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L’énergie dans le développement de la Nouvelle-Calédonie

 | 
Yves Le Bars
, 
Elsa Faugère
, 
Philippe Menanteau
, 
et al.

Section 2: Review and recommendations. English Version

In conclusion, summarised recommendations for four possible objectives

Texte intégral

1The five sections of this report examined the state of our knowledge on various aspects of energy and climate in New Caledonia and the diagnosis establishing the basis for the “New Caledonia 2025” Land Use and Development Plan. Each of these parts is concluded with between four and ten specific recommendations. Here we provide a summary of these recommendations.

2An expert report conducted over a field as broad as energy in the development of New Caledonia cannot provide a “turnkey” action plan. Indeed, like all collective scientific studies of this nature, it has neither the remit nor the opportunity. Instead, its essential added-value and the responsibility of any board of experts, is to provide a thorough and objective breakdown of the question posed and document the different aspects of the question by defining possible avenues and closing others. In addition, the board suggests alternative scenarios or responses for areas where these are appropriate. The stakeholders concerned must also be able to use these recommendations and integrate them into a process.

3These recommendations must work for the four objectives tailored specifically to New Caledonia and its development. The objectives should set out New Caledonia’s goals in three different areas:

4Reduce energy consumption, for which we suggest reversing the current trend of increasing demand for all forms of energy.

5Increase the use of local resources with the long-term objective of producing enough renewable electricity to cover the electricity consumption of households and services.

6Prevent climate change by encouraging New Caledonia’s commitment to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions.

7We have translated these objectives into ten recommendations, three of which relate to governance and developing policy for energy and green house gas reduction, which should extend the work undertaken in this report. These recommendations should be considered as priority guidelines that should be developed locally to guide current operational measures and promote those in the future.

Four objectives
Objective 1: Reverse the trend of increased energy consumption in the household, transport and industry sectors, with the aim of becoming a benchmark for the region.
Objective 2: Reduce fossil fuel imports by setting a goal to produce electricity using renewable sources that meets the consumption needs of households and services by a determined date.
Objective 3: Involve New Caledonia in the international fight against cli-mate change by progressively setting goals for stabilizing and reducing green-house gas emissions.
Objective 4: Setting up appropriate governance to suit energy policy, development, and the control of greenhouse gas emissions.

SUMMARISED RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Standards, regulations, and incentives for Objective 1

8Set up a system of instruments (information, incentives and regulation) for reducing energy consumption in households, transport and industry, with particular emphasis on temperature control, energy classification of household appliances, mandatory use of solar water heaters in new construction, bonus/penalty system for cars, and industry audits, among others.

9For more details, see the recommendations in part 1.

2. Train and educate, move energy and climate issues up the agenda of the New Caledonia debate

10Strengthen/develop efforts already in place to raise awareness of energy and climate issues through information (see ADEME in particular), education, and incentive campaigns aimed at changing the preferences and behaviour of New Caledonians.

11For more details, see recommendations from part 1, and no. 8 of part 5.

3. Develop wind power and photovoltaic electricity generation

12Continue to develop wind and solar generated electricity by defining suitable buy-back rates. Facilitate the integration of this intermittent generation by building hydraulic storage reservoirs (for pumping and turbines), providing coordination between generators, distributors, and power grid management, and by experimenting with “intelligent” power grids.

13For more details, see recommendations nos. 1, 2, and 3 in part 2.

4. On the islands

14Seek greater autonomy and better supply security on the islands by removing obstacles to the development of small, decentralized generation, bioenergy or hybrid systems, and look into the conditions to revive the copra system.

15For more details, see recommendations nos. 6 and 7 in part 2.

5. Use pricing policy to meet energy and climate challenges

16Establish energy pricing suited to energy and climate challenges in order to support efforts to control demand and develop renewable generation,: eliminate subsidies, look at the diesel / petrol balance, introduce an appropriate pricing policy in the electrical sector (base/peak), and study the possibility of adding a carbon value.

17For more details, see recommendations from part 1, and no. 7 of part 5.

6. Involve New Caledonia in the objectives of global climate stabilisation

18Conduct annual audits of greenhouse gas emissions; create an energy climate plan (reduction objectives, means of action) for New Caledonia and territorial climate plans for Grand Nouméa and for each of the three Provinces: define objectives and implement policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions including efforts to control energy demand and the development of renewable energies.

19For more details, see recommendations nos. 1, 2, and 4 in part 3.

20Explore the possibilities of reducing CO2 emissions in electricity generation and in the metal industry in three areas: energy savings, partial substitution of coal with biomass in boilers and reserving rights of use against future CO2 capture.

21For more details, see recommendations no. 6 in part 1, no. 4 in part 2, no. 3 part 3, no.3 in part 5.

7. Strengthen economic activities

22This involves:

  • Improving professional training efforts, particularly for those involved in construction (architects, engineering departments, construction companies, craftsmen, etc.), as well as training programmes for new “low energy consumption” technology and HQE schemes.
  • Using all of the economic instruments available to promote technological industries (including production/import, sales, equipment installation, maintenance, etc.) and businesses committed to meeting energy and cli-mate challenges, after examining all existing measures and identifying obstacles.
  • Providing all energy and climate stakeholders access to research and development, and locally, investing specifically in building techniques for tropical environments, as well as management and technology for mediumscale and small-scale power grids, and agricultural biomass production and energy generation in a developed tropical environment.

23These business sectors must make New Caledonia a benchmark for the region.

24For more details, see recommendations no. 8 in part 2, no. 5 in part 3, no. 1 in part 4, and no. 6 in part 5.

And with respect to governance:

258. Beyond this expert report, a process to define an energy and climate policy should be started. It should bring together all the stakeholders concerned and involve as many local experts as possible, under proper guidance and using the results of this report, in addition to more detailed studies on topics that merit further attention, according to the main principles and general objectives selected for this policy.

26For more details, see recommendations nos. 1 and 5 in part 5.

279. Distribute environmental, energy, and climate skills to maintain subsidiarity and coordination between local community policies and decisions made for the entire island of New Caledonia.

28For more details, see recommendations no. 4 of part 5.

2910. Strengthen cooperation with neighbouring States, or have the same specific restrictions for research, technical and institutional innovation (the framework of the United Nations climate convention included) and technology monitoring.

30For more details, see recommendations nos. 2,3 and 4 from part 4, and no. 6 of part 5.

© IRD Éditions, 2010

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