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Hà Nội, a Metropolis in the Making

Sylvie Fanchette

Part Two. The 2000s: Raising Hà Nội to the rank of metropolis

Chapter 5. Land reforms and economic liberalisation

L. Pandolfi, D. Labbé et J.-A. Boudreau

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During the period of the vast national housing programme implemented by the Ministry of Construction between 1975 and 1985, 80,000 lodgings a year were built in Hà Nội in KTTs (or Khu tập thể), collective housing units mostly intended for civil servants. This number then fell to 40,000 in 1986. Although construction of housing in the capital during the 30 years of the collectivist economy was insufficient, this was in large part due to the population doubling in size, but also to widespread structural damage during the American bombardments from 1966 and 1972 (Parenteau, 1997; Pandolfi, 2001).

At the end of the 1980s, in the face of the state’s incapacity to guarantee the right to subsidised housing for its civil servants (about 30% of officials and state employees lived in public housing), these citizens started to build in large numbers and without regulation: a black market in land for construction emerged. The rigid framework of non-market management of land use could not cater t...


PhD in Urban Studies from the Institut français d’urbanisme, is a specialist in urban land issues in Vietnam and is a former Co-Director of the Institut des métiers de la ville in Hà Nội.
He is currently in charge of the Asia Sector for the Île-de-France Region’s Department of Urban Planning. He is responsible for the implementation of co-operation projects aimed at improving proficiency in tendering of local public contracts in the fields of urban planning, development and urban services.

PhD in Urban Studies from the School of Community and Regional Planning (University of British Colombia). She is Assistant Professor of Urban Studies at the Institut d’urbanisme, université de Montréal (Canada).
Her research interests include the peri-urbanisation of Southeast Asian cities, particularly that of Hà Nội where she did her doctoral research, management of architectural and urban heritage in North American and Southeast Asian contexts, and habitat production, urban governance and informality in Global South cities..

PhD in Urban Planning, School of Public Policy and Social Research, University of California Los Angeles (Ucla). She is currently Associate Professor at the Institut national de la recherche scientifique, centre urbanisation culture société (INRS-UCS) in Montreal, and Tenured Canada Research Chair in Urbanity, Insecurity and Political Action.
She founded and directs the Ville et ESPAces politiques (VESPA) Research Laboratory. Her work explores the relationship between citizens and the state in a context of urbanisation.

© IRD Éditions, 2016

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