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The inland water fishes of Africa

 | 
Didier Paugy
, 
Christian Levêque
, 
Olga Otero

Table des matières

Didier Paugy, Christian Levêque et Olga Otero

Foreword

Acknowledgements
Jacques Lemoalle

The diversity of aquatic environments

The role of physico-chemical variables: temperature and salinity
The lakes and rivers of Africa
The main types of aquatic environments
Lotic systems
Floodplains and marshes
The role of underground water
Shallow lakes
Deep lakes
Reservoirs
Conclusions
Christian Levêque

Variability of climate and hydrological systems

Seasonal climatic variations and river discharge
Climatic and hydrological variability over decades and centuries
Long-term climatic and hydrological changes
Climatic changes over millennia
Climatic changes over millions of years
Olga Otero, Alison Murray, Lionel Cavin et al.

African fossil fish

Africa and fish through geological time
The Palaeozoic
The Mesozoic
The Cenozoic
Which fossils? Case study of the African characiforms
The characiform fish fossil record in Africa
Alestidae: the highest fossil diversity observed for an African fish family is revealed by teeth
A few articulated skeletal remains, many further evolutionary study perspectives
Old groups, old cradles! The case of lungfishes: a Pangean or a Gondwanan history?
When a marine fish adapts to freshwater
Tolerance to salt water
Dasyatidae in the Plio-Pleistocene Turkana Basin
Latid fishes: over 40 Myrs of history from marine to fresh waters told from the phylogeny of modern and extant taxa and the fossil distribution
Neogene changes in the African ichthyofauna
A main palaeogeographical event: the Afro-Asian connection
A main palaeoenvironmental change: the Saharan extension
Christian Levêque et Didier Paugy

General characteristics of ichthyological fauna

Composition of the ichthyofauna
Main sources of taxonomic information
Continental level
Regional level
Taxonomic revisions
Christian Levêque et Didier Paugy

Geographical distribution and affinities of African freshwater fishes

Patterns of fish distribution and ichthyological provinces
Intercontinental affinities of African fish
What can we learn from fossils?
Christian Levêque et Didier Paugy

Biogeography and past history of ichthyological faunas

How do fish disperse?
Connections between river basins
Other means of dispersal
Falls as zoogeographical barriers
What do we learn with fossils?
Biogeographical scenario for northern tropical Africa
Biogeographical scenario for North Africa
Biogeographical scenario for Central Africa
Biogeographical scenario for South Africa
Madagascar
Christian Levêque, Didier Paugy et Jean-françois Agnèse

Diversity of African fish: heritage of evolution

Review of theories of evolution
From creationism to transformism
The synthetic theory of evolution
Mechanisms of speciation
Mutations as the driver of evolution
Speciation and environmental variability: natural selection
Mechanisms of speciation: how do species appear?
Allopatric speciation
Sympatric speciation
Speciation of cichlids in the Great Lakes of East Africa: what processes are involved?
Fragmentation of the lacustrine system in several smaller lakes
A great variety of diets
Allopatric/sympatric speciation in the lake itself
The role of predation
How fast is speciation?
Convergent evolution: chance or necessity?
Didier Paugy et Christian Levêque

Taxonomy and systematics

What is a species?
The typological species concept
The biological species concept
Concept of specific-mate recognition system
Sister species
Polytypic species
Geographical clines
Question of hybrids
Genetics and species concept
Number and shape of chromosomes
Genetic distances and morphological differences: two separate phenomena
The rules of classification
The genus concept
Higher classification of African fishes
Advances in African freshwater ichthyology
Didier Paugy, Christian Levêque et Fabrice Duponchelle

Life-history strategies

Resource allocation: constraints and compromises
A priority: assurance of descent
Major types of demographic strategies: theory and empiricism
Theoretical studies and their predictions
Phenotypical plasticity in the life history theory
Discussion about the “r-K” selection
Empirical models
Didier Paugy, Christian Levêque et Fabrice Duponchelle

Reproduction

Gonad maturation and fecundity
Gonado-somatic index
Fecundity
Relationships between fecundity and length or weight of females
Reproductive strategies
Main modes of reproduction
Synchronization between reproduction and changes in the environment
Adaptive strategies
Parental care
Fishes build nests
Origin and evolution of parental care
Christian Levêque

Growth and ontogeny

First stages of development
Growth estimation
Growth models
Length-weight relationships and coefficient of condition
Longevity, size and growth
Size and age at first maturity
Dwarf populations
Environmental conditions and growth characteristics
Didier Paugy et Christian Levêque

Diets and food webs

Diets and trophic groups
Dominant primary consumers
Dominant secondary consumers
Top consumers
Morphological adaptations to feeding behaviour
Head and mouth morphologies
Length of the gut
Electric organs
Body form and feeding types
Prey selection
Ontogenic shifts in feeding behaviour
Relationship between predator size and prey size
Variability in diet of adults
Feeding activity patterns
Food webs
Phytoplanktivore communities
Relatively simple trophic webs: pelagic fish communities of East African Great Lakes
More complex food webs of shallow lakes
Christian Levêque et Didier Paugy

Diversity of responses to environmental constraints and extreme environmental conditions

Temperature
Temperature preferences and thermal tolerance ranges
Temperature and feeding
Behavioural responses to environmental temperature changes
Adaptations to the lack of oxygen
Morphological and physiological adaptations
Behavioural responses to reduced oxygen availability
Adaptations to salinity
Adaptations to drought
Blind fish
Light attenuation and darkness
Yves Fermon et Rémy Bigorne

Ethology

Functions and structure of behaviour
Functions of behaviour
Structure of behaviour
Different behavioural signals – communication
Visual signals
Touch signals
Chemical signals
Sound signals
Electrical signals
Ecology and behaviour
Reproductive behaviour
From reproduction to parental care
Social life, conflict and cooperation
Survival: eat or be eaten
Ontogenetic development of behaviour
Evolution and behaviour
Evolution of feeding mechanisms
Phylogeny of parental care behaviour
Bernard Hugueny

Species richness of fish communities

Introduction
Broad patterns in fish diversity
A conceptual framework
Patterns among rivers
Species-area relationship
The role of discharge
Species-energy relationship
Historical factors
Global gradients
Biological traits
Patterns within rivers
Local-regional richness relationship
Upstream-downstream gradient
Patterns among provinces
Distance species decay
Provincial biodiversity
Christian Levêque

Diversity of fish habitats

Habitat concept
Spatial and temporal scales and the hierarchical system concept
Protect itself and rest: the microhabitat
Foraging
Ontogenetic changes of the diet and habitat
Strategies of research and sharing of food, and spatial segregation of species
Trophic migrations
Reproduction strategies and breeding sites
Direct development and territorial behaviour
Indirect development and breeding migrations
Generalisation of the habitat concept
The habitat, consequence of a phylogenetic heritage and adaptive strategies
Ontogenetic niche and its involvements
Typology of habitats
Christian Levêque

Role of fish in ecosystem functioning

Impact of fish predation on aquatic communities
Prey selection
Changes in feeding habits during ontogeny
Cascading trophic interactions
Role of species in ecosystem functioning
Keystone species
Rare species
Recycling of nutrients
Fish biodiversity and responses of ecosystems to perturbations
Specific richness and fisheries production
Fish predators
Christian Levêque et Didier Paugy

Fish communities in river systems and associated biotopes

Dynamics of river systems and consequences for fish assemblages
River zonation and fish assemblages
The floodplains
Fish assemblages in the riffles
Biomass estimates
Jos Snoeks, Christian Levêque, Yves Fermon et al.

Fish communities in East African rift lakes

Communities in Lake Tanganyika.
The pelagic community
The littoral and sub-littoral communities
Deep-water communities
The communities of Lake Malawi
The pelagic community
The littoral communities
The deeper benthic communities
The communities of Lake Victoria
The other lakes in the region
Lake Kivu
Lake Edward/George
Lake Albert
Lake Turkana
Lake Rukwa
Lake Mweru
Conclusion
Christian Levêque

Fish communities in shallow lakes

Elements for a physicochemical typology of shallow lakes
Endorheic shallow lakes
Evaporative type lakes
Riverine type lakes
Open shallow lakes
Conclusions
Didier Paugy et Christian Levêque

Fish communities in small aquatic ecosystems: caves, gueltas, crater and salt lakes

Salt and alkaline lakes
Gueltas and chotts: the Sahara fish fauna
Fish communities in gueltas
Fish communities in chotts
Fish communities of caves
Crater lakes
Fish fauna
Conservation
Jean-Jacques Albaret

Fish communities in estuaries and lagoons

Introduction
General characteristics of fish communities
Lagoon or estuarine environments: strong biodiversity or species-poor systems?
Factors influencing or regulating diversity
Classification of species in ecological categories
Different types of estuarine communities
Organization of communities
Factors for community structuring
Stability-instability
Biology and adaptive strategies
Reproduction and breeding strategies
Space occupation strategies
Food webs and resource use strategies
Functional role of lagoon and estuarine ecosystems
Exportation of organic matter and energy
Nursery
Conclusions
Didier Paugy et Christian Levêque

Species introductions

Goals of introductions
Sport fishing
Fish culture
Improvement of wild stocks
Biological control
Accidental introductions
Consequences of introductions for the aquatic environment
Interaction with native species
Impact on the aquatic ecosystem
Hybridizations
Cumulative impacts of introductions on wildlife and fisheries: example of Malagasy lakes
What can we learn from the lessons of the past?
Didier Paugy et Christian Levêque

Impacts of human activities

Changes in habitats
Climate change and water abstraction
System managements
Water pollution
Eutrophication
Pesticides
Heavy metals
Bioaccumulation
Impact of fishing
Raymond Laë et Christian Levêque

Fisheries

The “fisheries system”
Ecosystemic approach to fisheries and biological indicators
State of fisheries in Africa
Quantity of fish landings
Major fish species caught
Dynamic of the resource
Relation between biological production and biomass
Stock assessment
Aquatic environment and fisheries
Hydrological variability and variability of fisheries
Types of aquatic ecosystem and fisheries production
Effects of dams on the environment and on fisheries
Fishing gears employed and fishing practices
Fishing gears
Seasonality of fishing practices
Evolution of the practices
Biomanipulations and improvement of the fishing production
Marketing and processing of fish
Empirical models for evaluating the fishing potential
Fisheries management
Fisheries management at the basin scale
Fisheries models
Social environment and fisheries management
Case study: the Central Delta of the Niger River
History of fisheries management in Côte d’Ivoire lagoons
From 1930 to 1960
From 1960 to 1982
Conclusions
Jean-françois Agnèse, Randall Brummett, Marc Legendre et al.

Fish culture

Different types of African fish culture
Extensive aquaculture
Artisanal farming systems
Small and medium-scale enterprises (SME)
Large scale commercial
Ecological intensification and IMTA (Integrated Multi Trophic Aquaculture)
Species used for intensive fish culture
Tilapia s.l.
Clarias
Other indigenous species
Alien species
Control of reproduction
Sex control
Food
Fish farming structures
Genetic manipulations and fish culture
Selecting high-performance genotypes
Genetic diversity in cultured stocks
Conservation status

References

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