 to over 200,000, and foreign-born degree holders in the physical sciences increased between 121,000 and 127,000. (See Appendix figure 4.) In 1999, these foreign-born residents represented 20 percent of the total engineering degree holders, 17 percent of the total mathematics and computer science degree holders, and 16 percent of the total degree holders in the physical sciences. These percentages were relatively stable over the 1990s. (See text Appendix table 4.)

Field of Occupation

26In 1999, foreign-born S&E degree holders made up less than 13 percent of the total number of S&E degree holders employed in the United States. However, the foreign-born are more concentrated than the native-born in engineering, mathematics and computer science occupations. In 1999, 34 percent of the foreign-born S&E degree-holders residing in the United States were employed in these occupations combined; 20 percent of native-born S&E degree-holders were employed in these occupations combined. (See Appendix text table 5.)

27By 1999, over 246,000 foreign-born S&E degree holders were employed as engineers in the United States, and 211,000 were employed as mathematicians and computer scientists, (see Appendix figure 5), contributing around 20 percent of the labor force in these occupations in the United States. (See Appendix text table 5.) The Asian region provided over half of the foreign-born scientists and engineers in these occupations. (See Appendix text table 6.)

  • 9 In NSF’s SESTAT data, non-S&E occupations include health fields e.g., medical doctors and nurses.

28The top country of origin of foreign-born scientists and engineers in the United States differs by occupation group. China is the top country of origin of foreign-born S&Es employed in physical and life science occupations, while India leads in engineering, mathematics, and computer science occupations. Germany is the top country of origin of foreign-born employed in social science occupations, and India and the Philippines are the leading countries of origin in non science and engineering occupations9. (See Appendix text table 7.)

Sector of Employment

29U.S. industry employs over two-thirds of all S&E degree holders in the United States, and an even higher proportion of foreign-born S&E degree holders. In 1999, U.S. industry accounted for over 71 percent of the employment of foreign-born scientists and engineers in the United States. In that same year, the education sector employed 18 percent of foreign-born scientists and engineers, and the government sector 11 percent. These percentages of employment by sector were relatively stable over the decade. (See Appendix text table 8.)

30Foreign-born scientists and engineers contribute significantly to U.S. scientific personnel, particularly in industry and higher education. By 1999, the foreign-born contributed an additional 959,000 scientists and engineers to the U.S. industrial labor force, representing 13 percent of the total science and engineering industrial labor force. (See Appendix figure 6).

31The top countries of origin of foreign-born scientists and engineers employed in U.S. industry, education and govenment are mainly from the Asian and Western European regions (see Appendix text table 9), with some differences in rank-ordering of countries across these three sectors of employment. (See Appendix text table 10.)

32Within the education sector, foreign-born scientists and engineers are less than 13 percent of the total scientists and engineers (See Appendix text table 7), but they are concentrated in faculties of engineering, mathematics and computer sciences and the physical sciences. Data reported elsewhere from SESTAT 1997 showed that among scientists and engineers whose primary job was teaching at four-year colleges and universities in the United States, 36 percent of the engineering faculty were foreign-born, 26 percent of the mathematics and computer sciences faculty were foreign-born, and 20 percent of the faculty in the physical sciences were foreign-born. These faculties are mainly from Asia and Europe. (See Appendix text table 11.)

33The largest number of foreign-born faculty is from India and China. (See Appendix text table 12.) While expatriate scientists and engineers from any one country represent a small percentage of overall S&E faculty (see appendix text table 13), they have an opportunity for networking with home-country institutions. S&E departments within U.S. universities which are headed by foreign-born scientists and engineers can readily arrange memoranda of understanding for exchange of students and faculty with their home institutions. For example, the Materials Science Department of Northwestern University, headed by an alumnus of IIT Bombay, has arranged for the exchange of students and faculty from IIT Bombay with his department (M. G. K. Menon, 2002).

Citizenship Status

34The majority of foreign-born science and engineer degree holders in the United States become naturalized U.S. citizens. In 1999, 73 percent of foreign-born S&E degree holders held U.S. citizenship. Another 21 percent had permanent visa status, and 6.5 percent held temporary visas. (See Appendix text table 14.)

35Trends in the 1990s show an increasing number of foreign-born science and engineering degree holders with U.S. citizenship residing in the United States, from 850,000 in 1993 to over 1.1 million in 1999. (See Appendix figure 7.) Throughout the decade, between 75,000 and 100,000 foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States held temporary visas, representing a small minority of the total foreign-born degree holders, between 4 and 8 percent.(See Appendix text table 14.)

R&D as Primary Work Activity

36Foreign-born scientists and engineers contribute significantly to U.S. research and development (R&D) personnel. In 1999, foreign-born science and engineering degree holders residing in the United States represented 18 percent of those conducting R&D as their primary activity, down from 22 percent in 1997. (See Appendix text table 15.) Figure 8 shows that in the 1990s, between 450,000 and 600,000 foreign-born scientists and engineers were primarily conducting research, with the largest concentration of foreign-born R&D personnel employed in the United States in 1997.

Reverse Flow of S&E Knowledge

37Foreign-born scientists and engineers who remain abroad represent a potential “brain drain” from their country of origin, but they also have an opportunity to gain enhanced research experience before returning home. Reverse flow back home is increasing for countries with increasing S&E employment in higher education and research institutes. Little is known about the broader diffusion of S&E knowledge by foreign-born scientists and engineers who remain abroad, through activities such as cooperative research, short-term visits, and networking with scientists in their home countries.

  • 10 See, for example, the international academic credentials of the S&E faculty in recent college cata (...)

38Systematic data are not available on the contributions that returning Ph.D.-holding scientists and engineers make to the science and technology (S&T) infrastructure of their home countries. Evidence suggests that they fill prominent positions in universities and research institutes. For example, college catalogs of universities in developing countries show the location of the doctoral education of science and engineering (S&E) faculty. Senior academic staff and directors of research centers typically receive their doctoral education from research universities in the United States, the United Kingdom, or France10.The following are four broad categories of reverse flow that contribute to the circulation of S&T knowledge. Location and duration distinguish them. The first two categories relate to actually moving back home for permanent or temporary positions. The last two categories relate to short and long-term activities conducted with the home country while employed abroad.

Employment Offers to Scientists and Engineers Trained Abroad

39Taiwan and South Korea have been the places most able to immediately absorb Ph. D.-holding scientists and engineers trained abroad who can contribute through teaching and research in universities and research parks (NSB, 1998). Research and development (R&D) centers of foreign businesses in these countries also employ returning scientists and engineers, e.g., Motorola Korea Software Research Center and the South Korea International Business Machines (IBM) Tivoli Software Development Center. Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, and IBM are also establishing multinational R&D centers in China. A relatively small percentage of South Korean and Taiwanese doctoral recipients from universities in the United States plan to stay in the United States. Many of those who remain in the United States to pursue academic or industrial research experience eventually return to their home country.

40In contrast, China and India can offer S&T employment to only a small fraction of their students who earn advanced degrees in S&E fields at universities in the United States. Most of these students remain in the United States, initially for postdoctoral research and then for research in industry (NSB, 1998). Those who do return later are usually recruited for a national research priority; for example, the recently established Brain Research Center in New Delhi hired top Indian scientists from home and abroad. The human genome center at the Chinese Academy of Science’s Institute of Genetics in China attracted top young Chinese microbiologists and geneticists for 20 research groups formed in Beijing and Shanghai to sequence part of the human genome. More programs are being created in China to attract outstanding scientists and engineers to top faculty positions and to lead research programs in their disciplines (NSB, 2002).

41Besides immediate or delayed returns, reverse flow to a home country sometimes occurs after a long, distinguished scientific career abroad. Incidents of prominent scientists returning to their countries are noted in science journals. For example, Yuan T. Lee earned a doctorate in chemistry at the University of California–Berkeley, headed a top laboratory, and eventually earned a Nobel Prize for his research. Many years later, he returned home to head Taiwan’s Academia Sinica, a collection of 21 research institutes.

Temporary Positions for Scientists and Engineers Trained or Working Abroad

  • 11 Personal communication with Rhona Dempsey, Manager, S&E Indicators, Science & Technology Division, (...)

42Besides various permanent positions, reverse flow can be the result of an offer for an attractive temporary S&E position or for access to high-technology parks with desirable conditions. For example, the government of Ireland’s Science and Technology Agency (FORFAS) is funding basic science with five-year grants that are attempting to draw Irish scientists and engineers back to establish laboratories in Irish universities. (Previously educated in Ireland, the graduates left for employment in the United Kingdom or the United States.) Although not offered permanent positions, they have funding to lead a research area for five years11. A different type of temporary arrangement is China and Taiwan’s use of preferential status (no taxes for two to three years) for those who will try to start up a company within an industrial park. Another example of a temporary position is transferring to an R&D position within a multinational firm operating in the home country or accepting a two- to three-year appointment in the home country while maintaining ties in the United States. For example, in 2001, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology hired Dr. Paul Chu of the University of Houston as its new president for a three-year appointment, but he maintains his laboratory on High Temperature Superconductivity in Houston (NSB, 2002).

Long-Term Collaborative Research Arrangements

  • 12 See abstracts of awards for grants and workshops with China and India at the NSF website: http://w (...)

43Some scientists remain abroad but establish and maintain a long-term relationship with researchers in their home country through periodic visits, international conferences and workshops, short courses and workshops at their home institutions, and collaborative research. For example, Samuel Ting, Nobel laureate in physics, Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and member of Taiwan’s Academia Sinica, encourages collaboration of teams of scientists in 16 countries and Taiwan. As chairman of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) research program under the Department of Energy and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ting established international collaboration with Taiwanese researchers to manufacture all AMS electronics. In addition, U.S. cooperative science programs with China and India funded by the National Science Foundation often provide grants to Chinese and Indian scientists in the United States collaborating with a home-country scientist (NSB, 2002)12.

Intermittent Networking

44Another mechanism for scientific information flow is networking of scientists abroad with scientists in their home country. Because of economic and political crises, several Latin American countries have lost scientists and engineers to other countries in the region or outside Latin America. Colombia was the first to attempt to link to these “lost” scientists and engineers working abroad and to reframe the concept from “brain drain” to “brain gain”. In the early 1990s, the Caldas program in Colombia linked all expatriate Colombian scientists to advise on scientific and economic development schemes. Approximately 40 countries have since devised such networking schemes, and others are working to implement programs (Meyer, 2001).

45Some countries are able to use all types of reverse flow, absorbing their scientists and engineers in temporary or permanent positions and promoting links through international collaboration or visits.

Conclusions

46The group of traditional host countries for many foreign graduate students (United States, France, and United Kingdom) is expanding to include Japan and Germany. Because mobility of people is the main mechanism for technology transfer, the flow of foreign students abroad and reverse flow of students back to their home countries provide an opportunity for S&T development. Whether S&E education abroad eventually contributes to the home country depends on its S&T policy and commitment to employing highly skilled professionals. China and many other developing countries have shown that they need not be able to offer employment to their scientists and engineers educated abroad to receive their scientific advice on development schemes or research directions. Research is needed on the appropriate mix of foreign S&E doctoral recipients who “stay abroad” and “return home” for mutual benefit to the host and sending countries. The beneficial mix of immediate and delayed returns and the variety of cooperative activities associated with reverse flow are likely to differ for individual countries, regions, and stages of development (NSB, 2002).

APPENDIX

Figures and tables

47Jean Johnson

48Figures 1 to 8

49Text Table 1 to 15

50Appendix table A

51Appendix table B

Figure 1. Foreign student enrollment in graduate science & engineering programs in U.S. universities

Figure 1. Foreign student enrollment in graduate science & engineering programs in U.S. universities

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall, 2000.

Figure 2. Doctoral degrees in science & engineering fields earned by foreign students in U.S. universities

Figure 2. Doctoral degrees in science & engineering fields earned by foreign students in U.S. universities

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards: 2000, NSF 02-305. (Arlington Va, 22230).

Figure 3. Foreign-born residents in the United States who hold an S&E degree as their highest desgree, by education level: 1993-1999

Figure 3. Foreign-born residents in the United States who hold an S&E degree as their highest desgree, by education level: 1993-1999

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Figure 4. Foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by field of highest degree: 1993-1999

Figure 4. Foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by field of highest degree: 1993-1999

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Figure 5. Foreign-born S&E degree holders by field of occupat

Figure 5. Foreign-born S&E degree holders by field of occupat

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Figure 6. Foreign-born scientists and engineers in the United States by sector of employment

Figure 6. Foreign-born scientists and engineers in the United States by sector of employment

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Figure 7. Foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by citizenship status

Figure 7. Foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by citizenship status

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Figure 8. Foreign-born S&E degree holders in the United States who perform R&D as a primary activity: 1993-1999

Figure 8. Foreign-born S&E degree holders in the United States who perform R&D as a primary activity: 1993-1999

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Text table 1. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree at Any Level, by Education Level of Their Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

Text table 1. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree at Any Level, by Education Level of Their Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

NOTES: See Appendix table 1 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Foreign-Born Science & Engineering Degree Holders Residing in the United States by Education Level: 1993-1999

Foreign-Born Science & Engineering Degree Holders Residing in the United States by Education Level: 1993-1999

Source: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics SESTAT 1 file.

Text table 1a. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree as Their Highest Degree, by Education Level and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

Text table 1a. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree as Their Highest Degree, by Education Level and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

NOTES: See Appendix table 1a for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.
Data include residents who hold a science or engineering degree as their highest degree.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Text table 2. Foreign-born residents in the United States who hold an S&E degree as their highest degree, by education level and region of birth: 1999

Text table 2. Foreign-born residents in the United States who hold an S&E degree as their highest degree, by education level and region of birth: 1999

FSU = countries of the former Soviet Union.
NOTE: The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.

Text table 3. Foreign-born S&E doctoral degree holders in the United States, by 10 top countries of origin: 1999

Text table 3. Foreign-born S&E doctoral degree holders in the United States, by 10 top countries of origin: 1999

FSU = countries of the former Soviet Union.
NOTE: Database does not have immigrants to the United States after the 1990 Census who received their higher education in another country.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.

By education level and 10 top countries of origin: 1999

By education level and 10 top countries of origin: 1999

FSU = countries of the former Soviet Union.
NOTE: Database does not have immigrants to the United States after the 1990 Census who received their higher education in another country.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.

Text table 4. Science & Engineering Degree Holders in the United States by Field of Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-99

Text table 4. Science & Engineering Degree Holders in the United States by Field of Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-99

NOTE: See Appendix table 2 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Text table 5. Science and Engineering Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Occupation Group and Place of Birth: 1993-99

Text table 5. Science and Engineering Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Occupation Group and Place of Birth: 1993-99

NOTE: See Appendix table 3 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Text table 6. Foreign-born S&E degree holders employed in the United States by occupation group and region of birth: 1999

Text table 6. Foreign-born S&E degree holders employed in the United States by occupation group and region of birth: 1999

FSU = countries of the former Soviet Union.
NOTE: The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.

Text table 7. Foreign-born S&E degree holders employed in the United States by 10 top countries of origin and occupation group: 1999

Text table 7. Foreign-born S&E degree holders employed in the United States by 10 top countries of origin and occupation group: 1999

FSU = Countries of the former Soviet Union.
NOTE: Database does not have immigrants to the United States after the 1990 Census who received their higher education in another country.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.

Text table 8. Science and Engineering Degree Holders Employed in the United States, by Sector and Place of Birth: 1993-99

Text table 8. Science and Engineering Degree Holders Employed in the United States, by Sector and Place of Birth: 1993-99

NOTE: See Appendix table 4 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Text table 9. Foreign-born S&E degree holders in the United States by sector of employment and region of birth: 1999

Text table 9. Foreign-born S&E degree holders in the United States by sector of employment and region of birth: 1999

FSU = countries of the former Soviet Union
NOTE: The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.

Text table 10. Foreign-born S&E degree holders employed in the United States, by 10 top countries of origin and sector of employment: 1999

Text table 10. Foreign-born S&E degree holders employed in the United States, by 10 top countries of origin and sector of employment: 1999

NOTE: Database does not have immigrants to the United States after the 1990 Census who received their higher education in another country.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1999.

Text table 11. Science & Engineering Faculty in U.S. Higher Education, by Teaching Field and Region of Origin: 1997

Text table 11. Science & Engineering Faculty in U.S. Higher Education, by Teaching Field and Region of Origin: 1997

NOTES: Data include scientists and engineers whose first job is in S&E postsecondary teaching at four-year college and universities in the United States. Data exclude scientists and engineers who teach in S&E fields in two-year or community colleges, or who teach as a secondary job.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1997.

Text table 12. Major Places of Origin of Foreign-Born Science & Engineering Faculty in U.S. Higher Education, by Field of Teaching: 1997

Text table 12. Major Places of Origin of Foreign-Born Science & Engineering Faculty in U.S. Higher Education, by Field of Teaching: 1997

NOTES: Data include scientists and engineers whose first job is in S&E postsecondary teaching at four-year college and universities in the United States. Data exclude scientists and engineers who teach in S&E fields in two-year or community colleges, or who teach as a secondary job.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1997.

Text table 13. Percentage of Science & Engineering Faculty in U.S. Universities, by Major Places of Origin: 1997

Text table 13. Percentage of Science & Engineering Faculty in U.S. Universities, by Major Places of Origin: 1997

NOTES: Data include scientists and engineers whose first job is in S&E postsecondary teaching at four-year college and universities in the United States. Data exclude scientists and engineers who teach in S&E fields in two-year or community colleges, or who teach as a secondary job.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1997.

Text table 14. Citizenship Status of Science and Engineering Degree Holders Residing in the United States, by Place of Birth: 1993-1999

Text table 14. Citizenship Status of Science and Engineering Degree Holders Residing in the United States, by Place of Birth: 1993-1999

NOTE: See Appendix table 5 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Text table 15. Science & Engineering Degree Holders in the United States Who Conduct R&D as Their Major Activity, by Place of Birth: 1993-99

Text table 15. Science & Engineering Degree Holders in the United States Who Conduct R&D as Their Major Activity, by Place of Birth: 1993-99

NOTE: See Appendix table 6 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table A-1. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree at Any Level, by Education Level of Their Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

Appendix table A-1. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree at Any Level, by Education Level of Their Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table A-1a. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree as Their Highest Degree, by Education Level and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

Appendix table A-1a. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree as Their Highest Degree, by Education Level and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table A-2. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Field of Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

Appendix table A-2. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Field of Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table A-3. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Occupation Group: 1993-1999

Appendix table A-3. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Occupation Group: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table A-4. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Sector of Employment: 1993-1999

Appendix table A-4. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Sector of Employment: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table A-5. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Place of Birth and Citizenship Status: 1993-1999

Appendix table A-5. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Place of Birth and Citizenship Status: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table A-6. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Country of Birth and by Whether R&D is a Major Work Activity: 1993-1999

Appendix table A-6. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Country of Birth and by Whether R&D is a Major Work Activity: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table B-1. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree at Any Level, by Education Level of Their Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

Appendix table B-1. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree at Any Level, by Education Level of Their Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in anon-science and engineering field.
The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table B-1a. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree as Their Highest Degree, by Education Level and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

Appendix table B-1a. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree as Their Highest Degree, by Education Level and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999

Appendix table B-2. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Field of Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

Appendix table B-2. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Field of Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table B-3. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Occupation Group: 1993-1999

Appendix table B-3. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Occupation Group: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and

Appendix table B-4. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Sector of Employment: 1993-1999

Appendix table B-4. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Sector of Employment: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table B-6. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Country of Birth and by Whether R&D is a Major Work Activity: 1993-1999

Appendix table B-6. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Country of Birth and by Whether R&D is a Major Work Activity: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Appendix table B-5. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Place of Birth and Citizenship Status: 1993-1999

Appendix table B-5. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Place of Birth and Citizenship Status: 1993-1999

NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.
Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.
The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.

Literaturverzeichnis

References

Johnson J., 2001 - Human Resource Contributions to U.S. Science and Engineering From China. Issue Brief NSF 01-311, January 12, 2001.

Johnson J., 1998 - Statistical Profile of Foreign Doctoral Recipients in Science and Engineering: Plans to Stay in the United States. NSF 99-304. Arlington, VA: NSF, 98 p.

Menon M. G. K., 2002, Science Advisor to the Government of India, Telephone interview after meeting with IIT alumni in Chicago, May 16, 2002.

Meyer, J.B. 2001. "Global Flows of Knowledge Carriers: Traditional and New Dimensions." Paper presented at the international conference: Globalization and Higher Education: Views from the South. Cape Town, South Africa, March 27–29, 2001.

NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD, 1998, Science and Engineering Indicators 1998, Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, NSB 98-1, 882 p.

NATIONAL SCIENCE BOARD, 2002, Science and Engineering Indicators 2002, Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, NSB 02-1, 2 vol., 488p. + 634 p.

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION, 2002, Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards: 2000, NSF 02-305, Arlington, VA., 108 p.

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION, 2002, Special tabulations of the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997. http://sestat.nsf.gov/

Stephan P. E., Levin S. G., 1999 - Are the Foreign Born a Source of Strength for U.S. Science? Science Aug 20 1999: 1213-1214

Anmerkungen

1 From 1880 to 1920, immigrants entering the United States represented an annual rate of 10 immigrants per 1,000 of the U.S. population. Since 1992, the annual rate of U.S. immigration has been 2-3 immigrants per 1,000 of the U.S. population (Statistical Yearbook, 2000).

2 New air routes fly jumbo jets directly between South India and Kuwait; most of the skilled labor in Kuwait travels from India.

3 Almost 68 percent of the foreign-born scientists and engineers conducting research in the United States in 1993 attended a U.S. university (SESTAT, 1993).

4 The decline in foreign students in the United States from 1993 to 1996 is partly explained by fewer Chinese students coming to the United States during the few years after Tiananmen Square and the Chinese Student Protection Act. Chinese student enrollment in U.S. S&E graduate programs declined from 28,823 in 1993 to 24,871 in 1995 and then continued to increase in subsequent years. However, the number of graduate S&E students from India, South Korea, and Taiwan, also declined in various years in the 1990s because of expanded opportunities for graduate education within their own countries or regional economies.

5 Numbers include students on both temporary and permanent visas but not naturalized citizens.

6 SED shows that 64 percent of African doctoral recipients planned to stay in the United States; however, because many were in biological sciences, they may have stayed for a postdoctorate for a few years and then returned to Africa. SSRC findings are relatively consistent with Finn’s research on stay rates several years after Ph.D. attainment (Finn, 1999). Finn’s work shows that about 44 percent of African doctoral recipients were working in the United States several years after receiving their Ph.D.

7 These data include residents who hold a degree in science or engineering at any level; a resident’s highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field, e.g., an undergraduate engineering degree and a master’s degree in business administration (MBA).

8 Because NSF’s demographic data collection system in unable to refresh its sample of those with S&E degrees from foreign institutions (as opposed to foreign-born individuals with a new U.S. degree, who are sampled) more than once per decade, counts of foreign-born scientists and engineers are likely to be underestimates. Foreign-degreed scientists and engineers are included in the 1999 estimates only to the extent that they were in the United States in April 1990. In 1993, 34.1 percent of foreign-born doctorate recipients in S&E and 49.1 percent of foreign-born bachelor’s recipients in S&E had acquired their degrees from foreign schools.

9 In NSF’s SESTAT data, non-S&E occupations include health fields e.g., medical doctors and nurses.

10 See, for example, the international academic credentials of the S&E faculty in recent college catalog of Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey, and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

11 Personal communication with Rhona Dempsey, Manager, S&E Indicators, Science & Technology Division, The National Policy and Advisory Board for Enterprise, Trade, Science, Technology and Innovation (FORFAS), NSF, Arlington, VA, March, 2001.

12 See abstracts of awards for grants and workshops with China and India at the NSF website: http://www.nsf.gov.

Abbildungsverzeichnis

Titel Figure 1. Foreign student enrollment in graduate science & engineering programs in U.S. universities
Bildunterschrift SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering: Fall, 2000.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-1.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 123k
Titel Figure 2. Doctoral degrees in science & engineering fields earned by foreign students in U.S. universities
Bildunterschrift SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards: 2000, NSF 02-305. (Arlington Va, 22230).
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-2.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 125k
Titel Figure 3. Foreign-born residents in the United States who hold an S&E degree as their highest desgree, by education level: 1993-1999
Bildunterschrift SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-3.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 180k
Titel Figure 4. Foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by field of highest degree: 1993-1999
Bildunterschrift SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-4.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 200k
Titel Figure 5. Foreign-born S&E degree holders by field of occupat
Bildunterschrift SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-5.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 174k
Titel Figure 6. Foreign-born scientists and engineers in the United States by sector of employment
Bildunterschrift SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-6.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 144k
Titel Figure 7. Foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by citizenship status
Bildunterschrift SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-7.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 159k
Titel Figure 8. Foreign-born S&E degree holders in the United States who perform R&D as a primary activity: 1993-1999
Bildunterschrift SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-8.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 134k
Titel Text table 1. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree at Any Level, by Education Level of Their Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999
Bildunterschrift NOTES: See Appendix table 1 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-9.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 254k
Titel Foreign-Born Science & Engineering Degree Holders Residing in the United States by Education Level: 1993-1999
Bildunterschrift Source: National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Statistics SESTAT 1 file.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-10.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 47k
Titel Text table 1a. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree as Their Highest Degree, by Education Level and Place of Birth: 1993-1999
Bildunterschrift NOTES: See Appendix table 1a for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.Data include residents who hold a science or engineering degree as their highest degree.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-11.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 261k
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Datei image/jpeg, 92k
Titel Text table 2. Foreign-born residents in the United States who hold an S&E degree as their highest degree, by education level and region of birth: 1999
Bildunterschrift FSU = countries of the former Soviet Union.NOTE: The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-13.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 165k
Titel Text table 3. Foreign-born S&E doctoral degree holders in the United States, by 10 top countries of origin: 1999
Bildunterschrift FSU = countries of the former Soviet Union.NOTE: Database does not have immigrants to the United States after the 1990 Census who received their higher education in another country.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-14.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 47k
Titel By education level and 10 top countries of origin: 1999
Bildunterschrift FSU = countries of the former Soviet Union.NOTE: Database does not have immigrants to the United States after the 1990 Census who received their higher education in another country.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-15.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 146k
Titel Text table 4. Science & Engineering Degree Holders in the United States by Field of Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-99
Bildunterschrift NOTE: See Appendix table 2 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-16.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 259k
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Titel Text table 5. Science and Engineering Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Occupation Group and Place of Birth: 1993-99
Bildunterschrift NOTE: See Appendix table 3 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-18.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 247k
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Titel Text table 6. Foreign-born S&E degree holders employed in the United States by occupation group and region of birth: 1999
Bildunterschrift FSU = countries of the former Soviet Union.NOTE: The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-20.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 190k
Titel Text table 7. Foreign-born S&E degree holders employed in the United States by 10 top countries of origin and occupation group: 1999
Bildunterschrift FSU = Countries of the former Soviet Union.NOTE: Database does not have immigrants to the United States after the 1990 Census who received their higher education in another country.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-21.jpg
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Titel Text table 8. Science and Engineering Degree Holders Employed in the United States, by Sector and Place of Birth: 1993-99
Bildunterschrift NOTE: See Appendix table 4 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-22.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-23.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-24.jpg
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Titel Text table 9. Foreign-born S&E degree holders in the United States by sector of employment and region of birth: 1999
Bildunterschrift FSU = countries of the former Soviet UnionNOTE: The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-25.jpg
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Titel Text table 10. Foreign-born S&E degree holders employed in the United States, by 10 top countries of origin and sector of employment: 1999
Bildunterschrift NOTE: Database does not have immigrants to the United States after the 1990 Census who received their higher education in another country.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-26.jpg
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Titel Text table 11. Science & Engineering Faculty in U.S. Higher Education, by Teaching Field and Region of Origin: 1997
Bildunterschrift NOTES: Data include scientists and engineers whose first job is in S&E postsecondary teaching at four-year college and universities in the United States. Data exclude scientists and engineers who teach in S&E fields in two-year or community colleges, or who teach as a secondary job.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1997.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-27.jpg
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Titel Text table 12. Major Places of Origin of Foreign-Born Science & Engineering Faculty in U.S. Higher Education, by Field of Teaching: 1997
Bildunterschrift NOTES: Data include scientists and engineers whose first job is in S&E postsecondary teaching at four-year college and universities in the United States. Data exclude scientists and engineers who teach in S&E fields in two-year or community colleges, or who teach as a secondary job.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1997.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-28.jpg
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Titel Text table 13. Percentage of Science & Engineering Faculty in U.S. Universities, by Major Places of Origin: 1997
Bildunterschrift NOTES: Data include scientists and engineers whose first job is in S&E postsecondary teaching at four-year college and universities in the United States. Data exclude scientists and engineers who teach in S&E fields in two-year or community colleges, or who teach as a secondary job.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1997.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-29.jpg
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Titel Text table 14. Citizenship Status of Science and Engineering Degree Holders Residing in the United States, by Place of Birth: 1993-1999
Bildunterschrift NOTE: See Appendix table 5 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-30.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-31.jpg
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Titel Text table 15. Science & Engineering Degree Holders in the United States Who Conduct R&D as Their Major Activity, by Place of Birth: 1993-99
Bildunterschrift NOTE: See Appendix table 6 for foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States by place of birth.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-32.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-33.jpg
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Titel Appendix table A-1. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree at Any Level, by Education Level of Their Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-34.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-35.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-36.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-37.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-38.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-39.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-40.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-41.jpg
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Titel Appendix table A-1a. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree as Their Highest Degree, by Education Level and Place of Birth: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-42.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-43.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-44.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-45.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-46.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-47.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-48.jpg
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Titel Appendix table A-2. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Field of Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-49.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-50.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-51.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-52.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-53.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-54.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-55.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-56.jpg
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Titel Appendix table A-3. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Occupation Group: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-57.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-58.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-59.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-60.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-61.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-62.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-63.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-64.jpg
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Titel Appendix table A-4. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Sector of Employment: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-65.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-66.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-67.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-68.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-69.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-70.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-71.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-72.jpg
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Titel Appendix table A-5. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Place of Birth and Citizenship Status: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-73.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-74.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-75.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-76.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-77.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-78.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-79.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-80.jpg
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Titel Appendix table A-6. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Country of Birth and by Whether R&D is a Major Work Activity: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-81.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-82.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-83.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-84.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-85.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-86.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-87.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-88.jpg
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Titel Appendix table B-1. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree at Any Level, by Education Level of Their Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-89.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-90.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-91.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-92.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-93.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-94.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-95.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-96.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in anon-science and engineering field.The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-97.jpg
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Titel Appendix table B-1a. Residents in the United States who Hold an S&E Degree as Their Highest Degree, by Education Level and Place of Birth: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-98.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-99.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-100.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-101.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-102.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-103.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-104.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-105.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-106.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-107.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-108.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-109.jpg
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Titel Appendix table B-2. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Field of Highest Degree and Place of Birth: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-110.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-111.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-112.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-113.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-114.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-115.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-116.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-117.jpg
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Titel Appendix table B-3. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Occupation Group: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-118.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-119.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-120.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-121.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-122.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-123.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-124.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-125.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-126.jpg
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Titel Appendix table B-4. S&E Degree Holders Employed in the United States by Place of Birth and Sector of Employment: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-127.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 549k
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-128.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 550k
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-129.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-130.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 547k
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-131.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-132.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-133.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-134.jpg
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Titel Appendix table B-6. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Country of Birth and by Whether R&D is a Major Work Activity: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-135.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-136.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 463k
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-137.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 604k
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-138.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-139.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-140.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-141.jpg
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URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-142.jpg
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-143.jpg
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Titel Appendix table B-5. S&E Degree Holders in the United States by Place of Birth and Citizenship Status: 1993-1999
URL http://books.openedition.org/irdeditions/docannexe/image/2624/img-144.jpg
Datei image/jpeg, 545k
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Bildunterschrift NOTES: S is estimated to be less than 100 individuals, or suppressed for confidentiality.Data include residents who hold any degree in science or engineering; a resident's highest degree may be in a non-science and engineering field.The SESTAT data show the foreign-born S&E degree holders residing in the United States from 84 individual countries, and provide the total for each country. However, since small numbers are suppressed in SESTAT tabulations for confidentiality, the finer breakout of the foreign-born data by field of highest degree is suppressed in some fields in some countries. The total of all regions does not add to total foreign-born because of suppressed cells in the individual country data.SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics (NSF/SRS), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data Set (SESTAT), 1993, 1995, 1997, and 1999.
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