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The Mediterranean region under climate change

Jean-Paul Moatti
Stéphane Thiébault

Part 3. Adaptation, resilience, conservation of resources and prevention of risk

Chapter 6. Adapting to global change in the Mediterranean Sea1

Denis Lacroix


De toutes les mers régionales du globe, la mer Méditerranée est l’une des plus singulières. Elle concentre une intense activité extractive, industrielle, commerciale, urbaine et touristique, ce qui représente plus de menaces que d’opportunités, notamment pour ce qui concerne les ressources marines et côtières. Mais le progrès des connaissances sur cet espace et la prise de conscience par les sociétés et les Etats riverains des risques de changements non maîtrisés à forts impacts négatifs conduisent à une volonté croissante de compréhension des phénomènes en cours et de choix raisonnés de meilleurs scénarios d’évolution. De plus, ces espaces apparaissent de plus en plus comme des chances de croissance dite «bleue» mais sous réserve d’une approche plus patrimoniale que minière de valorisation des ressources. Désormais, la gestion des flux devrait prendre peu à peu le pas sur l’exploitation des stocks sous réserve de disposer d’ensembles structurés de données, de méthodes et d’objectifs dans tous les compartiments de ce vaste écosystème, de la physique à la gouvernance. Enfin, les dimensions sociétales émergent de manière multiforme via des demandes nouvelles d’un public mieux informé et soucieux de sécurité alimentaire, de santé, de sûreté, de durabilité et d’éthique. Dans ce contexte s’impose peu à peu le besoin récurent d’une concertation de tous les acteurs et d’une capacité d’éclairer les choix de long terme dans un contexte d’incertitudes et de risques accrus. Dans tous les domaines des sciences marines, dont les sciences sociales, la recherche, par l’usage de méthodes partagées et transparentes, peut et doit contribuer (i) à faciliter les débats entre porteurs d’enjeux, (ii) à la sélection collective des mesures inévitables à court comme à long terme, et enfin (iii) à l’appropriation par toutes les parties des actions nécessaires à mener en Méditerranée. A l’instar du changement climatique, il s’agit bien pour la recherche en Méditerranée de contribuer à éviter l’ingérable et de gérer l’inévitable au moins aux dimensions de cette mer régionale emblématique.

Texte intégral

The Mediterranean: key facts and figures

  • 1 Adapted from the final report of the workshop dedicated to the future of the Mediterranean Sea fac (...)

1The Mediterranean is a virtually closed sea, covering about 2.5 million km² between the African and Eurasian plate boundaries, and is the focus of intense geologic activity, notably seismic and volcanic. From a physical perspective, it is broadly split into two well-defined basins (Western/Eastern) which are subdivided into numerous contrasting entities. Major rivers generate rapid horizontal and vertical transfers that are strongly influenced by weather and climate conditions and subject to wide variations on all time scales.

2Biologically speaking, this sea is one of the “hot spots” of marine biodiversity. It shelters a great number of species, with a high ratio of endemic species, Coastal lagoons, salt marshes, estuaries, deltas, rocky and sandy coastlines, sea grass and coralligenous beds, canyons, plateaux, undersea mountains are all remarkable habitats that favor the diversity of organisms (Benoit and Comeau, 2006).

3From a geopolitical standpoint, this sea has represented a hub for trade and culture between the peoples of the region since ancient times. Today, it constitutes a shared space for 23 countries and is both traversed and exploited by these countries as well as third parties. It is also a disputed space, with tensions between users and competition for resources. Nevertheless, for most maritime-related issues, neighboring countries are bound by a ‘common destiny’. They therefore need to cooperate in terms of resource assessment, observation, monitoring and controls as well as management of marine resources (Lejeusne et al. 2010; Mermex group, 2011; Sénat, 2012; Marine Board, 2013).

4In human terms, in 2011, the neighboring countries accounted for 475 million people, a third of whom lived on the coast, with a significant proportion in “megacities”. From the shore to the open sea, the Mediterranean Sea is the focus of numerous activities: navigation, exploitation of living and mineral resources and tourism (UNWTO, 2011). It also provides a wide range of ecosystem services upon which the quality of life of coastal communities and certain economic activities depends (Plan Bleu, 2008; Herr and Galland, 2009; Rochette et al. 2012).

5There has been an increase in the intensity and frequency of climate change-related disturbances (sea-level rise, increasing water temperature and acidification, coastal erosion...), as well as societal changes, including over-fishing, rising recreational uses, chemical pollution and biological invasions, etc. As a result, marine ecosystem services are affected and will increasingly be so in the future.

6In terms of a forward-looking vision (2030-2050), research, innovation and training have a vital part to play in providing the necessary knowledge to cope with and guide these changes towards a desirable future (Rossetti, 2011; EC, 2011; Lionello 2012). This cannot be envisaged without tackling the issues and giving consideration to the Mediterranean basin as a whole (Ecorys, 2012; Seas-era, 2012).

7To this end, the French National Research Agency (ANR) supported a study and workshop on the future of the Mediterranean Sea in response to global changes (ARP MERMED). Its purpose was to define priority areas for research, in order to help build the capacity of Mediterranean societies, in terms of anticipation and adaptive management. Managed by Agropolis International, ARP MERMED coordinated 47 French and international institutions working together from April 2013 until September 2014 and involved 130 experts from 10 countries: France, Italy, Spain, Greece, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Turkey and Belgium. A final report and 100 foresight studies factsheets are available online:

Characterizing, assessing and preventing marine environment-related risks for Mediterranean societies

8The Mediterranean coasts are exposed to multiple complex and interlinked risks. Natural hazards, whether geological or hydro-meteorological, result in coastal zone submersion and erosion risks. The effects of climatic and societal changes on the marine environment and organisms entail risks for human health and for the sustainability of ecosystem services on which coastal societies depend. The concentration of population and activities on the coast together with the increasingly artificial nature of coastlines and higher sea-levels, contributes to the greater vulnerability of coastal societies.

Submersion and erosion risks in coastal zones

9The Mediterranean Basin is located on the Africa-Eurasia convergence zone and is tectonically very active, notably in the Eastern Mediterranean. Seismicity is more diffuse in the Western basin and spread out over many faults, about which very little is known. Submarine avalanches or volcanic eruptions also occur in these situations. These telluric events can provoke devastating tsunamis. Hydro-meteorological hazards are also the cause of current and future marine submersion risks. Atmospheric depressions generate a temporary rise in sea level which, combined with overtopping linked to wind and waves, is often accentuated by relatively steep inshore slopes. Flash floods – sometimes combined with storms at sea – also impact on flooding in the coastal plain.

10Combined with these hazards, sedimentological phenomena – sometimes altered by human activities – play an important part in the evolution of coastal erosion. But they are still poorly understood, due to difficulties in obtaining in situ measurements of sediment flows on different spatial and temporal scales. This sea is particularly sensitive not only to deep sea basin sediment transfers but also to the mechanical alteration of rocky coasts and beach erosion.

11Climate change will bring about a rise in sea level and alter the hydrological regime and storm patterns, with an influence on coastal hazards. On low level coasts, this will result in a gradual loss of coastal land, erosion of the coastal strip and temporary submersion linked to storms. In addition, there will be a higher frequency of river floods. The extent of territories exposed will thus increase considerably in the coming decades. Saltwater intrusions inland, contaminating fresh water drillings in coastal aquifers have also been observed. This issue is crucial for many countries, notably on the southern rim. Consequently, research should help improve the prediction and prevention of submersion risks and coastal zone erosion in the Mediterranean, and the related vulnerability of populations.

Sources, flows, fate and impacts of pollutants

12Human activities are the source of a great deal of waste, pollutants and disturbance. Pollution originating from atmospheric emissions, discharges into the sea and the recreational sector, is a factor to varying degrees. Maritime traffic transiting through this sea (30% of global flows) is an additional source of pollution, both chronic and accidental, while aquaculture sometimes leads to local concentrations of organic matter. Pollutants initially affect the coastal environment, then offshore areas and accumulate in secondary reservoirs. These pollutants contaminate water and living organisms. They affect the balance of marine ecosystems and threaten certain activities and uses. Specific forms of oceanic circulation in this sea make the residence time of deep water very short, resulting in particularly rapid impacts. High concentrations of certain toxic elements such as mercury and PCB, found in the top predators consumed by man, leads to significant human health risks. Knowledge requirements focus in particular on inputs (notably new pollutants), flows (and floods), the fate of contaminants, notably in the trophic chain, and technical solutions for remediation.

New species

13The growth of human activities and the effects of climate change have also altered the composition and distribution of certain species in the Basin. This includes the introduction of new species, changes to the distribution areas of some species or their proliferation with changing environmental conditions. As a result, biodiversity is constantly changing due to the passive arrival of new species from the Atlantic and from the Red Sea. Global changes also have an impact on the parameters of seawater, which has consequences for species development and distribution. Certain effects can also be observed in bacterial populations such as the change of host, proliferation within the ecosystem and new virulence factors, which could explain the emergence of pathogenic micro-organisms. These changes represent risks for marine ecosystems and humans such as the loss of biodiversity, the impact on services provided and human toxicity. Research needs to focus on the study of the pathways, vectors and impacts concerning new species in this sea and solutions for their control.

Conducting research in support of sustainable activities

14The interaction between changing environmental conditions, ecosystem services and their sustainable use is a relatively new phenomenon, which requires innovative research. This research should concern not only traditional activities (such as artisanal fisheries) but also fast-developing activities such as aquaculture, marine biotechnology, eco-design and ecological engineering geared to reducing the impact of human exploitation or restoring the environment.

Small-scale fisheries

15Most fishing in this sea is artisanal: specialized flotillas supplying an inter-regional market and opportunistic flotillas, meeting localized, scaled-down and changeable demand. Both require significant technical and financial resources. The scarcity of deep water resources combined with the limited continental shelf area and the low productivity of the sea have restricted potential expansion. Today, the fishing industries are in crisis. The definition of standards for the sustainable development of fishing activities and the management of their impacts requires greater consideration of the biological, historic and human data that are key to their maintenance, adaptation and diversification.

Sustainable aquaculture

16Aquaculture has become a major industry in the Mediterranean, with the pioneering development of shellfish farming, followed by marine fish farming. Today, aquaculture production has exceeded fisheries catch and its growth should continue at a steady pace for the next decade. This rapid growth can be the source of conflicts of use and pollution phenomena, the salinization of low-lying land and biodiversity loss, etc. Developing sustainable aquaculture is based on adopting an ecosystem approach that seeks to optimize the supply of commercial services while ensuring the long-term future of production process (water quality, seed production, etc.). Research must therefore focus on farmed organisms (notably genetics), production systems (reduced impact on environment), microbiological engineering to enhance plant-based food digestibility, new foodstuffs and the governance of the industry, including foresight analysis.

“Blue biotechnologies” of the future

17Technological progress has given us increasing access to knowledge of the marine environment and opened the way to discovering and exploiting new biological marine resources. These can be the target – or source – of a range of biotechnological applications, with proven or potential economic interest (for food, energy, materials, molecules, processes, etc.). In particular, unicellular phototrophic organisms present high photosynthetic yields and great metabolic plasticity without requiring arable land or fresh water. Marine micro-organisms are a source of secondary metabolites and specific bioactive compounds. The development of “omics” technology provides unprecedented access to an exploration of Mediterranean microbial biodiversity.

Eco-design for maritime activities and ecological engineering

18Regulatory and technological innovations will be required to reduce the impacts of human activities in this sea, notably restoring degraded habitats. Ecological engineering and eco-design are emerging sectors in the coastal environment. The global aim is to harness environmental processes in a way that favors society and is compatible with maintaining ecological balances, by combining design, study, monitoring and project management. The field of research is broad, from the enhancement of natural ecosystemic functions to the design of sustainable coastal constructions with multiple uses, such as marinas or offshore wind parks.

Defining scales for structuring and managing resources and uses to improve their governance

19The management measures of the main maritime activities in the Mediterranean are often delineated in space because of governance rules. A key factor in their effectiveness is their coherence in terms of space and time, at the relevant scale of the targeted ecosystem. This requires the structuring of functional scales of resources, uses and governance to make current management measures more effective.

Relevant spatial-temporal scales

20The functions ensured by an ecosystem community of organisms are necessary to maintain the ecosystem itself but can also be exploited by humans. The management framework that is put in place can therefore address various objectives in connection with the conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity and maintaining productive functions exploited by humans. This dynamic balance for sustainable exploitation requires more research into the components of all marine ecosystems, from habitat to climate change and species connectivity.

Relevant scales of organization and governance

21The four main instruments of governance in this sea are the Barcelona Convention, the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM; FAO subsidiary), the ACCOBAMS (Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea) and the CIESM (Mediterranean Science Commission). All are linked by memoranda of cooperation enabling improved institutional connectivity and thus greater effectiveness. At a European sub-regional level, Europe exerts considerable influence on national and regional institutions to standardize structures and regulations. Numerous tools are supported by the various institutions: ecosystem approach (EcAp), integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), marine spatial planning, protection (e.g. Natura 2000 at Sea, Marine Protected Areas), etc. Better governance requires better knowledge of instruments, administrations and management methods currently in place, taking into account the intensity of human activities and the risks of cumulative impacts.

Current management measures

22Any strategy to improve management measures must be initially based on assessing the effectiveness of current measures in relation to targets. However, these assessments are relatively rare and difficult to implement. Besides, the need for a more operational application for the entire basin involves consultation, collaboration and cooperation between neighboring countries and consultation and dialogue between stakeholders. The proposed measures must rely on existing systems. This includes the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive, the Mediterranean Action Plan (as part of the Barcelona Convention) and the GFCM. Furthermore, there are several types of governance at global level following a gradient between two extremes: from “bottom-up” management (through local professional associations: Prud’homies, Cofradías...) to “top-down” management (through federal control and policing). More applied research is needed notably in developing a “maritime” method to assess ecological functions using a standard approach for indicators, metrics and reference points, in formulating laws and regulations according to the “polluter pays” principle) and to limit the introduction of exotic species.

Understanding the integrated operation of the “Mediterranean Sea dynamic system”

23Despite recent progress, the scientific community still faces many challenges in terms of the physical, chemical, biological and biogeochemical dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea and their interactions. Given the rapid climatic and societal changes in the Mediterranean, it is crucial to understand the processes at work in order to be able to reduce the human footprint on the marine environment.

Physical dynamics

24The way the Mediterranean Basin functions physically is influenced by highly contrasting physiography in terms of coastal continental land masses, the shoreline, continental shelves and deep basins and their connections. In addition, this sea is submitted to a complex and still largely unpredictable hydro-meteorological process. These two factors interact with hydrodynamics and various types of transfers, particularly sediments. Numerous scientific challenges must be met if we are to better understand how the Mediterranean marine environment functions physically, both in its different constituent parts and in their interactions on different spatial and temporal scales.


25The taxonomic inventory of species recorded in this sea provides an estimate of 17,000 species. However, other facets of this biodiversity have also been explored recently through the phylogenetic and functional characteristics of certain organisms such as fish, which do not systematically appear spatially congruent with this taxonomic diversity. These observations not only raise fundamental questions but also have practical consequences for the management and protection of different biodiversity facets. There is a need for better understanding of the divergences and convergences of various biodiversity facets (taxonomic, phylogenetic, functional) with anthropic pressures at different scales. Spatial heterogeneity, temporal variability and interactions between organisms and ecosystem functions must be better understood.


26The limited spatial scale of the Mediterranean Sea, coupled with its strong geological, climatic and meteorological structure on a meso-scale, makes it a particularly relevant study area to define homogenous eco-regions in which conditions and assemblages can be characterized and predicted. Eco-regionalization is based on the availability of data to characterize the physical environment and describe the distribution of species as well as inferential statistical tools. Ecoregions are quite well identified on the northern shore. More collaborations are needed with the Southern region.

Integrated models

27This sea constitutes a highly emblematic, relevant study system, involving many of the world’s key issues. It combines oligotrophic ecosystems, more productive coastal ecosystems, with significant socio-economic challenges (subaquatic landslip, algal blooms, etc) up to lagoons subjected to eutrophication and major environmental and socioeconomic crises (pollution, shellfish pathology, anoxy, etc). It is also characterized by large-scale thermohaline circulation, thus making it a “reduced-scale model of the global ocean”.

28Global changes are affecting the circulation of water and the physiology, biology, distribution and ecology of species. Indeed, global warming could lead to a drastic weakening in circulation with significant consequences for ecosystems. Finally, change scenarios vary widely. Their study requires long-term series and a capacity for simulation which opens up new challenges for current observation systems and models

Monitoring changes and developing foresight modeling and analysis capabilities

29Maintaining ecosystem services provided by the Mediterranean Sea appears vital for the food security, economic growth and well-being of neighboring populations. Environmental and social changes are particularly rapid in this sea, making it essential to have the adequate monitoring and follow-up tools and to build prospective analytical capacity, in order to better understand the vulnerability of coastal societies and services provided by the sea. These tools will help anticipate the future of these services while promoting the ability of societies to adapt north and south.

Data, indicators and networks

30A great deal of data is collected at sea by various types of stakeholders in widely different settings. Whether related to society and the economy, or the physical and biological environment, they remain scarce and not always accessible, compatible or interoperable. The lack of systematic in situ observation in the south of the basin compromises the monitoring of important parameters required to understand how the whole basin functions in general as well as tracking changes. Better organization and networking of observatory stations, scientific ships and research institutes for all required tasks, such as collecting, technology standardization, data sharing, interoperability and processing would all greatly benefit scientific knowledge and help guide decision makers.

Understanding the past state of the Mediterranean Sea to anticipate its future

31One of the current challenges for research is to develop models based on predictions for climate change and economic scenarios that make it possible to assess impacts on a regional scale. One of the ways of addressing these issues is to undertake a coordinated cross-comparative exercise of impact-models at different spatial and temporal scales for different types of models, involving northern and southern shores. Another challenge consists of describing the past state of the sea in order to understand its variability and reconstitute its evolution. This challenge can be met by re-analyzing old data with current models.

Building scenarios to explore the future of resources and uses

32The scientific community must have a long-term scientific strategy to boost its ability to provide expertise tailored to the marine resources ecosystem approach. Indeed, knowledge of marine environmental services is fragmented and lacks integration. The vulnerability of the main services provided by this sea to future environmental changes is currently unknown and its economic impact has not been calculated. It therefore seems necessary to have performance indicators on the state of environmental services in order to establish a future ecosystem management process of activities. These tools needed a collaborative and multi-disciplinary approach combining ecology, sociology, economy and governance, based on knowledge of ecosystem processes and their uses, including the development of normative medium-term scenarios through foresight analysis.

Coastal societies and adaptation to global changes

33Finally, it is worth considering the abilities of coastal societies to deal with systemic and multi-dimensional risks linked to the impacts of global changes which lie ahead. Such analyses must include the territorial changes from both a socio-economic standpoint (notably land use and demography) and a geographical one, including contrasts between countries. They will be based on an assessment of adaptation measures introduced in the Mediterranean at various levels as well as on how these strategies connect. They will also give consideration to the threshold effects (economic, social, environmental, etc.) to which adaptation will be difficult or expensive.

Box 1
Coastal management and climate change in the Gulf of Izmir
Güzel Yücel-Gier
Dokuz Eylül University, Turkey
Izmir Gulf (Bay) is one of the largest and most enclosed bays on the Aegean Sea. At its head lies the Metropolitan City of Izmir, the third largest city in Turkey. The Izmir Metropolitan Municipality covered 88,000 ha with a population of 4,168,000 in 2015. To the north of Izmir Gulf, the goverment has publicly committed itself to establishing “Species Protection and Management Areas” for the monk seal Monachus monachus (Guclusoy and Savas, 2003). The Gediz Delta, which is a “Cultural and Natural Asset” and a Wildlife Protection Area, is an extensive wetland including 3 lagoons and the most important bird area of the region. This gives it the status of a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention of 1998. Rapid urban development connected with industry, tourism, recreation, marine transportation, fisheries and aquaculture as taken place in the coastal zones of Turkey over the last four decades. The total urbanized area includes extensive industrial zones and one of the biggest exporting harbours in Turkey as shown on the map of the bay on figure 1 (Yucel-Gier, 2010). The region’s nations share a common purpose to strive for the optimal and sustainable use of coastal resources. Coastal management in Izmir Bay is an important issue due to increasing developmental pressure on the coastal zone. Whereas climate change is a crucial subject to project plans for reduction of negative impact for planning coastal zone management.

Figure 1
Adaptation of Izmir Bay Land/Sea Use Plan (Yücel-Gier, 2010).

Issues related to Climate Change
In coastal and estuarine areas such as the Gulf of Izmir, floods are caused by sea level rise due to strong winds blowing from the appropriate direction and an abrupt drop in air pressure and the associated precipitation. This flooding is usually observed as a rapid rise in sea level followed by heavy rains. In order to understand the mechanism behind the flooding and take measures against damage, the Meteorological and Oceanographic Observation System (IZGOOS) in the Gulf of Izmir was established through the joint efforts of the Municipality of Izmir, the General Directorate of iZSU and Dokuz Eylul University (DEU), Institute of Marine Science and Technology (IMST) in 2012. Indeed, climate change does not create a new and unknown hazard by means of floods, but it probably contributes to increasing the incidence of flooding and/or affected areas. Understanding the reasons behind the events currently seen and taken action against them will therefore undoubtedly contribute to climate change adaptation (Beşiktepe, 2014)
Besides the decrease in production in lagoons at Gediz Delta, physical threats have started to cause serious issues notably in the instability of the Homa lagoon coastline in Gediz Delta. This coastline parallel to the sea is a natural barrier which separates lagoon and sea ecosystem. A 2,500 m long coastline had been harshly damaged by Southwestern storms. In order to save this lagoon, the municipality of Izmir rebuilt the lido in 2012. This kind of storm also damages the aquaculture cage farms and the expected higher frequency of occurring requires specific adaptations. Posidonia oceanica (L.) is one of the key species for the sustainability of biodiversity in the Mediterranean sea and notably in the bay of Izmir. Posidonia meadows are very sensitive to environmental changes related to human activities (town expansion, pollutants, turbidity, anchoring, aquaculture, industrial fisheries etc.). In addition, P. oceanica is a vital species which can be addressed as a bio-indicator for climate change (Pergent et al., 2012). Therefore, the DEU-IMST has been working on the detail mapping of P. oceanica in order to give relevant data to decision-makers for protection regulation in Izmir bay (DEU-IMST, 2014-2016).
Recent studies show that the areas most vulnerable to climate change are primarily agricultural areas (especially deltas), wetlands and touristic areas with low altitude in Turkey (Görgün & Ba¸sak, 2014). Reinforced scientific efforts and regional/local actions for monitoring, understanding, analysing risk and reducing the impacts of climate variability are essential for securing the people’s well-being, the development of regional economic activities and finally the sustainability of a remarkable and symbolic area of the Mediterranean Sea.
Beşiktepe T.Ş., 2014
“Sea level variations observed in the Gulf of Izmir in a changing climate” International water symposium impacts of climate change on coastal cities, pp. 53-54.
DEU-IMST, 2016
Project Mapping Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile Meadows, in the Bay of Gülbahçe-Izmir Bay. 2014. KB. FEN. 033.
Guclusoy H., Savas Y., 2003
Status of the Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus in the Foca pilot monk seal conservation area, Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East 28:5– 16.
Görgün E, Başak B, 2014
“Possible impacts of climate change on coastal cities of Turkey”. International water symposium impacts of climate change on coastal cities, pp 35-34.
Pergent G., Bazairi H., Bianchi C.N., Boudouresque C.F., Buia M.C., Clabaut P., Harmelin-vivien M., Mateo M.A., Montefalcone M., Morri C., Orfanidis S., Pergent-martini C., Semroud R., Serrano O., Verlaque M., 2012
Mediterranean seagrass meadows: resilience and contribution to climate change mitigation, a short summary / Les herbiers de Magnoliophytes marines de Méditerranée: résilience et contribution à l’atténuation des changements climatiques. IUCN; Gland, Switzerland and Málaga, Spain. 1-40.
Yucel-Gier G, Arisoy Y, PAZI İ, 2010
“A spatial analysis of fish farming in the context of ICZM in the Bay of Izmir-Turkey” Coastal management, 38:399-411.



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1 Adapted from the final report of the workshop dedicated to the future of the Mediterranean Sea facing global change (ARP MERMED), Adapting to Global Change in the Mediterranean Sea, Agropolis International, 2016, ARP MERMED has been supported by the French National Research Agency.

Table des illustrations

Légende Figure 1Adaptation of Izmir Bay Land/Sea Use Plan (Yücel-Gier, 2010).
Fichier image/jpeg, 241k


Scientific watch and Foresight analysis IFREMER, Scientific directorate. France

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