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Rural societies in the face of climatic and environmental changes in West Africa

 | 
Benjamin Sultan
, 
Richard Lalou
, 
Mouftaou Amadou Sanni
, 
et al.

Part IV. Adaptation of farming systems, innovations

Chapter 19. Reintroducing livestock to increase the sustainability of village landscapes in West Africa

The case of groundnut basin in Senegal

Élise Audouin, Jonathan Vayssières, Mariana Odru, Dominique Masse, Séraphin Dorégo, Valérie Delaunay et Philippe Lecomte

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Introduction

In West Africa living conditions and food security improvement are still key issues (Lahmar et al., 2012). Farming systems sustainability is a priority in a context in which the rural population is dominant. Traditionally, integrated agro-sylvo-pastoral systems are in the majority in West Africa (Dugué et al., 2012; Jouve, 2001). They are based on the complementarity of ruminant herds and flocks of ruminants, cereal crops and trees (Jouve, 2001). The sustainability of these systems depends to a considerable degree on transfers of fertility from rangelands to cultivated fields via the night corralling of livestock (Freschet et al., 2008; Jouve, 2001). Among other things, these agrarian systems have had to adapt to changing rainfall patterns and strong demographic growth. Indeed, West Africa experienced a long drought period from 1970 to 1995 (Cormier et al., 2000) and the population doubled during the same period (Dongmo et al., 2010; FAO, 2003; Serpantié and Ouattara, 20...

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