Version classiqueVersion mobile
OpenEdition Books

The Mediterranean region under climate change

 | 
Jean-Paul Moatti
, 
Stéphane Thiébault

Part 1. Mechanisms, observed trends, projections

Sub-chapter 1.4.7. Conclusion and recommendations

Texte intégral

1Ambient air is an important common resource. Its quality affects human and ecosystems health, and its composition impacts the regional climate. Climatological surveys show that atmospheric pollution in the form of both gaseous and particulate compounds is generally higher over the Mediterranean basin than over most European continental regions, especially during the long dry season, due to (i) the confluence of long range transported continental air masses that add to local sources of air pollution (e.g. heavy ship traffic), (ii) the scarce precipitation scavenging, (iii) intense photochemistry, and (iv) local circulations and poor ventilation rates that recycle polluted air layers in the western basin, or accumulate pollution in the eastern basin. Future levels of atmospheric trace compounds will be significantly impacted by the changes in climate conditions expected in the Mediterranean region, especially the significant increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation frequency. This will have, in turn, impacts on the Mediterranean climate and human health.

2Atmospheric composition and air quality depend on natural and anthropogenic mechanisms, some of which are directly affected by climate change. This is the case of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by vegetation, which depend on the temperature, photosynthetically active radiation and availability of water. The most recent observations made in the framework of ChArMEx show that climate change will likely lead to an increase in these emissions, which play a crucial role in the chemical formation of ozone and fine organic particles. But the impact of climate change on emissions is not always straightforward. This is the case of forest fire emissions that also play a role in ozone and particulate pollution. One could expect that a dryer climate would increase fire frequency and consequently particulate air pollution. Nevertheless, emissions by fires depend not only on their frequency, but also on their duration, intensity and extent. There is also no consensus on the impact of climate change on dust emissions. Although climate change will affect dust emissions, which depend on precipitation, land cover and surface wind, it is still uncertain whether these emissions will increase or decrease in the future, especially because dust emissions also depend on agriculture pressure and field preparation techniques. Neither is the effect of climate change on marine emissions of sea salt and VOCs (as marine VOCs depend both on the biological activity and environmental parameters) yet clear. Rather than the usually suspected sulfur compounds, iodine-containing compounds, whose emission is linked to seawater microorganisms, appear to be at the origin of new particle formation over the northwestern Mediterranean. Despite the fact anthropogenic emissions are also important contributors to the composition of the air, their quantification are still associated with considerable uncertainty. Finally, recent studies in large urban centers in the eastern Mediterranean basin indicate that large scale anthropogenic emission inventories are seriously underestimated. What is more, all these inventories agree on a marked increase in anthropogenic emissions of major pollutants in the Middle East area (MEA). Higher levels of primary emitted pollutants combined with higher temperature in the future will lead to more frequent intense pollution events that will have major health impacts in urban areas.

3The level of pollution of Mediterranean air also depends on long range and intercontinental transport. Recent ChArMEx field campaigns identified air masses from North America and tropical Africa in the western Mediterranean and from South East Asia in the eastern Mediterranean. It was shown that imported Asian pollution builds up in the eastern Mediterranean, leading to a sharp west-to-east increasing gradient in aerosols and trace gases such as ozone and methane. These intercontinental pathways come into play under specific meteorological configurations that will be impacted by climate change. However, it is not yet known if climate change will favor intercontinental transport, or not.

4The Mediterranean surface water ecosystem largely depends on atmospheric inputs for most of its crucial nutrients (N and P), especially in summer when thermal stratification prevents the upwelling of nutrients from deeper waters. Anthropogenic nitrogen and airborne dust deposition to nutrient depleted surface seawater could favor phytoplankton development and this fertilization effect may stimulate the transfer of atmospheric CO2 to sediments, reducing atmospheric CO2 and climate change. Due to air quality mitigation measures, it is also predicted than anthropogenic N fluxes will decrease in the coming years, limiting the atmospheric input of nutrients and possibly related biological activity. In addition, long term series of deposition measurements suggest that the atmospheric input of dust has decreased by one order of magnitude in the last decade compared to previous decades. The reasons are not well understood, satellite observations show that Saharan dust transport events are still common. Recent in situ studies in the northwestern Mediterranean showed that Saharan dust deposition by rain stimulates heterotrophic bacteria growth, which reemits CO2. Thus, dust deposition has two opposite effects on the atmospheric CO2 that need to be further studied in order to estimate the net effect at large scales.

5One very important impact of atmospheric chemistry on the regional climate is the impact of aerosols on the water cycle, which is often neglected in climate models. The Mediterranean region is a special place where most of the moisture that fuels precipitation comes from evaporation from the Mediterranean basin. One direct effect of aerosols is reducing the solar energy delivered to the surface by scattering it back to space or absorbing it within turbid layers containing desert dust or carbonaceous aerosols. This dimming effect decreases surface temperature and consequently evaporation from the sea surface. Atmospheric models with externally forced sea surface temperature do not properly account for this effect, which can be simulated by atmosphere-ocean coupled models. A recent study performed in the framework of ChArMEx and HyMEX calculated that this radiative effect reduces the regional precipitation by 10%, which is a major issue in a region where water is already scarce. But aerosols can further reduce precipitation by indirect effects through aerosol-cloud interactions. Since water vapor condenses around aerosol particles to form the cloud droplets, an excess of aerosols leads to smaller cloud droplets that do not get big enough to fall. Another important and even more complex issue is the formation of ice crystals that trigger the precipitation cycle, which critically depends on the icing properties of aerosol particles. These properties are highly contrasted in different types of particles, some bacteria and soil dust being the most efficient. Aerosol-cloud interactions remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models and climate change projections, and should thus be an important field of study in the near future in the Mediterranean due to its possible impact on the scarcity of water resources.

6The most dramatic effect of bad air quality is on human health. People poison themselves by breathing polluted ambient air, the result being chronic diseases or even premature death. Most inhabitants of the Mediterranean region, especially on the southern and eastern sides of the basin, are more or less regularly exposed to high loads (well above WHO air quality recommendations) in the form of soil dust particles, smoke emitted by forest fires, ozone, and anthropogenic emissions from almost unregulated large urban centers. All around the basin, the rare available epidemiological studies all show an excess of premature deaths associated with an increase in particulate pollution. Reducing pollution levels would reduce the death toll and hospital admissions, and prevention policies should be established with a view to reducing effects on health.

7Recent evidence demonstrated the link between climate change and air pollution both regarding adaptation and mitigation strategies. There are important possible win-win strategies to be developed in the years to come to improve air quality while engaging in a process aimed at a low carbon economy. Such benefits have been pointed out in several European studies, but the specific situation of Mediterranean countries deserves more specific investigations.

8To conclude, it is clear that both-way interactions between atmospheric chemistry and climate are not yet fully understood and quantified in the Mediterranean region. Robust predictions of the future living conditions in the Mediterranean require that such interactions are included in regional models. Positive feedback is expected between climate change and air pollution, but quantification of natural and anthropogenic emissions, process studies, and the development of chemistry-transport models are still necessary for a good assessment of future regional atmospheric environmental and climate conditions. In particular, air pollution health risk assessment is still lacking at the regional scale and requires a major research effort on the southern and eastern side of the basin where the dose-response functions established in well-developed countries can be questioned.

Acknowledgements

9This chapter was contributed by the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr), a multilateral federative project of the multidisciplinary research program MISTRALS (Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional and Local Scales; http://www.mistrals-home.org). The authors are grateful to the many agencies and institutes that supported the research described here.

Bibliographie

References

Abdallah C., et al., 2016
Influence of boundary conditions and anthropogenic emission inventories on simulated O 3 and PM 2.5 concentrations over Lebanon. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 7: in press.

Abdo N., et al., 2016
Respiratory health outcomes and air pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a systematic review. Reviews on Environmental Health, 31: 259-280.

Ancellet G., et al., 2016
Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16: 4725-4742.

Andres R. J., Kasgnoc A. D., 1998
A time-averaged inventory of subaerial volcanic sulfur emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103: 251-261.

Anenberg S. C., et al., 2010
An estimate of the global burden of anthropogenic ozone and fine particulate matter on premature human mortality using atmospheric modeling. Environmental health perspectives, 118: 1189-1195.

Ardon-Dryer K., Levin Z., 2011
Ground-based measurements of immersion freezing in the eastern Mediterranean. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14: 5217-5231.

Assamoi E., Liousse C., 2010
A new inventory for two-wheel vehicle emissions in West Africa for 2002. Atmospheric Environment, 44: 3985-3996.

Baghi R., 2013
Émissions biogéniques de composés organiques volatils en région méditerranéenne: développement instrumental, mesures et modélisation. PhD dissertation, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, 212 p.

Bagnold R. A., 1941
The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. 265 p., Methuen, London.

Beaulant A. L., et al., 2011
Statistico-dynamical downscaling for Mediterranean heavy precipitation. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137: 736-748.

Benaissa F., et al., 2014
Assessment of air pollution impacts on population health in Bejaia City, Northern Algeria. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 43: 1221-1228.

Benaissa F., et al., 2016
Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of urban PM10 in Bejaia City (Algeria), Canadian Respiratory Journal, 2016: 8209485.

Bergamo A., et al., 2008
Monthly-averaged anthropogenic aerosol direct radiative forcing over the Mediterranean based on AERONET aerosol properties. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8: 6995-7014.

Berrojalbiz N., et al., 2014
Atmospheric occurrence, transport and deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene in the Mediterranean and Black seas. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14: 8947-8959.

Bessagnet B., et al., 2008
Modeling dust emissions and transport within Europe: the Ukraine March 2007 event. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 113: D15202.

Bonnet S., Guieu C., 2006
Atmospheric forcing on the annual iron cycle in the western Mediterranean Sea: A 1-year survey. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 111: C09010.

Bressac M., et al., 2014
Quantification of the lithogenic carbon pump following a simulated dust-deposition event in large mesocosms. Biogeosciences, 11: 1007-1020.

Callot Y., et al., 2000
Geomorphologic approach for modelling the surface features of arid environments in a model of dust emissions: application to the Sahara desert. Geodinamica Acta, 13: 245-270.

Carslaw K. S., et al., 2013
Large contribution of natural aerosols to uncertainty in indirect forcing. Nature, 503: 67-71.

Castro-Jimenez J., et al., 2012
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Mediterranean Sea: Atmospheric occurrence, deposition and decoupling with settling fluxes in the water column. Environmental Pollution, 166: 40-47.

Chenoweth J., et al., 2011
Impact of climate change on the water resources of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region: Modeled 21st century. Water Resources Research, 47: W06506.

Cholakian A., et al., 2016
A modeling perspective of the ChArMEx, intensive campaign: origin of photo-oxidant and organic aerosol formation. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 18: EGU2016-6357-1.

Christodoulaki S., et al., 2013
Atmospheric deposition in the Eastern Mediterranean. A driving force for ecosystem dynamics. Journal of Marine Systems, 109-110: 78-93.

Christodoulaki S., et al., 2016
Human-driven atmospheric deposition of N and P controls on the East Mediterranean marine ecosystem. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 73: 1611-1619.

Christoudias T., et al., 2012
Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on air pollution transport. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12: 869-877.

Chrit M., et al., 2016
Simulation of aerosol chemical compositions in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 18: EGU2016-8866-3.

CIHEAM, 2009
Mediterra 2009. Rethinking rural development in the Mediterranean. Edited by Hervieu B., Thibault H.-L., Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes et Plan Bleu, Presses de Sciences Po, Paris: 392 p.

Clark R. T., Brown S. J., 2013
Influences of circulation and climate change on European summer heat extremes. Journal of Climate, 26: 9621–9632.

Colette A., et al., 2013
European atmosphere in 2050, a regional air quality and climate perspective under CMIP5 scenarios. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 7451-7471.

Colette A., et al., 2015A
Is the ozone climate penalty robust in Europe? Environmental Research Letters, 10: 084015.

Colette A., et al., 2015B
Joint Actions for Air Quality and Climate Mitigation in Europe. ETC/ACM Technical Paper 2015/7, National Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands, 125 p.

Colette A., et al., 2016
Air pollution trends in the EMEP region between 1990 and 2012. EMEP CCC-Report 1/2016, NILU, Oslo, Norway, 102 p.

Connolly P., et al., 2009
Studies of heterogeneous freezing by three different desert dust samples. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8: 2805-2824.

Cristofanelli P., et al., 2013
Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 15-30.

Dayan U., 1986
Climatology of back trajectories from Israel based on synoptic analysis. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 25: 591-595.

Dayan U., et al., 1996
Seasonal distribution of the boundary layer depths over the Mediterranean Basin. The Impact of Desert Dust Across the Mediterranean. Edited by Guerzoni S. and Chester R. Kluwer Academic Publishers: 103-112.

Demott P. J., et al., 2011
Resurgence in ice nuclei measurement research. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92: 1623-1635.

Denjean C., et al., 2016
Size distribution and optical properties of mineral dust aerosols transported in the western Mediterranean, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 1081-1104.

Dentener F., et al., 2005
The impact of air pollutant and methane emission controls on tropospheric ozone and radiative forcing: CTM calculations for the period 1990-2030. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 5: 1731-1755.

Desboeufs K., et al., 2014
Chemical fate and settling of mineral dust in surface seawater after atmospheric deposition observed from dust seeding experiments in large mesocosms. Biogeosciences, 11: 5581-5594.

Di Biagio C., et al., 2009
Measurements of Mediterranean aerosol radiative forcing and influence of the single scattering albedo. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114: D06211.

Di Biagio C., et al., 2010
Large atmospheric shortwave radiative forcing by Mediterranean aerosols derived from simultaneous ground-based and spaceborne observations and dependence on the aerosol type and single scattering albedo. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115: D10209.

di Biagio C., et al., 2016
Continental pollution in the Western Mediterranean basin: large variability of the aerosol single scattering albedo and influence on the direct shortwave radiative effect. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16: 10591-10607.

Di Sarra A., et al., 2008
Surface shortwave radiative forcing of different aerosol types in the central Mediterranean. Geophysical Research Letters, 35: L02714.

Di Sarra A., et al., 2011
Shortwave and longwave radiative effects of the intense Saharan dust event of 25–26 March 2010 at Lampedusa (Mediterranean Sea). Journal of Geophysical Research, 116: D23209.

Doche C., et al., 2014
Summertime tropospheric-ozone variability over the Mediterranean basin observed with IASI, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14: 10589-10600.

Drori R., et al., 2012
Attributing and quantifying carbon monoxide sources affecting the Eastern Mediterranean: A combined satellite, modelling, and synoptic analysis study. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12: 1067-1082.

Dugdale R. C., F. P. Wilkerson, 1988
Nutrient sources and primary production in the Eastern Mediterranean. Oceanologica Acta, 9: 179–184.

El Haddad I., et al., 2011
Primary sources of PM 2.5 organic aerosol in an industrial Mediterranean city, Marseille. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11: 2039-2058.

Erel Y., et al., 2007
European pollution imported by cooler air masses to the Eastern Mediterranean during the summer. Environmental Science & Technology, 41: 5198-5203.

Evan A., et al., 2016
The past, present and future of African dust. Nature, 531, 493-495.

Farah W., et al., 2014
Time series analysis of air pollutants in Beirut, Lebanon. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186: 8203-8213.

Farah W., et al., 2016
Analysis of the continuous measurements of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations in order to quantify the short-term health effects of air pollution in Beirut, Lebanon. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 15: in press.

Faustini A. et al., 2015
Short-term effects of particulate matter on mortality during forest fires in Southern Europe: results of the MED-PARTICLES Project. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 72: 323-329.

Fiore A. M., et al., 2012
Global air quality and climate. Chemical Society Reviews, 41, 6663-6683.

Flossmann A. I., Wobrock W., 2010
A review of our understanding of the aerosol-cloud interaction from the perspective of a bin resolved cloud scale modelling. Atmospheric Research, 97: 478-497.

Formenti P., et al., 2002
STAAARTE-MED 1998 summer airborne measurements over the Aegean Sea, 2. Aerosol scattering and absorption, and radiative calculations. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107: 4451.

Forster P., et al., 2007
Climate Change 2007-The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edited by SOLOMON S., et al., Cambridge Univ. Press: 129-234.

Fuzzi S., et al., 2015
Particulate matter, air quality and climate: lessons learned and future needs. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15: 8217-8299.

Gallisai R., et al., 2014
Saharan dust deposition may affect phytoplankton growth in the Mediterranean Sea at ecological time scales. Public Library of Science ONE, 9, e110762.

Genard-Zielinski A.-C., et al., 2015
Variability of BVOC emissions from a Mediterranean mixed forest in southern France with a focus on Quercus pubescens at the O3HP. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15: 431-446.

Genard-Zielinski A. C., et al., submitted
Drought impact on Quercus pubescens Willd. seasonal isoprene emissions over the Mediterranean area: what future? Global Change Biology.

Gillette D. A., 1981
Production of dust that may be carried great distances: Origin, characteristics and effect on man. Geological Society of America Special Papers, 186: 11–26.

Gimeno L., et al., 2010
On the origin of continental precipitation, Geophysical Research Letters, 37: L13804.

Giorgi F., 2006
Climate changes hot-spots. Geophysical Research Letters, 33: L08707.

Giorgi F., Lionello P., 2008
Climate change projections for the Mediterranean region. Global and Planetary Change, 63: 90–104.

Guenther A., et al., 2006
Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6: 3181-3210.

Guenther A. B., et al., 2012
The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions. Geoscientific Model Development, 5: 1471–1492.

Guieu C., et al., 2010
Spatial variability of atmospheric fluxes of metals (Al, Fe, Cd, Zn and Pb) and phosphorus over the whole Mediterranean from a one-year monitoring experiment: Biogeochemical implications. Marine Chemistry, 120: 164-178.

Guieu C., et al., 2014A
Impact of dust deposition on carbon budget: a tentative assessment from a mesocosm approach. Biogeosciences, 11: 5621-5635.

Guieu C., et al., 2014B
Introduction to project DUNE, a DUst experiment in a low Nutrient, low chlorophyll Ecosystem. Biogeosciences, 11: 425-442.

Hauglustaine D. A., Brasseur G. P., 2001
Evolution of tropospheric ozone under anthropogenic activities and associated radiative forcing of climate. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106: 32337–32360.

Hedegaard G. B., et al., 2013
The relative importance of impacts from climate change vs. emissions change on air pollution levels in the 21st century. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 3569-3585.

Hertig E., Jacobeit J., 2008
Assessments of Mediterranean precipitation changes for the 21st century using statistical downscaling techniques. International Journal of Climatology, 28: 1025-1045.

Hodzic A. et al., 2007
Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 7: 4043-4064.

Hoose C., Möhler O., 2012
Heterogeneous ice nucleation on atmospheric aerosols: a review of results from laboratory experiments. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12: 9817-9854.

Horvath H. et al., 2002
Optical characteristics of the aerosol in Spain and Austria and its effect on radiative forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107: 4386.

Iiasa, 2013
Policy scenarios for the revision of the Thematic Strategy on Air Pollution. EditedbyAMANN M.: TSAP Report # 10, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, 65 p.

Im U., Kanakidou M., 2012
Impacts of East Mediterranean megacity emissions on air quality. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12: 6335-6355.

IPCC, 2014
Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Edited by Pachauri R. K., Meyer L. A.: IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 p.

Jacob D. J., Winner D. A., 2009
Effect of climate change on air quality. Atmospheric Environment, 43: 51-63.

Jacobson M., Streets D., 2009
Influence of future anthropogenic emissions on climate, natural emissions, and air quality. Journal of Geophysycal Research-Atmospheres, 114: D08118.

Jaidan N., et al., in prep.
Future changes in surface ozone over the Mediterranean region from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison (ACCMIP). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.

Jordi A., et al., 2012
Copper aerosols inhibit phytoplankton growth in the Mediterranean Sea. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109: 21246-21249.

Kalogridis C., et al., 2014
Concentrations and fluxes of isoprene and oxygenated VOCs at a French Mediterranean oak forest. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14: 10085-10102.

Kanakidou M., et al., 2011
Megacities as hot spots of air pollution in the East Mediterranean. Atmospheric Environment, 6: 1223-1235.

Knorr W., et al., 2014
Impact of human population density on fire frequency at the global scale. Biogeosciences, 11: 1085-1102.

Koçak M., et al., 2010
Atmospheric nutrient inputs to the northern levantine basin from a long-term observation: sources and comparison with riverine inputs. Biogeosciences, 7: 4037-4050.

Korhonen H., et al., 2011
Evaluation of the accuracy of analysis tools for atmospheric new particle formation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11: 3051-3066.

Kouvarakis G., et al., 2001
On the importance of atmospheric nitrogen inputs on the productivity of Eastern Mediterranean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15: 8050818.

Kroll J. H., Seinfeld J. H., 2008
Chemistry of secondary organic aerosol: formation and evolution of low-volatility organics in the atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment, 4: 3593–3624.

Kuenen J., et al., 2011
MACC European emission inventory for the years 2003-2007. TNO report TNO-060-UT-2011-00588: 49 p.

Künzli N., et al., 2000
Public-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: a European assessment. Lancet, 356: 795-801.

Labiadh M., et al., 2013
Soil erosion by wind over tilled surfaces in South Tunisia. Geoderma, 202-203: 8-17.

Lacressonnière G., et al., 2016
Impacts of regional climate change on air quality projections and associated uncertainties. Climatic Change, 136: 309-324.

Ladstätter-Weissenmayer A., et al., 2003
Transport and build-up of tropospheric trace gases during the MINOS campaign: comparision of GOME, in situ aircraft measurements and MATCH-MPIC-data. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3: 1887-1902.

Langner J., et al., 2005
Impact of climate change on surface ozone and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in Europe. Atmospheric Environment, 39: 1129-1141.

Langner J., et al., 2012
A multi-model study of impacts of climate change on surface ozone in Europe. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12: 10423-10440.

Lathière J., et al., 2010
Sensitivity of isoprene emissions from the terrestrial biosphere to 20th century changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate, and land use. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24: GB1004.

Laurent B., et al., 2008
Modeling mineral dust emissions from the Sahara desert using new surface properties and soil database. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113: D14218.

Law C. S., et al., 2013
Evolving research directions in Surface Ocean–Lower Atmosphere (SOLAS) science. Environmental Chemistry, 10: 1-16.

Lecœur È., Seigneur C., 2013
Dynamic evaluation of a multi-year model simulation of particulate matter concentrations over Europe. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 4319-4337.

Lelieveld J., et al., 2002
Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean. Science, 298: 794-799.

Lelieveld J., et al., 2009
Severe ozone air pollution in the Persian Gulf region, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9: 1393–1406.

Lelieveld J., et al., 2012
Climate change and impacts in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. Climatic Change, 114: 667-687.

Lelieveld J., et al., 2015
The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale. Nature, 525: 367-371.

Lemaire V. E. P., et al., 2016
Using statistical models to explore ensemble uncertainty in climate impact studies: the example of air pollution in Europe. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16: 2559-2574.

Le Treut H., et al., 1998
Sulfate aerosol indirect effect and CO2 greenhouse forcing: Equilibrium response of the LMD GCM and associated cloud feedbacks. Journal of Climate, 11: 1673-1684.

Levin Z., et al., 1996
The effects of desert particles coated with sulfate on rain formation in the eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 35: 1511-1523.

Levin Z., et al., 2005
Vertical distribution of physical and chemical properties of haze particles in the Dead Sea valley. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 27: 4937-4945.

Levin Z., Cotton W. R. (Editors), 2008
Aerosol pollution impact on precipitation: a scientific review. Springer, 385 p.

Likhvar V. N. et al., 2015
A multi-scale health impact assessment of air pollution over the 21st century. Science of the Total Environment, 514: 439-449.

Lionello P. (Editor), 2012
The Climate of the Mediterranean Region: From the Past to the Future. Elsevier, 502 p.

Liousse C., et al., 2014
Explosive growth in African combustion emissions from 2005 to 2030, Environmental Research Letters, 9: 035003.

Liu J., et al., 2009
Evaluating inter-continental transport of fine aerosols: (1) Methodology, global aerosol distribution and optical depth. Atmospheric Environment, 43: 4327-4338.

Lohmann U., 2002
A glaciation indirect aerosol effect caused by soot aerosols. Geophysical Research Letters, 29: 1052.

Lohmann U., Feichter J., 2005
Global indirect aerosol effects: a review. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 5: 715-737.

Lohmann U., et al., 2010
Total aerosol effect: radiative forcing or radiative flux perturbation? Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10: 3235-3246.

Louis J., et al., 2015
Dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in seawater following an artificial Saharan dust deposition event, Frontiers in Marine Science, 2: 10.3389.

Mailler S., et al., 2016
On the radiative impact of aerosols on photolysis rates: comparison of simulations and observations in the Lampedusa island during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16: 1219-1244.

Mallet M., et al., 2013
Absorption properties of Mediterranean aerosols obtained from multi-year ground-based remote sensing observations. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 9195-9210.

Mallet M., et al., 2016
Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED) summer 2013 campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16: 455-504.

Mamouri R. E., Ansmann A., 2015
Estimated desert-dust ice nuclei profiles from polarization lidar: methodology and case studies. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15: 3463-3477.

Manders A. M. M., et al., 2012
The impact of differences in large-scale circulation output from climate models on the regional modeling of ozone and PM. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12: 9441-9458.

Markaki Z., et al., 2003
Atmospheric deposition of inorganic phosphorus in the Levantine Basin, Eastern Mediterranean: Spatial, temporal variability and its role on the productivity of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Limnology and Oceanography, 48: 155701568.

Markaki Z., et al., 2010
Variability of atmospheric deposition of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the Mediterranean and possible link to the anomalous seawater N/P ratio, Marine Chemistry, 120: 187-194.

Markakis K., et al., 2012
Compilation of a GIS based high spatially and temporally resolved emission inventory for the greater Istanbul area. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 3: 112-125.

Matvev V., et al., 2002
Atmospheric sulfur flux rates to and from Israel. Science of the Total Environment, 291: 143-154.

Megaritis A. G., et al., 2013
Response of fine particulate matter concentrations to changes of emissions and temperature in Europe. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 3423-3443.

Meleux F., et al., 2007
Increase in summer European ozone amounts due to climate change. Atmospheric Environment, 41: 7577-7587.

Meloni D., et al., 2003
Tropospheric aerosols in the Mediterranean: 2. Radiative effects through model simulations and measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108: 4317.

Meloni D., et al., 2015
Altitude-resolved shortwave and long-wave radiative effects of desert dust in the Mediterranean during the GAMARF campaign: indications of a net daily cooling in the dust layer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 120: 3386–3407.

Menut L., et al., 2015
Ozone and aerosols tropospheric concentrations variability analyzed using the ADRIMED measurements and the WRF-CHIMERE models, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15: 6159-6182.

Millán M. M, et al., 2000
Ozone cycles in the western Mediterranean basin: Interpretation of monitoring data in complex coastal terrain. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 39: 487-508.

Miranda A. I., et al., 2008
Chapter 9 Forest fires and air quality issues in Southern Europe. Edited by Bytnerowicz A. M. J., Riebau A. R., Andersen C., Developments in Environmental Science, 8: 209-231.

Möhler O., et al., 2007
Microbiology and atmospheric processes: the role of biological particles in cloud physics. Biogeosciences, 4: 1059–1071.

Monks P. S., et al., 2015
Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to short-lived climate forcer. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15: 8889-8973.

Moon J.-Y., et al., 2016
Temporal nutrient dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea in response to anthropogenic inputs, Geophysical Research Letters, 43: 5243-5251.

Morales-Baquero R., Pérez-Martínez C.,
2016 Saharan versus local influence on atmospheric aerosol deposition in the southern Iberian Peninsula: Significance for N and P inputs, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 30: 501-513.

Moulin C., Chiapello I., 2006
Impact of human induced desertification on the intensification of Sahel dust emission and export over the last decades. Geophysical Research Letters, 33: L18808.

Mrad Nakhlé M., et al., 2015
Short-term relationships between emergency hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and fine particulate air pollution in Beirut, Lebanon. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187: 196.

Nabat P., et al., 2012
Dust emission size distribution impact on aerosol budget and radiative forcing over the Mediterranean region: a regional climate model approach. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12: 10545-10567.

Nabat P., et al., 2013
A 4-D climatology (1979-2009) of the monthly tropospheric aerosol optical depth distribution over the Mediterranean region from a comparative evaluation and blending of remote sensing and model products. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 6: 1287-1314.

Nabat P., et al., 2014
Contribution of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to the changing Euro-Mediterranean climate since 1980. Geophysical Research Letters, 41: 5605–5611.

Nabat P., et al., 2015A
Dust aerosol radiative effects during summer 2012 simulated with a coupled regional aerosol–atmosphere–ocean model over the Mediterranean, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15: 3303-3326.

Nabat P., et al., 2015B
Dust aerosol radiative effects during summer 2012 simulated with a coupled regional aerosol–atmosphere–ocean model over the Mediterranean, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15: 3303-3326.

Nicolas J., 2014
Caractérisation Physico-Chimique de l’Aérosol Troposphérique en Méditerranée: Sources et Devenir. Thèse de Doctorat, Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines: 261 p.

Owen S. M., et al., 2001
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 40 Mediterranean plant species: VOC speciation and extrapolation to habitat scale, Atmospheric Environment, 35: 5393-5409.

Özsoy T., Örnektekin S., 2009
Trace elements in urban and suburban rainfall, Mersin, Northeastern Mediterranean, Atmospheric Research, 94: 203-219.

Pace G., et al., 2005
Forest fire aerosol over the Mediterranean basin during summer 2003. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110: D21202.

Pace G., et al. 2006
Aerosol optical properties at Lampedusa (Central Mediterranean). 1. Influence of transport and identification of different aerosol types. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6: 697-713.

Paoletti E., 2006
Impact of ozone on Mediterranean forests: A review. Environmental Pollution, 144: 463-474.

Papadimas C. D., et al., 2012
The direct effect of aerosols on solar radiation over the broader Mediterranean basin. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12: 7165–7185.

Pasqueron de Fommervault O., et al., 2015
Atmospheric input of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus to the Ligurian Sea: Data from the Cap Ferrat coastal time-series station, 106: 116-125.

Pausata F., et al., 2013
Impacts of changes in North Atlantic atmospheric circulation on particulate matter and human health in Europe. Geophysical Research Letters, 40: 4074-4080.

Pope III C. A., Dockery D. W., 2006
Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56: 709-742.

Pulido-Villena E., et al., 2008
Bacterial response to dust pulses in the western Mediterranean: Implications for carbon cycling in the oligotrophic ocean, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22.

Pulido-Villena E., et al., 2014
Microbial food web dynamics in response to a Saharan dust event: results from a mesocosm study in the oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea, Biogeosciences, 11, 5607-5619.

Querol X., et al., 2009
Variability in regional background aerosols within the Mediterranean. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9: 4575-4591.

Rahal F., et al., 2014
Modelling of air pollution in the area of Algiers City, Algeria. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 54.

Randel W. J., Park M., 2006
Deep convective influence on the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone and associated tracer variability observed with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Journal of Geophysical Research, 111: D12314.

Rea G., et al., 2015
Source contributions to 2012 summertime aerosols in the Euro-Mediterranean, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15: 8013-8036.

Renard J.-B., et al., 2016
LOAC: a light aerosols counter for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and of the main nature of atmospheric particles, 2. First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 9: 3673-3686.

Riahi K., et al., 2007
Scenarios of long-term socio-economic and environmental development under climate stabilization. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 74: 887-935.

Ricaud P., et al., 2014
Impact of the Asian monsoon anticyclone on the variability of mid-to-upper tropospheric methane above the Mediterranean Basin. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14: 11427-11446.

Ricaud P., et al., submitted
Overview of the Gradient in Longitude of Atmospheric constituents above the Mediterranean basin (GLAM) airborne summer campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.

Richards N. A. D., et al., 2013
The Mediterranean summertime ozone maximum: global emission sensitivities and radiative impacts, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 2331-2345.

Ridame C., et al., 2011
Nutrient control of N2 fixation in the oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea and the impact of Saharan dust events, Biogeosciences, 8: 2773-2783.

Ridame C., et al., 2014
Contrasted Saharan dust events in LNLC environments: impact on nutrient dynamics and primary production, Biogeosciences, 11, 4783-4800.

Rinaldi M., et al., 2013
Is chlorophyll a the best surrogate for organic matter enrichment in submicron primary marine aerosol. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 118: 4964–4973.

Roger J. C., et al., 2006
A synergetic approach for estimating the local direct aerosol forcing: Application to an urban zone during the Expérience sur Site pour Contraindre les Modèles de Pollution et de Transport d Emission (ESCOMPTE) experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111: D13208.

Rosenfeld D., et al., 2001
Desert dust suppressing precipitation: A possible desertification feedback loop. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98: 5975–5980.

Rudich Y., et al., 2008
Estimation of Transboundary Transport of Pollution Aerosols by Remote Sensing in the Eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Geophysicl Research – Atmospheres, 113: D14S13.

SALAMEH T., et al., 2014
Speciation of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) from anthropogenic sources in Beirut, Lebanon. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21: 10867-10877.

Salameh T., et al., 2015
Exploring the seasonal NMHC distribution in an urban area of the Middle East during ECOCEM campaigns: very high loadings dominated by local emissions and dynamics. Environmental Chemistry, 12: 316-328.

Salameh T., et al., 2016
Source apportionment vs. emission inventories of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in an urban area of the Middle East: local and global perspectives. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16: 3595–3607.

Salameh T., et al., Submitted
Composition of gaseous organic carbon during ECOCEM in Beirut, Lebanon: new observational constraints for VOC anthropogenic emission evaluation in the Middle East. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16: in discussion.

Sartelet K., et al., 2012
Impact of biogenic emissions on air quality over Europe and North America. Atmospheric Environment, 53: 131-141.

Scheeren H. A., et al., 2003
The impact of monsoon outflow from India and Southeast Asia in the upper troposphere over the eastern Mediterranean. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3: 1589-1608.

Schicker I., et al., 2010
Origin and transport of Mediterranean moisture and air. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10: 5089–5105.

Schucht S., et al., 2015
Moving towards ambitious climate policies: Monetised health benefits from improved air quality could offset mitigation costs in Europe. Environmental Science & Policy, 50: 252-269.

Schwier A. N., et al., 2015
Primary marine aerosol emissions from the Mediterranean Sea during pre-bloom and oligotrophic conditions: correlations to seawater chlorophyll a from a mesocosm study. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15: 7961–7976

Sciare J., et al., 2003
Aerosol sources and their contribution to the chemical composition of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea during summertime. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3: 291–302.

Sciare J., et al., 2008
Long-term measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean: evidence of long-range transport of biomass burning. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8: 5551-5563.

Sellegri K., et al., 2016
Evidence of atmospheric nanoparticle formation from emissions of marine microorganisms. Geophysical Research Letters, 43: 6596-6603.

Shohami D., et al., 2011
Warming and drying of the eastern Mediterranean: Additional evidence from trend analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116: D22101.

Shrivastava M., et al., 2015
Global transformation and fate of SOA: Implications of low volatility SOA and gas-phase fragmentation reactions. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere, 120: 4169-4195.

Sicard M., et al., 2014
Estimation of mineral dust long-wave radiative forcing: sensitivity study to particle properties and application to real cases in the region of Barcelona. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14: 9213–9231.

Spracklen D. V., et al., 2006
The contribution of boundary layer nucleation events to total particle concentrations on regional and global scales. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6: 5631–5648.

Spyrou C., et al., 2013
Modeling the radiative effects of desert dust on weather and regional climate. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 5489–5504.

Stafoggia M. et al., 2016
Desert dust outbreaks in Southern Europe: contribution to daily PM 10 concentrations and short-term associations with mortality and hospital admissions. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124:413-419.

Tanarhte M., et al., 2012
Intercomparison of temperature and precipitation data sets based on observations in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Journal of Geophysical Research, 117: D12102.

Teller A., Levin Z., 2006
The effects of aerosols on precipitation and dimensions of subtropical clouds: a sensitivity study using a numerical cloud model. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6: 67-80.

Teller A., et al., 2012
The effects of mineral dust particles, aerosol regeneration and ice nucleation parameterizations on clouds and precipitation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12: 9303–9320.

Theodosi C., et al., 2010
The significance of atmospheric inputs of soluble and particulate major and trace metals to the eastern Mediterranean seawater. Marine Chemistry, 120: 154-163.

Turquety S. et al., 2014
APIFLAME v1.0: high-resolution fire emission model and application to the Euro-Mediterranean region. Geoscientific Model Development, 7: 587-612.

Twomey S., 1980
Cloud nuclei in the atmosphere and the influence of nucleus concentrations levels in atmospheric physics. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 84: 1459-1463.

Tyrlis E., et al., 2014
On the linkage between the Asian summer monsoon and tropopause fold activity over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 119: 3202–3221.

Vali G., 1985
Nucleation terminology. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, 66: 1426-1427.

Vautard R., et al., 2013
The simulation of European heat waves from an ensemble of regional climate models within the EURO-CORDEX project. Climate Dynamics, 41: 2555-2575.

Vincent J., et al., 2016
Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and South-East of France. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16: 8749-8766.

Violaki K., et al., 2010
Long-term measurements of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in atmospheric deposition in the Eastern Mediterranean: Fluxes, origin and biogeochemical implications, Marine Chemistry, 120: 179-186.

Virtanen A., et al., 2010
An amorphous solid state of biogenic secondary organic aerosol particles. Nature, 467: 824-827.

Wagener T., et al., 2010
Effects of dust deposition on iron cycle in the surface Mediterranean Sea: results from a mesocosm seeding experiment, Biogeosciences, 7: 3769-3781.

Waked A., et al., 2012
An atmospheric emission inventory of anthropogenic and biogenic sources for Lebanon. Atmospheric Environment, 50: 88–96.

Wanger A., et al., 2000
Some observational and modelling evidence of long-range transport of air pollutants from Europe towards the Israeli coast. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105: 7177-7186.

Wehbeh F., et al., 2014
Time series analysis of air pollutants in Beirut, Lebanon. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 186: 8203-8213.

Wehbeh F., et al., 2016
Analysis of the continuous measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in order to quantify the short-term health effects of air pollution in Beirut, Lebanon. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, in press.

West J. J., et al., 2013
Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health. Nature climate change, 3: 885-889.

Who, 2013
Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution – REVIHAAP Project: final technical report, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, Bonn, Germany, 302 p.

Who, 2014
Health Statistics and Information System, http://gamapserver.who.int/mapLibrary.

Wuttig K., et al., 2013
Impacts of dust deposition on dissolved trace metal concentrations (Mn, Al and Fe) during a mesocosm experiment, Biogeosciences, 10: 2583-2600.

Yienger J. J., Levy II H., 1995
Empirical model of global soil-biogenic NO X emissions, Journal of Geophysical Research, 100: 11447-11464.

Young. P. J., et al., 2013
Pre-industrial to end 21st century projections of tropospheric ozone from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13: 2063-2090.

Yoshioka M., et al., 2005
Simulation of absorbing aerosol indices for African dust, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110: D18S17.

Zanis P., et al., 2012
Regional climate feedback of anthropogenic aerosols over Europe using RegCM3. Climate Research, 52: 267–278.

Zbinden et al., in preparation
Variability of pollutants and greenhouse gases during the airborne GLAM campaign. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.

Zhang X., et al., 2007
Ubiquity and dominance of oxygenated species in organic aerosols in anthropogenically-influenced Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. Geophysical Research Letters, 34: L13801.

Zhang X., et al., 2011
Light absorbing soluble organic aerosol in Los Angeles and Atlanta: A contrast in secondary organic aerosol. Geophysical Research Letters, 38: L21810.

Zhang Q. J.,et. al., 2015
Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15: 13973-13992.

Zhu S., et al., 2016
Three-dimensional modelling of the mixing state of particles over Greater Paris. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere, 121: 5930–5947.

Zittis G., et al., 2014
Role of soil moisture in the amplification of climate warming in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. Climate Research, 59: 27-37.

Ziv B., et al., 2004
The factors governing the summer regime of the eastern Mediterranean. International Journal of Climatology, 24: 1859-1871.

© IRD Éditions, 2016

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540

Lire

Freemium

open access

Offert par L’éditeur de ce site