Version classiqueVersion mobile

Les anophèles

Pierre Carnevale
Vincent Robert


Texte intégral

Abdel-Malek A.A. et Abdel Aal M.A., 1966 – Study of the dispersion and flight range of Anopheles sergenti Theo. in Siwa Oasis using radioactive isotopes as markers. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 35 : 968-973.

Abdulla-Khan R., Coetzee M., Hunt R., 1998a – Description of Anopheles (Cellia) seretsei sp. nov. from Kasane, Botswana. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 14 : 248-252.

Abdulla-Khan R., Coetzee M., Hunt R., 1998b – Bionomics and cytogenetics of Anopheles seretsei Abdulla-Khan, Coetzee, and Hunt, a new species from northern Botswana. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 14 : 253-255.

Acree F., Turner R.B., Gouck H.K., Beroza M., Smith N., 1968 – L-Lactic acid : a mosquito attractant isolated from humans. Science, 161 : 1346-1347.

Adler M., Foster S., Grosskurth H., Richens J., Slavin H., 1998 – Sexually transmitted infections, guidelines for prevention and treatment. DFID Health and Population Occasional Paper, London.

Afrane Y.A., Lawson B.W., Githeko A.K., Yan G., 2005 – Effects of microclimatic changes caused by land use and land cover on duration of gonotrophic cycle of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera : Culicidae) in western Kenya highlands. J. Med. Entomol., 42 : 974-980.

Afrane Y.A., Zhou G., Lawson B.W., Githeko A.K., Yan G., 2006 – Effects of microclimatic changes caused by deforestation on the survivorship and reproductive fitness of Anopheles gambiae in western Kenya highlands. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 74 : 772-778.

Ahmadi A., Mac Clelland G.A.M., 1985 – Mosquito-mediated attraction of females mosquitoes to a host. Physiol. Entomol., 10 : 251-255.

Aikawa M., 1988 – Morphological changes in erythrocytes induced by malarial parasites. Biol. Cell, 64 (2) : 173-181.

Akogbeto M., 1995 – Étude entomologique sur la transmission du paludisme côtier lagunaire : cas d’un village construit sur un lac d’eau saumâtre. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 75 : 219-227.

Akogbeto M., 2000 – Le paludisme côtier lagunaire à Cotonou : données entomologiques. Cahiers Santé, 10 : 267-275.

Akogbeto M., Chippaux J.-P., Coluzzi M., 1992a – Le paludisme urbain côtier à Cotonou (Bénin). Étude entomologique. Rev. Épidémiol. Santé Publique, 40 : 233-239.

Akogbeto M., Modiano D., Bosman A., 1992b – Malaria transmission in the lagoon area of Cotonou, Benin. Parassitologia, 34 : 147-154.

Akogbeto M., Romano R., 1999 – Infectivité d’An. melas vis-à-vis du Plasmodium falciparum dans le milieu côtier lagunaire du Bénin. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 89 : 291-298.

Alio A.Y., Isaq M.A., 1982 – Field trial on the impact of Oreockroniis spilurus spilurus on malaria transmission in Northern Somalia. WHO/EM/MAL.191.

Alout H., Berthomieu A., Hadjivassilis A., Weill M., 2007 – A new amino-acid substitution in acetylcholinesterase 1 confers insecticide resistance to Culex pipiens mosquitoes from Cyprus. Insect Biochemistery and Molecular Biology, 37 (1) : 41-47.

Allan S.A., 1994 – Physics of mosquito vision - An overview. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 10 : 266-271.

Al-mashhadani H.M., Davidson G., Curtis C.F., 1980 – A genetic study of the susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium berghei. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 74 (5) : 585-594.

Alonso P.L., Lindsay S.W., Armstrong J.R., Conteh M., Hill A.G, David P.H., Fegan G., De Francisco A., Hall A.J., Shenton F.C. et al., 1991 – The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on mortality of Gambian children. Lancet, 337 (8756) : 1499-1502.

Alonso P.L., Lindsay S.W., Armstrong Schellenberg J.R., Keita K., Gomez P., Shenton F.C., Hill A.G., David P.H., Fegan G., Cham K. et al., 1993 – A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, West Africa. 6. The impact of the interventions on mortality and morbidity from malaria. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 87 Suppl 2 : 37-44.

Alten B., Caglar S.S., Simsek F.M., Kaynas S., 2003 – Effect of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria control in Southeast Anatolia-Turkey. J. Vector Ecol., 28 : 97-107.

Alten B., Kampen H., Fontenille D., 2007 – Malaria in Southern Europe : resurgence from the past ? In Takken W. and Knols B.G.J. eds. : Emerging Pests and Vector-Borne Diseases in Europe, Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands : 35-58.

Alves F.P., Durlacher R.R., Menezes M.J., Krieger H., Silva L.H.P., Camargo E.P., 2002 – High prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in native Amazonian populations. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 66 : 641-648.

Ambroise-Thomas P., Baudon D., Carnevale P., Mouchet J., Roux J., 1984 – « Malaria control in Malaria and Babesiosis ». In Ristic M. et al. : 2nd International Conference on Malaria and Babesiosis : 233-262.

Amenya D.A., Koekemoer L.L., Vaughan A., Morgan J.C., Brooke B.D., Hunt R.H., Ranson H., Hemingway J., Coetzee M., 2005 – Isolation and sequence analysis of P450 genes from a pyrethroid resistant colony of the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus. DNA Seq., 16 (6) : 437-445

Anderson R.A., Knols B.G., Koella J.C., 2000 – Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites increase feeding-associated mortality of their mosquito hosts Anopheles gambiae s.l. Parasitology, 120 : 329-333.

Andrade A.L., Martelli C.M.T., Oliveira R.M., Arias J.R., Zicker F., Pang L., 1995 – High prevalence of symptomatic malaria in gold mining areas in Brazil. Clin. Infec. Dis., 20 : 475.

Annan Z., Durand P., Ayala F.J., Arnathau C., Awono-Ambene P., Simard F., Razakandrainibe F.G., Koella J.C., Fontenille D., Renaud F., 2007 – Population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum in the two main African vectors, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104 (19) : 7987-7992.

Annett H.E., Dutton J.E., Elliott J.M., 1902 – Report of the malaria expedition to Nigeria of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology. Mémoire 3, part I. Malaria Fever. University of Liverpool Press.

Ansell J., Hu J.T., Gilbert S.C., Hamilton K.A., Hill A.V.S., Lindsay S.W., 2000 – Improved method for distinguishing the human source of mosquito blood meals beween close family members. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 94 : 572-574.

Ansell J., Hamilton K.A., Pindert M., Walvaren G.E.L., Lindsay S.W., 2002 – Short-range attractiveness of pregnant women to Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 9 : 113-116.

Antonio-Nkondjio C., Kerah C.H., Simard F., Awono-Ambene P., Chouaibou M., Tchuinkam T., Fontenille D., 2006 – Complexity of the malaria vectorial system in Cameroon : contribution of secondary vectors to malaria transmission. J. Med. Entomol., 43 : 1215-1221.

Antonio-Nkondjio C., Awono-Ambene P., Toto J.C., Meunier J.Y., Zebaze-Kemleu S., Nyambam R., Wondji C.S., Tchuinkam T., Fontenille D., 2002a – High malaria transmission intensity in a village close to Yaoundé, the capital city of Cameroon. J. Med. Entomol., 39 : 350-355.

Antonio-Knondjio C., Ndo C., Awono-Ambene P., Ngassam P., Fontenille D., Simard F., 2007 – Population genetic structure of the malaria Anopheles moucheti in South Cameroon forest region. Acta Trop., 101 : 61-68.

Antonio-Nkondjio C., Simard F., Awono-Ambene P., Ngassam P., Toto J.C., Tchuinkam T., Fontenille D., 2005 –Malaria vectors and urbanization in the equatorial forest region of South Cameroon. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 99 : 347-354.

Antonio-Nkondjio C., Simard F., Cohuet A., Fontenille D., 2002b – Morphological variability in the malaria vector, Anopheles moucheti, is not indicative of speciation : evidences from sympatric South Cameroon populations. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 45 : 1-4.

Aranda C., Aponte J.J., Saute F., Casimiro S., Pinto J., Sousa C., Rosario V.D., Petrarca V., Dgedge M., Alonsa P., 2005 – Entomological characteristics of malaria transmission in Manhica, a rural area in southern Mozambique. J. Med. Entomol., 42 : 180-186.

Arca B., Lombardo F., Capurro M., Della Torre A., Spanos L., Dimopoulos G., Louis C., James A.A., Coluzzi M., 1999a – Salivary gland-specific gene expression in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Parassitologia, 41 : 483-487.

Arca B., Lombardo F., De Lara Capurro M., Della Torre A., Dimopoulos G., James A.A., Coluzzi M., 1999b – Trapping cDNAs encoding secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96 : 1516-1521.

Arca B., Lombardo F., Lanfrancotti A., Spanos L., Veneri M., Louis C., Coluzzi M., 2002 – A cluster of four D7-related genes is expressed in the salivary glands of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Insect. Mol. Biol., 11 : 47-55.

Arez A.P., Palsso K., Pinto J., Franco A.S., Dinis J., Jaenson T.G.T., Snounou G., De Rosario V.E., 1997 – Transmission of mixed malaria species and strains by mosquitoes, as detected by PCR, in a study area in Guinea-Bissau. Parassitologia, 39 : 65-70.

Ariey F., Robert V., 2003 – The puzzling links between malaria transmission and drug resistance. Trends Parasitol., 19 (4) : 158-160.

Armengaud A., Legros F., Quatresous I., Barre H., Valayer P., Fanton Y., D’ortenzio E., Schaffner F., 2006 – A case of autochtonous Plasmodium vivax malaria, Corsica, August 2006. Eurosurveillance, 11 : 11.

Arness M.K., Bradshaw R.D., Biomndo K., Shanks G.D., 2003 – Epidemiology of highland malaria in western Kenya. East Afr. Med. J., 80 (5) : 253-259.

Aron J.L., May R.M., 1982 – « The population dynamics of malaria ». In Anderson R.M., ed. : The population dynamics of infectious diseases : theory and applications, London, Chapman, Hall : 139-179.

Asidi A.N., N’Guessan R., Koffi A.A., Curtis C.F., Hougard J.M., Chandre F., Corbel V., Darriet F., Zaim M., Rowland M.W., 2005 – Experimental hut evaluation of bednets treated with an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos-methyl) or a pyrethroid (lambdacyhalothrin) alone or in combination against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Malaria J., 4 : 25.

Assabri A.M., 1989 – The malariologic situation in the Yemen Arab Republic. Md. Parazitol. (Mosk.), 3 : 33-35.

Awolola T.S., Okwa, Hunt R.H., Ogunrinade A.F., Coetzee M., 2002 – Dynamics of the malaria-vector populations in coastal Lagos, south-western Nigeria. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 96 : 75-82.

Awolola T.S., Brooke B.D., Koekemoer L.L., Coetzee M., 2003 – Absence of the kdr mutation in the molecular “M” form suggests different pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. Trop. Med., Int. Hlth., 8 : 420-422.

Awono-Ambene H.P., Robert V., 1998 – Estimation of Plasmodium falciparum survival in Anopheles arabiensis. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 92 : 889-890.

Awono-Ambene H.P., Diawara L., Robert V., 2001 – Comparison of direct and membrane feeding methods to infect Anopheles arabiensis with Plasmodium falciparum. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 64 : 32-34.

Awono-Ambene H.P., Kengne P., Simard F., Antonio-Nkodjio C., Fontenille D., 2004 – Description and bionomics of Anopheles (Cellia) ovengensis (Diptera : Culicidae), a new malaria vector of the Anopheles nili group from South Cameroon. J. Med. Entomol., 41 : 561-568.

Awono-Ambene H.P., Simard F., Antonio-Nkondjio C., Cohuet A., Kengne P., Fontenille D., 2006 – Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis supports speciation within the Anopheles nili group of malaria vectors in Cameroon. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 75 (4) : 656-658.

Ayala D., Le Goff G., Robert V., De Jong P., Takken W., 2006 – Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus (Diptera : Culicidae) in Madagascar and Comoros. Acta Tropica, 97 : 292-300.

Bailey N.T.J., 1982 – The biomathematics of malaria. London, Charles Griffin Co Ltd.

Baimai V., 1988 – Population cytogenetics of the malaria vector Anopheles leucosphyrus group. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health, 19 : 667-680.

Baldari M., Tamburro A., Sabatinelli G., Romi R., Severini C., Cuccagna G., Fiorilli G., Allegri M.P., Buriani C., Toti M., 1998 – Malaria in Maremma, Italy. Lancet, 351 : 1246-1247.

Baldet T., Diabaté A., Guiguemde R.T., 2003 – La transmission du paludisme dans la zone rizicole de la vallée du Kou (Bama), (Burkina Faso). Cahiers Santé, 13 : 55-60.

Bangs M.J., Rusmiarto S., Gionar Y.R., Chan A.S., Dave K., Ryan J.R., 2002 – Evaluation of a dipstick malaria sporozoite panel assay for detection of naturally infected mosquitoes. J. Med. Entomol., 39 : 324-330.

Bafort J.M., Petrarca V., 1983 – Contribution to the knowledge of Anopheles melas and An. gambiae in West Africa. Annales de la Société Belge de Médecine Tropicale, 63 (2) : 167-170.

Barbazan P., Baldet T., Darriet F., Escaffre H., Djoda D.H., Hougard J.M., 1998 – Impact of treatments with Bacillus sphaericus on Anopheles populations and the transmission of malaria in Maroua, a large city in a savannah region of Cameroon. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 14 : 33-39.

Barnard D., 2000 – Repellents and toxicants for personal protection. Genève, OMS, WHO/CDS/CPE/WHOPES/GCDPP/2000.5.

Bassiouny H.K., Awad O.M., Ahmed M.H., 1999 – Bionomics of the anopheline vectors in an endemic area in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt. J. Egypt. Public Health Assoc., 74 : 241-261.

Bastianelli G., Bignami A., 1899 – Sullo sviluppo dei parassiti della terzana nell’Anopheles claviger. Atti d. Soc. Per gli Studi d. malaria, I : 28.

Bastianelli G., Bignami A., Grassi B., 1898 – Coltivatione delle semilune malariche dell’uomo nell’Anopheles claviger Faber (sinonomo Anopheles maculipennis, Meig). Nota preliminare. Atti Reale Accademia dei Lincei, S. 5, 7 : 313.

Bates M., 1949 – The natural history of mosquitoes. New York, The Mac Millan Co, 379 p.

Baton L.A., Ranford-Cartwright L.C., 2005a – How do malaria ookinetes cross the mosquito midgut wall ? Trends Parasitol., 21 : 22-28.

Baton L.A., Ranford-Cartwright L.C., 2005b – Spreading the seeds of million-murdering death : metamorphoses of malaria in the mosquito. Trends Parasitol., 21 : 573-580.

Baudon D., Brandicourt O., Roux J., Vaugelade J., Canevale P., Boudin C., Zander N., Chaize J., Ovazza L., 1983 – « Évaluation de deux types de stratégie de contrôle du paludisme en zone de savane arbustive et en zone rizicole : la chimioprophylaxie et la chimiothérapie des accès fébriles ». In : XXIIe Conf. Tech. OCCGE, Ouagadougou, 11-15 avril 1983.

Baudon D., Carnevale P., Ambroise-Thomas P., Roux J., 1987 – La lutte antipaludique en Afrique : de l’éradication du paludisme au contrôle des paludismes. Rev. Épidémiol. Santé Publ., 35 : 401-415.

Baudon D., Gazin P., Rea D., Carnevale P., 1985 – A study of malaria morbidity in a rural area of Burkina Faso (West Africa). Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 79 : 283-284.

Baudon D., Carnevale P., Robert V., Peyron F., Sibi Sona L., Gniminou L., 1986 – Étude épidémiologique du paludisme dans la région de Tillabéri, nord-ouest du Niger. Méd. Afr. Noire, 33 : 281-290.

Baudon D., Gazin P., Galaup B., Pellotier-Guinart E., Picq J.-J., 1988 – Fiabilité de l’examen clinique dans le diagnostic du paludisme en zone endémique d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Méd. Trop., 48 : 123-126.

Baudon D., Gazin P., Rea D., Galaup B., Boudin C., Molez J.-F., Sanou J.-M., Carnevale P., Ouedraogo L., Ouedraogo I., Kagone M., 1984a – Épidémiologie clinique : morbidité palustre, mortalité palustre. Études Médicales, 3 : 135-144.

Baudon D., Louis F.J., Martet G., 1996 – En Afrique : le paludisme urbain est le paludisme de demain. Méd. Trop., 56 : 323-325.

Baudon D., Martet G., 1997 – Paludisme et voyageurs : protection et information. Méd. Trop., 57 (4 bis) : 497-500.

Baudon D., Roux J., Carnevale P., Molez J.F., Gazin P., 1984b – Les paludismes en Afrique intertropicale – Stratégies de contrôle des paludismes. Études Médicale, 3 : 167-176.

Beach R.F., Ruebush T.K. 2nd, Sexton J.D., Bright P.L., Hightower A.W., Breman J.G., Mount D.L., Oloo A.J., 1993 – Effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated bed nets and curtains for malaria control in a holoendemic area of western Kenya. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 49 (3) : 290-300.

Beauperthuy L.D., 1854 – Transmission of Yellow Fever and Other Diseases by Mosquitoes. Gac. Official de Cumana, ano 4, 57, May 23, reproduced in R. Boyce (1909) : Mosquito or Man, London, J. Murray : 98.

Beebe N.W., Cooper R.D., Foley D.H., Ellis J.T., 2000 – Populations of the South-West Pacific malaria vector Anopheles farauti s.s. revealed by ribosomal DNA transcribed spacer polymorphisms. Heredity, 84 : 244-253.

Beebe N.W., Saul A., 1995 – Discrimination of all members of the Anopheles punctulatus complex by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53 : 478-481.

Beier J.C., 1998 – Malaria parasite development in mosquitoes. Bull. Ent. Res., 43 : 519-543.

Beier J.C., Beier M.S., Vaughan J.A., Pumpuni C.B., Davis J.R., Noden B.H., 1992a – Sporozoite transmission by Anopheles freeborni and Anopheles gambiae experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 8 (4) : 404-408.

Beier, J.C., Copeland R., Masinya A., Odago W.O., Oduor S., Koech D. K., Roberts C.R., 1990 – Anopheles gambiae complex egg-stage survival in dry soil from larval development sites in western Kenya. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 6 : 105-109

Beier J.C., Onyango F.K., Ramadhan M., Koros J.K., Asiago C.M., Wirtz R.A., Koech D.K., Roberts C.R., 1991 – Quantitation of malaria sporozoites in the salivary glands of wild afrotropical Anopheles. Med. Vet. Entomol., 5 : 63-70.

Beier J.C., Perkins P.V., Koros J.K., Onyango F.K., Gargan T.P., Wirtz R.A., Koech D.K., Roberts C.R., 1990 – Malaria sporozoites detection by dissection and ELISA to assess infectivity of afrotropical Anopheles. J. Med. Entomol., 27 : 377-384.

Beier J.C., Perkins P.V., Wirtz R.A., Koros J., Gargan T.P., Koech D.K., 1988 – Blood-meal identification by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tested on Anopheles (Diptera : Culicidae) in Kenya. J. Med. Entomol., 25 : 9-16.

Beier J.C., Vanderberg J.P., 1998 – « Sporogonic development in the mosquito ». In Sherman I.W. ed. : Malaria : parasite biology, pathogenesis, and protection, American Society for Microbiology Press : 49-61.

Beier M.S., Davis J.R., Pumpuni C.B., Noden B.H., Beier J.C., 1992b – Ingestion of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites during transmission by anopheline mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 47 : 195-200.

Beklemishev W.N., 1940 – [Le cycle trophogonique, principe de base de la biologie d’Anopheles]. Vop. Fiziol. Ekol. Malar. Komara, 1 : 3.

Beletskaia G.V., Aleskeev A.N., 1988 – Experimental demonstration of the possibility of Batai virus persistence in hibernating females mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles (Diptera : Culicidae). Med. Parazitol. (Mosk)., 4 : 23-27.

Bereczky S., Liljander A., Rooth I., Faraja L., Granath F., Montgomery S.M., Färnert A., 2007 – Multiclonal asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections predict a reduced risk of malaria disease in a Tanzanian population. Microbes Infect., 9 (1) : 103-110.

Besansky N.J., 1999 – Complexities in the analysis of cryptic taxa within the genus Anopheles. Parassitologia, 41 (1-3) : 97-100.

Besansky N., Lehmann T., Fahey G.T., Fontenille D., Braack L.E., Hawley W.A., Collins F.H., 1997 – Patterns of mitochondrial variation within and between African malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis, suggest extensive gene flow. Genetics, 147 : 1817-1828.

Bidlingmayer W.L., 1994 – How mosquitoes see traps : role of visual responses. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 10 : 272-279.

Bignami A., 1898a – Como si prendono le febbri malariche. Richerche speriment. Bull. della R. Accad. Med. Di Roma, 15th November.

Bignami A., 1898b – The Inoculation Theory of Malarial Infection. The Lancet, London, Dec. 3, 10.

Bigoga J.D., Manga L., Titanji V.P., Coetzee M., Leke R.G., 2007 – Malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in coastal south-western Cameroon. Malaria J., 6 : 5.

Bilbie I, Cristecu A., Enescu A., Tacu V., Giurca I., Cristodorescu Nicolescu G., 1978 – Up-to-date entomological aspects in the previously endemic areas of malaria in the Danube Plain and Dobrudja. Arch. Roum. Path. Exper. Microbiol., 37 : 389-397.

Billingsley P.F., 1990 – Blood digestion in the mosquito, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera : Culicidae) : partial characterization and post-feeding activity of midgut aminopeptidases. Arch. Ins. Biochem. Physiol., 15 : 149-163.

Billingsley P.F., 1994 – Vector-Parasite interactions for vaccine development. Intern. J. Parsitol., 24 : 53-58.

Billingsley P.F., Ruin W., 1992 – The role of the mosquito peritrophic membrane in bloodmeal digestion and infectivity of Plasmodium species. J. Parasitol., 78 : 430-440.

Billker O, Miller A.J., Sinden R.E., 2000 – Determination of mosquito bloodmeal pH in situ by ion-selective microelectrode measurement : implications for the regulation of malarial gametogenesis. Parasitology, 120 : 547-551.

Billker O., Shaw M.K., Margos G., Sinden R.E., 1997 – The roles of temperature, pH and mosquito factors as triggers of male and female gametogenesis of Plasmodium berghei in vitro. Parasitology, 115 : 1-7.

Binka F.N., Kubaje A., Adjuik M., Williams L.A., Lengeler C., Maude G.H., Armah G.E., Kajihara B., Adiamah J.H., Smith P.G., 1996 – Impact of permethrin impregnated bednets on child mortality in Kassena-Nankana district, Ghana : a randomized controlled trial. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1 (2) : 147-154.

Binka F.N., Hodgson A., Adjuik M., Smith T., 2002 – Mortality in a seven-and-a-half-year follow-up of a trial of insecticide-treated mosquito nets in Ghana. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 96 (6) : 597-599.

Birley M.H., Mutero C.M., Turner I.F., Chadwick P.R., 1987 – The effectiveness of mosquito coils containing esbiothrin under laboratory and field conditions. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 81 : 163-171.

Bismil’din F.B., Shapieva Z.Z., Anpilova E.N., 2001 – Current malaria situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Med. Parazitol., (Mosk), 1 : 24-33.

Black R.H., 1968 – Manual on epidemiology and epidemiological services in malaria programmes. World Health Org., Geneva.

Blanchy S., Julvez J., Mouchet J., 1999 – Stratification épidémiologique du paludisme dans l’archipel des Comores. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 92 : 177-184.

Boccolini D., Di Luca M., Marinucci M., Romi R., 2002 – Anopheles subalpinus (An. maculipennis complex) : does this species really exist ? Results of a molecular study. Parassitologia, 44 (suppl. 1) : 21.

Boccolini D., Carrara G.C., Dia I., Fortes F., Cani P.J., Costantini C., 2005 – Chromosomal differentiation of Anopheles funestus from Luanda and Huambo Provinces, western and central Angola. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 73 : 1071-1076.

Bockarie M.J., Alexander N., Bockarie F., Jbam E., Barnish G., Alpers M.,1996 – The late biting habit of parous Anopheles mosquitos and pre-bedtime exposure of humans to infective female mosquitoes. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 90 : 23-25.

Bøgh C., Clarke S.E., Pinder M., Sanyang F., Lindsay S.W., 2001 – Effect of passive zooprophylaxis on malaria transmission in The Gambia. J. Med. Entomol., 38 (6) : 822-828.

Bøgh C., Pedersen E.M., Mukoko D.A., Ouma J.H., 1998 – Permethrin-impregnated bednet effects on resting and feeding behaviour of lymphatic filariasis vector mosquitoes in Kenya. Med. Vet. Entomol., 2 (1) : 52-59.

Bolad A., Nebié I., Esposito F., Berzins K., 2004 – The use of impregnated curtains does not affect antibody responses against Plasmodium falciparum and complexity of infecting parasite populations in children from Burkina Faso. Acta Trop., 90 (3) : 237-247.

Bonnet S., Gouagna C., Safeukui I., Meunier J.Y., Boudin C., 2000 – Comparison of artificial membrane feeding with direct skin feeding to estimate infectiousness of Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers to mosquitoes. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 94 (1) : 103-106.

Bonnet S., Prevot G., Jacques B.J.C., Boudin C., Bourgoin C., 2001 – Transcripts of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae that are differentially regulated in the midgut upon exposure to invasive stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Cellular Microbiology, 3 : 449.

Bonsdorff M.V., 1991 – [Panorama of diseases in Finland’s Army during the Second World War]. Nordisk Medicin, 106 : 134-136.

Boreham P.F.L., Chandler J.A., Joly J., 1978 – The incidence of mosquitoes feeding on mothers and babies at Kisumu, Kenya. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 81 : 63-67.

Boudin C., Bonnet S., Tchuinkam T., Gouagna L.C., Gounoue R., Manga L., 1998 – L’évaluation des niveaux de transmission palustre : méthodologies et paramètres. Méd. Trop., 58 (1) : 69-75.

Boudin C., Lyannaz J., Bosseno M.-F., Chaize J., Carnevale P., 1989 – Production de sporozoïtes de Plasmodium humains à Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)]. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 69 (1) : 3-23.

Boudin C., Robert V., 2003 – Plasmodium falciparum : épidémiométrie de la transmission homme-moustique et de l’infection chez le vecteur. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Ex., 96 : 335-340.

Boudin C., Robert V., Verhave J.-P., Carnevale P., Meuwissen J., 1988 – Utilisation de la technique ELISA dans le dépistage des moustiques infectés par Plasmodium falciparum. Bull. Org. Mond. Santé, 66 : 87-97.

Bouma M., Rowland M., 1995 – Failure of passive zooprophylaxis : cattle ownership in Pakistan associated with high prevalence of malaria. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 89 : 351-353.

Bouwman H., Becker P.J., Cooppan R.M., Reinecke A.J., 1992 – Transfer of DDT used in malaria control to infants via breast milk. Bull. WHO, 70 : 241-250.

Bouwman H., Cooppan R.M., Becker P.J., Ngxongo S., 1991a – Malaria control and levels of DDT in serum of two populations in Kwazulu. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 33 (2) : 141-155.

Bouwman H., Cooppan R.M., Botha M.J., Becker, P.J., 1991b. Serum levels of DDT and liver function of malaria control personnel. S. Afr. Med. J., 79 : 326-329.

Bouwman H., Cooppan R.M., Reinecke A.J., Becker P.J., 1990 – Levels of DDT and metabolites in breast milk from Kwa-Zulu mothers after DDT application for malaria control. Bull. World Health Organ., 68 (6) : 761-768.

Bouwman H., Sereda B., Meinhardt H.M., 2006 – Simultaneous presence of DDT and pyrethroid residues in human breast milk from a malaria endemic area in South Africa. Environ. Pollut., 144 (3) : 902-917.

Boyd M.F., 1935 – On the schizogonous cycle of Plasmodium vivax, Grassi and Feletti. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 15 : 605-629.

Boyd M.F., 1949 – Malariology. A Comprehensive Survey of All Aspects of This Group of Diseases from a Global Standpoint. W.B. Saunders Company, 1643 p.

Boyd M.F., Cain T.L., Mulrennan J.A., 1935 – The insectary rearing of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 15 (3) : 385-402.

Brabin B.J., 1983 – An analysis of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 61 : 1005-1016.

Brabin B.J., Verhoeff F., Chimsuku L., 1996 – Malaria as a factor in low birth weight in Zaïre. Lancet, 347 (9000) : 552.

Braks M., 1999 – Human skin emanations in the host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. PhD Dissertation. Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.

Braks M.A.H., Takken W., 1999 – Incubated human sweat but not fresh sweat attracts the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. J. Chem. Ecol., 25 : 662-672.

Braks M.A., Anderson R.A., Knols B.G., 1999 – Infochemicals on mosquito host selection : human skin microflora and plasmodium parasites. Parasitol. Today, 15 : 409-413.

Brandicourt O., 1982 – Contribution à l’étude du paludisme et de sa relation avec la drépanocytose dans la région de Brazzaville. Thèse médecine, Paris, université Paris-VII.

Branquinho M.S., Lagos C.B., Rocha R.M., Natal D., Barata J.M., Cochrane A.H., Nardin E., Nussenzweig R.S., Kloetzel J.K., 1993 – Anophelines in the state of Acre, Brazil, infected with Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, the variant P. vivax VK247 and P. malariae. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 87 : 391-394.

Brengues J., Coz J., 1973 – Quelques aspects fondamentaux de la biologie d’Anopheles gambiae Giles (sp A) et d’An. funestus Giles en zone de savane humide d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., 11 : 107-126.

Brentlinger P.E., Correia M.A., Chinchacata F.S., Gimbel-Sherr K.H., Stubbs B., Mercer M.A., 2007 – Lessons learned from bednet distribution in Central Mozambique. Health Policy Plan., 22 : 103-110.

Brey P.T., 1999 – Host-parasite intimacy : how do mosquito defense reactions affect Plasmodium sporogonic development ? Parassitologia, 41 (1-3) : 177-180.

Briegel H., Lea A.O., 1975 – Relationship between protein and proteolytic activity in the midgut of mosquitoes. J. Insect Physiol., 21 : 1597-1604.

Brogdon W.G., Mcallister J.C., Vulule J., 1997 – Heme peroxidase activity measured in single mosquitoes identifies individuals expressing an elevated oxidase for insecticide resistance. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association, 13 (3) : 233-237.

Brooke B.D., Kloke G., Hunt R.H., Koekemoer L.L., Temu E.A., Taylor M.E., Small G., Hemingway J., Coetzee M., 2001 – Bioassay and biochemical analysis of insecticide resistance in southern African Anopheles funestus (Diptera : Culicidae). Bull. Ent. Res., 91 : 265-272.

Brown V., Abdir Issak M., Rossi M., Barboza P., Paugam A., 1998 – Epidemic of malaria in north-eastern Kenya. The Lancet, 352 : 1356-1357.

Bruce-Chwatt L.-J., 1983 – Paludisme et urbanisation. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 76 : 243-249.

Bruce-Chwatt L.-J., 1985 – Essential Malariology. Second edition, London, William Heinemann Medical Books Ltd, 452 p.

Brunhes J., Le Goff G., Geoffroy B., 1997 – Anophèles afrotropicaux. I. Descriptions d’espèces nouvelles et changements de statuts taxonomiques (Diptera : Culicidae). Ann. Soc. Entomol. France, 33 : 173-183.

Bruhnes J., Le Goff G., Geoffroy B., 1999 – Afro-tropical anopheline mosquitoes. III. Description of three new species : Anopheles carnevalei sp. nov., An. hervyi sp. nov. and An. dualaensis sp. nov., and resurrection of An. rageaui Mattingly and Adam. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 15 : 552-558.

Bryan J.H., 1983 – Anopheles gambiae and A. melas at Brefet, The Gambia, and their role in malaria transmission. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 77 : 1-12.

Bryan J.H., Petrarca V., Di Medo M.A., Coluzzi M., 1987 – Adult behaviour of members of the Anopheles gambiae complex in The Gambia with special reference to An. melas and its chromosomal variants. Parassitologia, 29 : 221-249.

Burgess R.W., 1962 – Preliminary experiments on the hybridization of Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles melas Theobald. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 11 : 702-704.

Burkot T.R., 1988 – Non-random host selection by Anopheline mosquitoes. Parasitol. Today, 4 : 156-161.

Burkhot T.R., Williams J.L., Schneider I., 1984 – Identification of Plasmodium falciparum infected mosquitoes by a double antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 33 : 783-788.

Butcher G.A., 1997 – Antimalarial drugs and the mosquito transmission of Plasmodium. Intern. J. Parasitol., 27 : 975-987.

Caccone A., Min G.S., Powell J.R., 1998 – Multiple origins of cytologically identical chromosome inversions in the Anopheles gambiae complex. Genetics, 150 (2) : 807-814.

Cai R., Li C.P., Zhan X.D., 2003 – Survey of overwintering grounds of adult mosquitoes in Huainan City. Zhonqquo Ji Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Bing Za Zhi, 21 : 310.

Calvo E., Mans B.J., Andersen J.F., Ribeiro J.M., 2006 – Function and Evolution of a mosquito salivary protein family. J. Biol. Chem., 281 : 1935-1942.

Cambournac F.J.C., Hill R.B., 1940 – Observation on the swarming of Anopheles maculipennis var. atroparvus. Am. J. Trop. Med., 20 : 133-140.

Campbell-Lendrum D., Corvalan C., Neira M., 2006 – Global climate change : implications for international public health policy. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 85 : 235-237.

Cano J., Desclazo M.A., Moreno M., Chen Z., Nzambo S., Bobuaskasi L., Buatiche J.N., Ondo M., Micha F., Benito A., 2006 – Spatial variability in the density, distribution and vectorial capacity of anopheline species in a high transmission village (Equatorial Guinea). Malaria J., 5 : 21.

Carnevale P., 1974 – Variations saisonnières d’une population d’Anopheles nili (Theobald) 1904 en République populaire du Congo. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd., XII : 165-174.

Carnevale, P., 1979 – Le paludisme dans un village des environs de Brazzaville (R. P. Congo). Thèse Dr Sc., Univ. Paris-Sud, n° 2175.

Carnevale P., 1998 – La protection du voyageur contre les piqûres d’arthropodes vecteurs. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 91 : 474-485.

Carnevale P., Boreham P. F. F., 1978 – Étude des préférences trophiques d’Anopheles nili (Theo.), 1904. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XVI (1-2) : 17-22.

Carnevale P., Bosseno M.-F., Molinier M., Lancien J., Le Pont F., Zoulani A., 1979 – Étude du cycle gonotrophique d’Anopheles gambiae (Diptera, Culicidae) (Giles, 1902) en zone de forêt dégradée d’Afrique centrale. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XVII : 55-75.

Carnevale P., Bosseno M.F., Zoulani A., 1978 – Étude du cycle gonotrophique d’Anopheles nili (Theo.), 1904. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XVI (1) : 43-52.

Carnevale P., Bosseno M.F., Zoulani A., Michel R., Molez J.-F., 1985 – La dynamique de la transmission du paludisme humain en zone de savane herbeuse et de forêt dégradée des environs nord et sud de Brazzaville, R. du Congo. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XXIII (2) : 95-115.

Carnevale P., Frézil J.-L., Bosseno M.-F., Le Pont F., Lancien J., 1978 – Étude de l’agressivité d’Anopheles gambiae A en fonction de l’âge et du sexe des sujets humains. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 56 : 147-154.

Carnevale P., Guillet P., Robert V., Fontenille D., Doannio J., Coosemans M., Mouchet J., 1999 – Diversity of malaria in rice growing areas of the Afrotropical region. Parassitologia, 41 : 273-276.

Carnevale P., Le Goff G., Toto J.C., Robert V., 1992 – Anopheles nili as the main vector of human malaria in villages of southern Cameroon. Med. Vet. Entomol., 6 : 135-138.

Carnevale P., Molinier M., Bosseno M.-F., Mouchet J., 1978 – Relations mathématiques dans la maturation des follicules ovariens des femelles pares d’Anopheles gambiae (Diptera : Culicidae). Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XVI (2) : 121-127.

Carnevale P., Molinier M., Mouchet J., 1977 – Relations mathématiques dans la maturation des follicules ovariens des femelles pares d’Anopheles nili (Theo.), 1904. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XV : 23-27.

Carnevale P., Mouchet J., 1980 – Le paludisme en zone de transmission continue en région afrotropicale. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XVIII (2) : 162-171.

Carnevale P., Mouchet J., 1997 – La protection individuelle contre les insectes vecteurs. Méd. Trop., 576 : 505-510.

Carnevale P., Mouchet J., 2001 – La lutte antivectorielle au Cameroun. Passé, présent et avenir. Réflexions. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 94 : 202-209.

Carnevale P., Robert V., Boudin C., Halna J.-M., Pazart L., Gazin P., Richard A., Mouchet J., 1988 – La lutte contre le paludisme par des moustiquaires imprégnées de pyréthrinoïdes au Burkina Faso. Bull Soc. Path. Exot., 81 : 832-846.

Carnevale P., Robert V., Le Goff G., Fondjo E., Manga L., Akogbeto M., Chippaux J.-P., Mouchet J., 1993 – Données entomologiques sur le paludisme urbain en Afrique tropicale. Cahiers Santé, 3 : 239-245.

Carnevale P., Robert V., Molez J.-F., Baudon D., 1984 – Épidémiologie générale : faciès épidémiologiques des paludismes en Afrique subsaharienne. Études Médicales, 3 : 123-133.

Carnevale P., Zoulani A., 1975 – Agressivité d’Anopheles nili (Theobald), 1904 à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur des maisons. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XIII (2) : 69-73.

Carrara G.C., Petrarca V., Niang M., Coluzzi M., 1990 – Anopheles pharoensis and transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in the Senegal River delta, West Africa. Med. Vet. Entomol. 4 : 421-424.

Carter R., Graves P. M., 1988. – « Gametocytes ». In Wernsdorfer W.H., McGregor I. eds. : Malaria. Principles and practice of malariology, Churchill Livingstone, 1 : 1-59.

Carter R., Mendis K.N., Roberts D., 2000 – Spatial targeting of interventions against malaria. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 78 : 1401-1411.

Carter V., Nacer A.M., Underhill A., Sinden R.E., Hurd H., 2007 – Minimum requirements for ookinete to oocyst transformation in Plasmodium. Int. J. Parasitol., 37 (11) : 1221-1232.

Carteron B., Morvan D., Rodhain F., 1978 – La question de l’endémie palustre en République de Djibouti. Méd. Trop., 38 : 299-304.

Casimiro S., Coleman M., Mohloai P., Hemingway J., Sharp B., 2006a – Insecticide resistance in Anopheles funestus (Diptera : Culicidae) from Mozambique. J. Med. Entomol., 43 : 267-275.

Casimiro S., Coleman M., Hemingway J., Sharp B., 2006b – Insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae from Mozambique. J. Med. Entomol., 43 : 276-282.

Cavalié P., Mouchet J., 1961 – Les campagnes expérimentales d’éradication du paludisme dans le nord de la République du Cameroun. I- Les vecteurs et l’épidémiologie du paludisme dans le Nord-Cameroun. Méd. Trop., 21 : 847-870.

CDC, 2004 – Multifocal autochthonous transmission of malaria. Florida, MMWR, 53 : 412-413.

Celli A., 1901 – Malaria According to the New Researches. London, Longmans, Green, Co.

Chadee D.D., 1994 – Seasonal abundance, biting cycle, and parity of the mosquito Anopheles homunculus in Trinidad. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 10 : 522-526.

Champagne D.E., Ribeiro J.M., 1994 – Sialokinin I and II : vasodilatory tachykinins from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91 (1) : 138-142.

Champagne D.E., Smartt C.T., Ribeiro J.M., James A.A., 1995 – The salivary gland-specific apyrase of the mosquito Aedes aegypti is a member of the 5’-nucleotidase family. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92 (3) : 694-698.

Champagne D.E., Valenzuala J.G., 1996 – « pharmacology of haematophagous arthropod saliva. » In Wikel S.K., ed. : The Immunology of host-ectoparasitic arthropod relationships, Wallingford, CAB international : 85-106.

Chandre F., Darriet F., Duchon S., Finot L., Manguin S., Carnevale P., Guillet P., 2000 – Modifications of pyrethroid effects associated with kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae. Med. Vet. Ent., 14 : 81-88.

Chandre F., Darriet F., Manga L., Agokbeto M., Faye O., Mouchet J., Guillet P., 1999a – Status of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 77 : 230-234.

Chandre F., Darriet F., Manguin S., Brengues C., Carnevale P., Guillet P., 1999b – Pyrethroid cross resistance spectrum among populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Côte d’Ivoire. J. Am. Mosq. Ctrl. Assoc., 15 : 53-59.

Chandre F., Manguin S., Brengues C., Dossou Yovo J., Darriet F., Diabaté A., Carnevale P., Guillet P., 1999c – Current distribution of a pyrethroid resistance gene (kdr) in Anopheles gambiae complex from West Africa and further evidence for reproductive isolation of the Mopti form. Parassitologia, 41 (1-3) : 319-322.

Charlwood J.D., Alecrim W.A., 1989 – Capture-recapture studies with the South American malaria vector Anopheles darlingi Root. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 83 : 569-576.

Charlwood J.D., Graves P.M., Marshall T.F., 1988 – Evidence for a “memorized” host range in Anopheles farauti females in Papua New Guinea. Med. Vet. Entomol., 2 : 101-108.

Charlwood J.D., Kihonda J., Sama S., Billingsley P.F., Heiz B., Taken W., 1995 – The rise and fall of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera : Culicidae) in a Tanzanian village. Bull. Ent. Res., 85 : 37-44.

Charlwood J.D., Pinto J., Sousa C.A., Madsen H., Ferreira C., Do Rosario V.E., 2002 – The swarming and mating behavior of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Dipetra : Culicidae) from Sao Tomé Island. J. Vect. Ecol., 27 : 178-183.

Charlwood J.D., Vij R., Billingsley P.F., 2000 – Dry season refugia of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in a dry-savannah zone of East Africa. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 62 : 726-732.

Charlwood J.D., Wilkes T.J., 1979 – Studies on the age composition of samples of Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera : Culicidae) in Brazil. Bull. Ent. Res., 69 : 337-342.

Charmot G., Roze J.-M., 1978 – Paludisme de forêt et de savane dans l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Bull. Sect. Géogr. 83 : 75-80.

Chauvet G., Benzerroug E. H., Djibo A., Doumbo O., Robert V., Touré Y., 1990 – Potentiel de transmission du paludisme dans la zone saharo-sahélienne de la route transsaharienne. Bull. Soc. Franç. Parasitol., 8 (suppl. 2) : 724

Checchi F., Cox J., Balkia S., Tamrat A., Priotto G., Alberti K.P., Guthmann J.P., 2006 – Malaria epidemics and interventions, Kenya, Burundi, southern Sudan, and Ethiopia, 1999-2004. Emerg. Inf. Dis., 12 : 1477-1485.

Chen B., Butlin R.K., Pedro P.M., Wang X.Z., Harbach R.E., 2006 – Molecular variation, systematics and distribution of the Anopheles fluviatilis complex in southern Asia. Med. Vet. Entomol., 20 : 33-43.

Chen B., Harbach R.E., Butlin R.K., 2002 – Molecular and morphological studies on the Anopheles minimus group of mosquitoes in southern China : taxonomic review, distribution and malaria vector status. Med. Vet. Entomol., 16 : 253-265.

Chen P., Tu Y., Wang F., Li F., Yang L., 1998 – [Effect of dihydroquinghaosu on the development of Plasmodium yoelii yoelii in Anopheles stephensi]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi, 16 : 421-424.

Chomcharin Y., Harinasuta T., 1981 – Blood volume ingested by Anopheles dirus using membrane feeding. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Pub. Hlth., 12 : 123-124.

Chouaïbou M., Etang J., Brévault T., Nwane P., Hinzoumbé C.K., Mimpfoundi R., Simard F., 2008 – Dynamics of insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. from an area of extensive cotton cultivation in Northern Cameroon. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 13 : 476-486.

Choumara R., Hamon J., Ricosse J., Bailly H., Adam J.-P., 1959 – Le paludisme dans la zone pilote de Bobo-Dioulasso, Haute-Volta. Cah. Orstom, n° 1, 123 p

Christophers S.R., 1911 – The Develoment Of The Egg Follicle In Anophelines. Paludism, 2 : 73-88.

Christophers S.R., Puri I.M., 1931 – Species and varieties of the funestus series of Anopheles. Rec. Malar. Surv. India, 2 : 481.

Christophides G.K., Zdobnov E., Barillas-Mury C., Birney E. et al., 2002 – Immunity-related genes and gene families in Anopheles gambiae. Science 298 (5591) : 159-165.

Clarke S.E., Bøgh C., Brown R.C., Pinder M., Walraven G.E., Lindsay S.W., 2001 – Do untreated bednets protect against malaria ? Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 95 (5) : 457-462.

Claustre J., Venturin C., Nadiré M., Fauran P., 2001 – Vecteurs de paludisme en Guyane française : étude dans un foyer épidémique proche de Cayenne (1989-1998). Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot., 94 (4) : 353-357.

Clements A.N., 1992 – The Biology of Mosquitoes. Vol 1. Development, nutrition and reproduction. London, Chapman, Hall pub., 509 p.

Clements A.N., 1999 – The Biology of Mosquitoes. Vol 2. Sensory reception and behaviour. Wallingford, CABI pub., 740 p.

Coatney G.R., Collins W.E., Warren MCW.,, Contacos P.G., 1971 – The Primate malarias. Washington, US Gov. Print. Off.

Coene J., 1993 – Malaria in urban and rural Kinshaha : the entomological input. Med. Vet. Entomol., 7 : 1217-137.

Coene J., Ngimbi P., Mulumba M.P., Wery M., 1989 – Ineffectiveness of mosquito coils in Kinshasa. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 83 : 568-569.

Coetzee M., Fontenille D., 2004 – Advances in the study of Anopheles funestus, a major vector of malaria in Africa. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol., 34 (7) : 599-605.

Coetzee M., Craig M., Le Sueur D., 2000 – Distribution of African malaria mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex. Parasitology Today, 16 : 74-77.

Coetzee M., Estrada-Franco J.G., Wunderlich C.A., Hunt R.H., 1999 – Cytogenetic evidence for a species complex within Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Theobald (Diptera : Culicidae). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60 (4) : 649-653.

Cohuet A., Dia I., Simard F., Raymond M., Fontenille D., 2004a – Population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Senegal based on microsatellite and cytogenetic data. Insect Mol. Biol., 13 : 251-258.

Cohuet A., Dia I., Simard F., Raymond M., Rousset F., Antonio-Nkondjio C., Awono-Ambene P.H., Wondji C.S., Fontenille D., 2005 – Gene flow between chromosomal forms of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Cameroon, Central Africa, and its relevance in malaria fighting. Genetics, 169 : 301-311.

Cohuet A., Osta M.A., Morlais I., Awono-Ambene P., Michel K., Simard F., Christophides G.K., Fontenille D., Kafatos F.C., 2006 – Anopheles and Plasmodium  : from laboratory models to natural systems in the field. EMBO Rep., 7 (12) : 1285-1289.

Cohuet A., Simard F., Toto J.C., Kengne P., Coetzee M., Fontenille D., 2003 – Species identification within the Anopheles funestus group of malaria vectors in Cameroon and evidence for a new species. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 69 (2) : 200-205.

Cohuet A., Simard F., Wondji C.S., Antonio-Nkondjio C., Awono-Ambene P., Fontenille D., 2004b – High malaria transmission intensity due to Anopheles funestus (Diptera : Culicidae) in a village of savannah-forest transition area in Cameroon. J. Med. Entomol., 41 : 901-905.

Coleman R.E., Polsa N., Eikarat N., Kollars T.M. Jr, Sattabongkot J., 2001 – Prevention of sporogony of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles dirus mosquitoes by transmission-blocking antimalarials. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65 : 214-218.

Collins F.H., Besansky N.J., 1994 – Vector biology and control of malaria in Africa. Science, 264 : 1874-1875.

Collins F.H., Kamau L., Ranson H.A., Vulule J.M., 2000 – Molecular entomology and prospects for malaria control. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 78 : 1412-1423.

Collins F.H., Paskewitz S.M., 1996 – A review of the use of ribosomal DNA to differentiate among cryptic Anopheles species. Insect Mol. Biol., 5 : 1-9.

Collins F.H., Sakai R.K., Vernick K.D., Paskewitz S., Seeley D.C., Miller L.H., Collins W.E., Campbell C.C., Gwadz R.W., 1986 – Genetic selection of a Plasmodium-refractory strain of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Science, 234 : 607-610.

Collins F.H., Saunders R.D.C., Kafatos F.C., Roth C., Ke Z., Wang X., Dymbrowski K., Ton L., Hogan J., 1999 – Genetics in the study of mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium. Parassitologia, 41 : 163-168.

Collins F.H., Zheng L., Paskewitz S.M., Kafatos F.C., 1997 – Progress in the map-based cloning of the Anopheles gambiae genes responsible for the encapsulation of malarial parasites. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 91 : 517-521.

Collins W.E., Jeffery GM., 1999a – A retrospective examination of sporozoite-and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum : development of parasitologic and clinical immunity during primary infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 61S : 4-19.

Collins W.E., Jeffery G.M., 1999b – A retrospective examination of sporozoite-and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum : development of parasitologic and clinical immunity following secondary infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 61S : 20-35.

Coluzzi M., 1966 – Observazioni comparative sur lcromosoma X nelle specie A e B del complesso Anopheles gambiae. R. Acad. Naz. Lindei, 40 : 671-678.

Coluzzi M., 1968 – Cromosomi politenici delle cellule nutrici ovariche del complesso gambiae del genere Anopheles. Parassitologia, 10 : 179-184.

Coluzzi M., 1970 – Sibling species in Anopheles and their importance in malariology. Misc. Pub. Ent. Soc. Am., 7 : 63-77.

Coluzzi M., 1982 – Spatial distribution of chromosomal inversions and speciation in Anopheline mosquitoes. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res., 96 : 143-153.

Coluzzi M., 1993 – Advances in the study of Afrotropical malaria vectors. Parassitologia, 35 : 23-29.

Coluzzi M., 1994 – Malaria and the Afrotropical ecosystems : impact of man-made environmental changes. Parassitologia, 36 : 223-227.

Coluzzi, M., 1999 – The clay feet of the malaria giant and its African roots : hypotheses and inferences about origin, spread and control of Plasmodium falciparum. Parassitologia, 41 : 277-283.

Coluzzi M., 2000 – Malaria eradication in Calabria, residual anopheles and transmission risk. Parassitologia, 42 : 211-217.

Coluzzi M., Petrarca V., Di Deco M.A., 1985 – Chromosomal inversion intergradation and incipient speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Boll. Zool., 52 : 45-63.

Coluzzi M., Sabatini A., 1967 – Cytogenetic observations on species A and B of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Parassitologia, 9 : 73-88.

Coluzzi M., Sabatini A., 1968 – Cytogenetic observations on species C of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Parassitologia, 10 : 155-166.

Coluzzi M., Sabatini A., Della Torre A., Di Deco M.A., Petrarca V., 2002 – A polytene chromosome analysis of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Science, 298 : 1415-1418.

Coluzzi M., Sabatini A., Petrarca V., Di Deco M.A., 1977 – Behavioral divergences between mosquitoes with different inversion karyotypes in polymorphic populations of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Nature, 266 : 832-833.

Coluzzi M., Sabatini A., Petrarca V., Di Deco M.A., 1979 – Chromosomal differentiation and adaptation to human environment in the Anopheles gambiae complex. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 73 : 483-497.

Combemale P., Deruaz D., Villanova D., Guillaumont P., 1992 – Les insectifuges ou les repellents. Ann. Dermatol. Vénéreol., 119 : 411-434.

Conn J.E., Bollback J.P., Onyabe D.Y., Robinson T.N., Wilkerson R.C., Povoa M.M., 2001 – Isolation of polymorphic microsatellite markers from the malaria vector Anopheles darlingi. Mol. Ecol. Notes, 1 : 223-225.

Conn J.E., Puertas Y.R., Seawright J.A., 1993 – A new cytotype of Anopheles nuneztovari from western Venezuela and Colombia. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 9 : 294-301.

Conn J.E., Rosa-Freitas M.G., Luz S.L., Momen H., 1999 – Molecular population genetics of the primary malaria vector Anopheles darlingi using mtDNA. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 15 : 468-474.

Conn J.E., Wilkerson R.C., Segura M.N., de Souza R.T., Schlichting C.D., Wirtz R.A., Póvoa M.M., 2002 – Emergence of a new neotropical malaria vector facilitated by human migration and changes in land use. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 66 : 18-22.

Connolly M.A., Gayer M., Ryan M.J., Salama P., Spiegel P., Heymann D.L., 2004 – Communicable diseases in complex emergencies : impact and challenges. Lancet, 364 : 1974-1983.

Conteh L., Sharp B.L., Streat E., Barreto A., Konar S., 2004 – The cost and cost-effectiveness of malaria vector control by residual insecticide house-spraying in southern Mozambique : a rural and urban analysis. Trop. Med. Int. Hlth., 9 : 125-132.

Coosemans M., 1985 – Comparaison de l’endémicité palustre en zone de riziculture et de culture du coton dans la plaine de la Rusizi, Burundi. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 65 : 187-200.

Coosemans M., Mouchet J., 1990 – Consequences of rural development on vectors and their control. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 70 : 5-23.

Coosemans M., Petrarca V., Barutwanayo M., Coluzzi M., 1989 – Species of the Anopheles gambiae complex and chromosomal polymorphism in a rice-growing area of the Rusizi Valley (Republic of Burundi). Parassitologia, 31 : 113-122.

Coosemans M., Wery M., Storme B., Hendrix L., Mfisi B., 1984 – Épidémiologie du paludisme dans la plaine de la Rusizi. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 64 : 135-158.

Corbel V., Chandre F., Darriet F., Lardeux F., Hougard J.M., 2003 – Synergism between permethrin and propoxur against Culex quinque-fasciatus mosquito larvae. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 17 (2) : 158-164.

Corbel V., Darriet F., Chandre F., Hougard J.M., 2002 – Insecticide mixtures for mosquito net impregnation against malaria vectors. Parasite, 9 (3) : 255-259.

Corbel V., N’Guessan R., Brengues C., Chandre F., Djogbenou L., Martin T., Akogbeto M., Hougard J.M., Rowland M., 2007 – Multiple resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus from Benin, West Africa. Acta Trop., 101 (3) : 207-216.

Cornel A.J., Coetzee M., Van Rensburg A.J., Koekemoer L.L., Hunt R.H., Collins F.H., 1997 – Ribosomal DNA-polymerase chain reaction assay discriminates between Anopheles quadriannulatus and An. merus (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol., 34 (5) : 573-577.

Cornel A.J., Porter C.H., Collins F.H., 1996 – Polymerase chain reaction species diagnostic assay for Anopheles quadrimaculatus cryptic species (Diptera : Culicidae) based on ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequences. J. Med. Entomol., 33 : 109-116.

Cornelie S., Remoué F., Doucoure S., Ndiaye T., Sauvage F.X., Boulanger D., Simondon F., 2007 – An insight into immuno-genetic salivary proteins of Anopheles gambiae in African children. Malaria J., 6 : 75.

Cork A., Park K.C., 1996 – Identification of electrophysiologically-active compounds for the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, in human sweat extracts. Med. Vet. Ent., 10 : 269-276.

Costantini C., 1996 – « Introduction III : odours for host-finding mosquitoes ». In Bock R.G., Cardew G. eds. : Olfaction in Mosquito-Host Interactions, UK, Chichester, John Wiley Sons Ltd, CIBA Foundation Symposium, : 124-131.

Costantini C., Besansky N., 2000 – Molecular entomology in Africa. Parasitol. Today, 16 (1) : 6-7.

Costantini C., Birkett M.A., Gibson G., Ziesmann J., Sagnon N’F., Mohammed H.A., Coluzzi M., Pickett J.A., 2001 – Electroantennogram and behavioural responses of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to human-specific sweat components. Med. Vet. Ent., 15 : 259-266.

Costantini C., Gibson G., Sagnon N., Della Tore A., Brady J., Coluzzi M., 1996a – Mosquito responses to carbon dioxide in a West Africain savanna village. Med. Vet. Ent., 10 : 220-227. NW

Costantini C., Li S.G., Della Torre A., Sagnon N’f., Coluzzi M., Taylor C.E., 1996b – Density, survival and dispersal of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes in a West African Sudan savanna village. Med. Vet. Entomol., 10 : 203-219.

Costantini C., Sanon N., Ilboudo-Sanogo E., Coluzzi M., Boccolini D., 1999 – Chromosomal and bionomic heterogeneities suggest incipient speciation in Anopheles funestus from Burkina Faso. Parassitologia, 41 : 595-611.

Costantini C., Sagnon N’f., Della Torre A., Diallo M., Brady J., Gibson G, Coluzzi M., 1998 – Odour-mediated host preferences of West African mosquitoes, with particular reference to malaria vectors. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 58 : 56-63.

Cot S., Matra R., Rabarijaona L., Robert V., Raharimalala L., Raveloson A., Ariey F., 2006 – Mise en évidence d’une transmission urbaine autochtone du paludisme à Antananarivo, Madagascar. Méd. Trop., 66 : 143-148.

Cottrell G., Mary J.Y., Barro D., Cot M., 2007 – The importance of the period of malaria infection during pregnancy on birth weight in tropical Africa. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76 : 849-854.

Councilman W.T., Abbott A.C., 1885 – A Contribution to the Pathology of Malarial Fever. Am. J. M. Sc., 89 : 416.

Coura J.R., Suare-Mutis M., Ladeia-Andrade S., 2006 – A new challenge for malaria control in Brazil : asymptomatic Plasmodium infection : A Review. Mem. Inst. Osw. Cruz, 101 : 229-237.

Coz J., Gruchet H., Chauvet G., Coz M., 1961 – Estimation du taux de survie chez les anophèles. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 54 : 1353-1358.

Coz J., Picq J.J., 1972 – Étude au laboratoire de la réceptivité à Laverania falcipara d’Anopheles gambiae A et Anopheles gambiae B. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot., 65 : 668-675.

Coyne J.A., Orr H.A., 1998 – The evolutionary genetics of speciation. Philo. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci., 353 : 287-305.

Cracraft, J., 1983 – Species concepts and Speciation analysis. Curr. Ornithol., 1 : 159-187.

Craig M.H., Snow R.W., Le Sueur D.A., 1999 – A climate-based distribution model of malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Parasitology Today, 15 : 105-111.

Crampton J.M., Stowell S.L., Karras M., Sinden R.E., 1999 – Model systems to evaluate the use of transgenic haematophagous insects to deliver protective vaccines. Parassitologia, 41 (1-3) : 473-477.

Crampton J.M., Warren A., Lycett G.J., Hugues M.A., Comley I.P., Eggleston P., 1994 – Genetic manipulation of insect vectors as a strategy for the control of vector-borne disease. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 88 : 3-12.

Crews-Oyen A.E., Kumar V., Collins F.H., 1993 – Association of two esterase genes, a chromosomal inversion and susceptibility to Plasmodium cynomolgi in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 49 : 341-347.

Cross A.P., Singer B., 1991 – Modelling the development of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 85, 349-355.

Cuadros J., Calvente M.J., Benito A., Arévalo J., Calero M.A., Segura J., Rubio J.M., 2002 – Plasmodium ovale Malaria Acquired in Central Spain. Em. Inf. Dis., 8 : 1506-1508.

Cuamba N., Choi K.S., Townson H., 2006 – Malaria vectors in Angola : distribution of species and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae complex, their pyrethroid insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr) status and Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates. Malaria J., 5 : 2.

Curtis C.F., Jana-Kara B., Maxwell C.A., 2003 – Insecticide-treated nets : impact on vector populations and relevance of initial intensity of transmission and pyrethroid resistance. J. Vector Borne Dis., 40 (1-2) : 1-8.

Curtis C.F., Lines J.D., 1987 – Insecticides in the management of insect vectors of tropical disease. Insect Science and its Application, 8 : 709-714.

Curtis C.F., Otoo L.N., 1986 – A simple model of the build-up of resistance to mixtures of antimalarial drugs. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 80 : 889-892.

Czeher C., Labbo R., Djibrilla A., Here L., Arzika I., Duchemin J.B., 2006 – ELISA study of oocyst-spozoite transition in malaria vectors. Parasite, 13 : 257-261.

D’Alessandro U., Coosemans M., 1997 – Concerns on long-term efficacy of an insecticide-treated bednet programme on child mortality. Parasitol. Today, 13 : 124-125.

D’Alessandro U., Olaleye B.O., McGuire W., Langerock P., Bennett S., Aikins M.K., Thomson M.C., Cham M.K., Cham B.A., Greenwood B.M., 1995a – Mortality and morbidity from malaria in Gambian children after introduction of an impregnated bednet programme. Lancet, 345 (8948) : 479-483.

D’Alessandro U., Olaleye B.O., McGuire W., Thomson M.C., Langerock P., Bennett S., Greenwood B.M., 1995b – A comparison of the efficacy of insecticide-treated and untreated bed nets in preventing malaria in Gambian children. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 89 (6) : 596-598.

Dalvie M.A., Myers J.E., Thompson M.L., Dyer S., Robins T.G., Omar S., Riebow J., Molekwa J., Kruger P., Millar R., 2004 – The hormonal effects of long-term DDT exposure on malaria vector-control workers in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Environmental Research, 96 : 9-19.

Daniel T.L., Kingsolver J.G., 1983 – Feeding strategy and their mechanics of flood sucking in insects. J. Theo. Biol., 105 : 661-672.

Danielova V., 1975 – Overwintering of mosquito-borne viruses. Med. Biol., 53 : 282-287.

Danis M., Mouchet J., Giacomini T., Gillet P., Legros F., Belkaid M., 1996 – Paludisme autochtone et introduit en Europe. Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses, 26 : 393-396.

Darriet F., Robert V., Tho Vien N., Carnevale P., 1984 – Évaluation de l’efficacité sur les vecteurs de paludisme de la perméthrine en imprégnation sur les moustiquaires intactes et trouées. WHO/VBC/ 84.899 et WHO/MAL/84.1008.

Darriet F., N’Guessan R., Carnevale P., 2000 – Évaluation en cases-pièges de l’effet protecteur de moustiquaires non imprégnées d’insecticides dans la prévention des piqûres d’Anopheles gambiae s.s. Cahiers Santé, 10 : 413-417.

Darriet F., N’Guessan R., Hougard J.-M., Traoré-Lamizana M., Carnevale P., 2002 – Un outil expérimental indispensable à l’évaluation des insecticides : les cases pièges. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 95 : 299-303.

Das M.K., Prasad R.N., 1991 – Evaluation of mosquito fish Gambusia affinis in the control of mosquito breeding in rice fields. Indian J. Malariol., 28 : 171-177.

Daskova N.G., Rasnicyn S.P., 1982 – Review of data on susceptibility of mosquito in the USSR to imported strains of malaria parasites. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 60 : 893-897.

David J.P., Strode C., Vontas J., Nikou D., Vaughan A., Pignatelli P.M., Louis C., Hemingway J., Ranson H., 2005 – The Anopheles gambiae detoxification chip : a highly specific microarray to study metabolic-based insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102 (11) : 4080-4408.

Davidson G., 1964 – The five mating-types in the Anopheles gambiae complex. Rivista di Malariologia, 13 : 167-183.

Davidson G., Jackson C.E., 1962 – Incipient speciation in Anopheles gambiae Giles. Bull. Wld. Hth. Organ., 27 : 303-305.

Debboun M., Frances S.P., Strickman D., 2007 – Insects Repellents. Principles, Methods, and Uses. CRC Press, 495 p.

De Jong R., Knols B.G.J., 1995a – Olfactory responses of host seeking Anopheles gambiae ss Giles (Diptera : Culicidae). Acta Tropica, 59 : 333-335.

De jong R., Knols B.G.J., 1995b – Selection of biting sites on man by two malaria mosquito species. Experientia, 51 : 80-84.

De Jong R., Knols B.G.J., 1996 – Selection biting sites by mosquitoes. In : Olfaction in mosquito-hots interactions, Wiley, United Kingdom, Ciba Foundation : 89-108.

Dekker T., Takken W., Knols B.G.J., Bouman E., De Laak S., De Bever A., Huisman P.W.T., 1998 – Selection of biting sites on a human host by Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus. Entomol. Exp. Appl., 87 : 295-300.

Della Torre A., Fanello C., Akogbeto M., Dossou-Yovo J., Favia G., Petrarca V., Coluzzi M., 2001 – Molecular evidence of incipient speciation within Anopheles gambiae s.s. in West Africa. Insect Mol. Biol., 10 : 3-7.

Della Torre A., Tu Z., Petrarca V., 2005 – On the distribution and genetic differentiation of Anopheles gambiae s.s. molecular forms. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol., 35 : 755-769.

De Meillon B., 1934 – Observations on Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae in the Transvaal. Publ. S. Afr. Inst. Med. Res., 6 : 195-248.

De Meillon B., van Eeden G.J., Coetzee L., Coetzee M., Meiswinkel R., du Toit L.N., Hansford C.F., 1977 – Observations of a species of the Anopheles funestus subgroup, a suspected exophilic vector of malaria parasites in north-eastern Transvaal, South Africa. Mosq. News, 37 : 657-661.

De Merida A.M., Palmieri M., Yurrita M., Molina E., Black W.C., 1999 – Mitochondrial DNA variation among Anopheles albimanus populations. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 61 : 230-239.

Dempster T.E., 1848 – Notes on the Application of the Test of Organic Disease of the Spleen as an Easy and Certain Method of Detecting Malarious Localities in Hot Climate. Reprinted in Rec. Mal. Surv. India, 1 : 69.

Dennett J.A., Meisch M.V., 2000 – Effectiveness of aerial-and ground-applied Bacillus formulations against Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae in Arkansas rice plots. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 16 (3) : 229-233.

Deparis X., Frere B. Lamizana M., N’Guessan R., Leroux F., Lefevre P., Finot L., Hougard J.M., Carnevale P., Gillet P., Baudon D., 2004 – Efficacy of permethrin-treated uniforms in combination with DEET tropical repellent for protection of French military troops in Côte d’Ivoire. J. Med. Entomol., 41 (5) : 914-921.

Desfontaine M., Gelas H., Cabon H., Goghomou A., Kouaka Bemba D., Carnevale P., 1990 – Évaluation des pratiques et des coûts de lutte antivectorielle à l’échelon familial en Afrique centrale. II- La ville de Douala (Cameroun). Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 70 : 137-144.

Desfontaine M., Gelas H., Kouka Bemba D., Goghomou A., Carnevale P., 1989 – Évaluation des pratiques et des coûts de lutte antivectorielle à l’échelon familial en Afrique centrale. I- Enquête dans la ville de Yaoundé (Cameroun). Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 82 : 558-565.

Detinova T.S., 1962 – Age-grouping methods in Diptera of medical importance with special reference to some vectors of malaria. Wld. Hlth. Org., Monogr. Series : 47, 216p.

Develoux M., Chegou A., Prual A., Olivar M., 1994 – Malaria in the oasis of Bilma, Republic of Niger. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 88 : 644.

Devine T.L., Venard C.E., Myser W.C., 1965 – Measurement of salivation by Aedes aegypti (L.) feeding on a living host. J. Ins. Physiol., 11 : 347-353.

De Zoysa A.P., Mendis C., Gamage-Mendis A.C., Weerasinghe S., Herath P.R., Mendis K.N., 1991 – A mathematical model for Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission : estimation of the impact of transmission-blocking immunity in an endemic area. Bull. World Health Organ., 69 (6) : 725-734.

Dia, I., Boccolini D., Antonio-Nkondjio C., Costantini C., Fontenille D., 2000 – Chromosomal inversion polymorphism of Anopheles funestus from forest villages of South Cameroon. Parassitologia, 42 : 227-229.

Dia I., Diop T., Rakotoarivony I., Kengne P., Fontenille D., 2003 – Bionomics of Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. arabiensis Patton, An. Funestus Giles and An. nili (Theobald) (Diptera : Culicidae) and transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Sudano-Guinean zone (Ngari, Senegal). J. Med. Entomol., 40 (3) : 279-283.

Dia I., Konaté L., Samb B., Sarr J.B., Diop A., Rogerie F., Faye M., Riveau G., Remoué F., Diallo M., Fontenille D., 2008 – Bionomics of malaria vectors and relationship with malaria transmission and epidemiology in three physio-graphic zones in the Senegal River Basin. Acta Tropica, 105 : 145-153.

Dia I., Lochouarn L., Diatta M., Sokhna C.S., Fontenille D., 2002 – Comparaison de deux méthodes de capture pour l’échantillonnage des populations d’An. funestus Giles dans un village de savane soudanienne (Dielmo, Sénégal). Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 95 : 124-126.

Diabaté A., Baldet T., Chandre C., Dabiré K.R., Kengne P., Guiguemde T.R., Simard F., Guillet P., Hemingway J., Hougard J.M., 2003 – KDR mutation, a genetic marker to assess events of introgression between the molecular M and S forms of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera : Culicidae) in the tropical savannah area of West Africa. J. Med. Entomol., 40 (2) : 195-198.

Diabaté A., Baldet T., Chandre F., Dabiré K.R., Simard F., Ouedraogo J.B., Guillet P., Hougard J.M., 2004a – First report of a kdr mutation in Anopheles arabiensis from Burkina Faso, West Africa. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 20 : 195-196.

Diabaté A., Baldet T., Chandre F., Guiguemde R.T., Brengues C., Guillet P., Hemingway J., Hougard J.M., 2002 – First report of the kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae M form from Burkina Faso, West Africa. Parassitologia, 44 : 157-158.

Diabaté A., Brengues C., Baldet T., Dabiré K.R., Hougard J.M., Akogbeto M., Kengne P., Simard F., Guillet P., Hemingway J., Chandre F., 2004b – The spread of the Leu-Phe kdr mutation through Anopheles gambiae complex in Burkina Faso : genetic introgression and de novo phenomena. Trop. Med., Int. Hlth., 9 : 1267-1273.

Diabaté A., Dabiré R.K., Kengne P., Brengues C., Baldet T., Ouari A., Simard F., Lehmann T., 2006 – Mixed swarms of the molecular M and S forms of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera : Culicidae) in sympatric area from Burkina Faso. J. Med. Entomol., 43 (3) : 480-483.

Diabaté A., Dabiré R.K., Millogo N., Lehmann T., 2007 – Evaluating the effect of postmating isolation between molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol., 44 (1) : 60-64.

Diallo D.A., Cousens S.N., Cuzin-Ouattara N., Nebié I., Ilboudo-Sanogo E., Esposito F., 2004 – Child mortality in a West African population protected with insecticide-treated curtains for a period of up to 6 years. Bull. World Health Organ., 82 (2) : 85-91.

Diallo D.A., Sutherland C., Nebié I., Konate A.T., Ord R., Ilboudo-Sanogo E., Greenwood B.M., Cousens S.N., 2007 – Children in Burkina Faso who are protected by insecticide-treated materials are able to clear drug-resistant parasites better than unprotected children. J. Infect. Dis., 196 (1): 138-144.

Diatta M., Spiegel A., Lochouarn L., Fontenille D., 1998 – Similar feeding preferences of Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis in Senegal. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 92 : 270-272.

Diebner H.H., Eichner M., Molineaux L., Collins W.E., Jeffery G.M., Dietz K., 2000 – Modelling the transition of asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum to gametocytes. J. Theor. Biol., 202 : 113-127.

Dietz K., 1988 – « Mathematical models for transmission and control of malaria. » In Wernsdorfer W., McGregor I. eds. : Principles and practice of malariology, Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone : 1091-1133.

Dietz K., Molineaux L., Thomas A., 1974 – A malaria model tested in the African savannah. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 50 : 347-357.

Dietz K., Raddatz G., Molineaux L., 2006 – Mathematical model of the first wave of Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasitemia in non-immune and vaccinated individuals. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 75 (2 Suppl) : 46-55.

Dimond J.B., Lea A.O., Hahnert W.F., De Long D.M., 1956 – « The amino-acids required from egg production in insects ». In : Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Ent. Montreal, Canada, vol. 2.

Dimopoulos G., 2003 – Insect immunity and its implication in mosquito-malaria interactions. Cell. Microbiol., 5 : 3-14.

Dimopoulos G., Christophides G.K., Meister S., Schultz J., White K.P., Barillas-Mury C., Kafatos F.C., 2002 – Genome expression analysis of Anopheles gambiae : responses to injury, bacterial challenge, and malaria infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99 : 8814-8819.

Dimopoulos G., Muller H.M., Kafatos F.C., 1999 – How does Anopheles gambiae kill malaria parasites ? Parassitologia, 41 : 169-175.

Dimopoulos G., Muller H.M., Levashina E.A., Kafatos F.C., 2001 – Innate immune defense against malaria infection in the mosquito. Curr. Opin. Immunol., 13 : 79-88.

Dimopoulos G., Richman A., Müller H.M., Kafatos F.C., 1997 – Molecular immune responses of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae to bacteria and malaria parasites. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94 (21) : 11508-11513.

Dimopoulos G., Seeley D., Wolf A., Kafatos F.C., 1998 – Malaria infection of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae activates immune-responsive genes during critical transition stages of the parasite life cycle. EMBO J., 17 (21) : 6115-6123.

Diop A., Molez J.-F., Konaté L., Fontenille D., Gaye O., Diouf M., Diagne M., Faye O., 2002 – Le rôle d’Anopheles melas Theobald (1903) dans la transmission du paludisme dans la zone de mangrove du Saloum (Sénégal). Parasite, 9 : 239-246.

Djogbénou L., Chandre F., Berthomieu A., Dabire R., Koffi A., Alout H., Weill M., 2008a – Evidence of introgression of the ace-1R mutation and of the ace-1 duplication in West African Anopheles gambiae s. s. PLoS One, 3, e2172.

Djogbénou L., Dabiré R., Diabaté A., Kengne P., Akogbeto M., Hougard J.M., Chandre F., 2008b – Identification and geographic distribution of the ace-1R mutation in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in South-Western Burkina Faso, West Africa. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 78 (2), 298-302.

Djogbénou L., Weill M., Hougard J.M., Raymond M., Akogbeto M., Chandre F., 2007 – Characterization of insensitive acetyl-cholinesterase (ace-1R) in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera : Culicidae) : resistance levels and dominance. J. Med. Entomol., 44 (5) : 805-810.

Dong Y., Aguilar R., Xi Z., Warr E., Mongin E., Dimopoulos G., 2006 – Anopheles gambiae immune responses to human and rodent Plasmodium parasite species. PLoS Pathog., 2 (6) : e52.

Donnelly M.J., Mccali P.J., Lengeler C., Bates I., d’Alessandro A., Barnish G., Konradsen F., Klinkenberg E., Townson H., Trape J.F., Hastings I.M., Mutero C., 2005 – Malaria and urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria J., 4 : 12-17.

Donnelly M.J., Simard F., Lehmann T., 2002 – Evolutionary studies of malaria vectors. Trends Parasitol., 18 (2) : 75-80.

Donnelly M.J., Townson H., 2000 – Evidence for extensive genetic differentiation among populations of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Eastern Africa. Insect Mol. Biol., 9 : 357-367.

Dossou-Yovo J., Diarrassouba S., Doannio J., Darriet F., Carnevale P., 1999 – Le cycle d’agressivité d’Anopheles gambiae s.s. à l’intérieur des maisons et la transmission du paludisme dans la région de Bouaké (Côte d’Ivoire). Intérêt de l’utilisation de la moustiquaire imprégnée. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 92 : 198-200.

Dossou-Yovo J., Doannio J.M., Diarrassouba S., Chauvancy G., 1998 – L’impact de la riziculture sur la transmission du paludisme dans la ville de Bouaké, Côte d’Ivoire. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 91 : 327-333.

Dossou-Yovo J., Doannio J., Rivière F., Duval J., 1994 – Rice cultivation and malaria transmission in Bouaké city (Côte d’Ivoire). Acta Trop., 57 (1) : 91-94.

Douady C. J., Delsuc F., Boucher Y., Doolittle W.F., Douzery E.J., 2003 – Comparison of Bayesian and maximum likelihood bootstrap measures of phylogenetic reliability. Mol. Biol. Evol., 20 : 248-254.

Doudier B., Bogreau H., DeVries A., Ponçon N., Stauffer W.M. 3rd, Fontenille D., Rogier C., Parola P., 2007 – Possible autochthonous malaria from Marseille to Minneapolis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13 (8) : 1236-1238.

Doumbo O., Koita O., Traoré S.F., Sangare O., Coulibaly A., Robert V., Soula G., Quilici M., Touré Y. T., 1991 – Les aspects parasitologiques de l’épidémiologie du paludisme dans le Sahara malien. Médecine d’Afrique noire, 38 : 103-109.

Duboz P., 1982. Mortalité et morbidité infantile et juvénile en République populaire du Congo. Cah. Orstom, sér. Sci. Hum., XX (2) : 157-169.

Duchemin J.B., Leong Pock Tsy J.M., Rabarison P., Roux J., Coluzzi M., Costantini C., 2001 – Zoophily of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in Madagascar demonstrated by odour-baited entry traps. Med. Vet. Ent., 15 : 50-57.

Durrheim D.N., Govere J.M., 2002 – Malaria outbreak control in an African village by community application of a “deet” mosquito repellent to ankles and feet. Med. Vet. Ent., 16 : 112-115.

Dusfour, I., Linton Y.M., Cohuet A., Harbach R.E., Baimai V., Trung H.D., Seng C.M., Matusop A., Manguin S., 2004 – Molecular evidence of speciation between island and continental populations of Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Diptera : Culicidae), a principal malaria vector taxon in Southeast Asia. J. Med. Entomol., 41 : 287-295.

Dusfour I., Michaux J.R., Harbach R.E., Manguin S., 2007 – Speciation and phylogeography of the Southeast Asian Anopheles sundaicus complex. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 7 : 484-493.

Dutertre J., 1976 – Étude d’un modèle épidémiologique appliqué au paludisme. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 56 : 127-141.

Dutta P., Bhattacharyya D.R., Khan S.A., Sharma C.K., Mahanta J., 1996 – Feeding patterns of Anopheles dirus, the major vector of forest malaria in north east India. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health, 27 (2) : 378-381.

Dye C., Hasibeder G., 1985 – « patterns of mosquito-host contact and disease population dynamics ». In Lounibos L.P., Rey J., Frank J.H. : Ecology of Mosquitoes, Proceedings of a workshop, Florida Medical Entomology Lab., Vero Beach Fl.

Dye C., Hasibeder G., 1986 – Population dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases : effects of flies which bite some people more frequently than others. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 80 : 69-77.

Eamsila C., Frances S.P., Strickman D., 1994 – Evaluation of permethrin-treated military uniforms for personal protection against malaria in northeastern Thailand. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 10 : 515-521.

Edman J., Day J., Walker E., 1985 – « Vector-host Interplay-Factors affecting disease transmission ». In Lounibos L.P., Rey J., Frank J.H. eds. : Ecology of Mosquitoes, Proceedings of a workshop, Florida Medical Entomology Lab., Vero Beach Fl.

Eichner M., Diebner H.H., Molineaux L., Collins W.E., Jeffery G.M., Dietz K., 2001 – Genesis, sequestration and survival of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes : parameter estimates from fitting a model to malariotherapy data. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 95 : 497-501.

Eling W., Gemert G.J., Akinpelu O., Curtis J., Curtis C.F., 2003 – Production of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites by Anopheles plumbeus. European Mosquito Bulletin, 15 : 12-13.

Elliott R., 1972 – The influence of vector behavior on malaria transmission. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 21 : 755-763.

Erlanger T.E., Enayati A.A., Hemingway J., Mshinda H., Tami A., Lengeler C., 2004 – Field issues related to effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets in Tanzania. Med. Vet. Entomol., 18 (2) : 153-160.

Escalante A.A., Cornejo O.E., Freeland D.E., Poe A.C., Durrego E., Collins W.E., LAL A.A., 2005 – A monkey’s tale : The origin of Plasmodium vivax as a human parasite. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102 : 1980-1985.

Escudié A., Hamon J., 1961 – Le paludisme en Afrique occidentale d’expression française. Méd. Trop., 21 : 661-687.

Etang J., Fondjo E., Morlais I., Brengues C., Nwane P., Chouaibou M., Ndjemai H., Simard F., 2006 – First report of knockdown mutations in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae from Cameroon. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 74 : 795-797.

Etang J., Manga L., Toto J.C., Guillet P., Fondjo E., Chandre F., 2007 – Spectrum of metabolic-based resistance to DDT and pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Cameroon. J. Vector Ecol., 32 (1) : 123-133.

Etchegorry M.G., Matthys F., Galinski M., White N.J., Nosten F., 2001 – Malaria epidemic in Burundi. Lancet, 357 : 1046-1047.

Evans A.M., 1931 – A new subspecies of Anopheles funestus Giles from Southern Rhodesia. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 25 : 545.

Fairley T.L., Povoa M.M., Conn J.E., 2002 – Evaluation of the Amazon River delta as a barrier to gene flow for the regional malaria vector, Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera : Culicidae) in northeastern Brazil. J. Med. Entomol., 39 : 861-869.

Fairley T.L., Renaud T.M., Conn J.E., 2000 – Effects of local geographic barriers and latitude on population structure in Anopheles punctipennis (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol., 37 : 754-760.

Fanello C., Petrarca V., della Torre A., Santolamazza F., Dolo G., Coulibaly M., Alloueche A., Curtis C.F., Touré Y.T., Coluzzi M., 2003 – The pyrethroid knock-down resistance gene in the Anopheles gambiae complex in Mali and further indication of incipient speciation within An. gambiae s.s. Insect Molecular Biology, 12 (3) : 241-245.

Faraj C., Adlaoui E., Rhajaou M., Lyagoubi M., 2003 – Estimation of malaria transmission in high-risk provinces of Morocco. East Mediterr. Health J., 9 : 542-547.

Favia G., Della Torre A., Bagayoko M., Lanfrancotti A., Sagnon N., Touré Y.T., Coluzzi M., 1997 – Molecular identification of sympatric chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae and further evidence of their reproductive isolation. Insect Mol. Biol., 6 : 377-383.

Faye O., Fontenille D., Hervé J.-P., Diack P.-A., Diallo S., Mouchet J., 1993 – Le paludisme dans la région sahélienne du Sénégal. 1- Observations entomologiques. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 73 : 31-36.

Faye O., Fontenille D., Gaye O., Sy N., Molez J.-F., Konaté L., Hébrard G., Hervé J.-P., Trouillet J., Diallo S., Mouchet J., 1995a – Paludisme et riziculture dans le delta du fleuve Sénégal (Sénégal). Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 75 : 179-189.

Faye O., Gaye O., Konaté L., Molez J.-F., Feller-Dansokho E., Hervé J.-P., 1998 – Prédiction et prévention des épidémies de paludisme dans la vallée du fleuve Sénégal. Cah. Santé, 8 : 347-352.

Faye O., Gaye O., Fontenille D., Hébrard G., Konaté L., Sy N., Hervé J.-P., Touré S., Diallo S., Molez J.-F., Mouchet J., 1995b – La sécheresse et la baisse du paludisme dans les Niayes du Sénégal. Cah. Santé, 5 : 299-305.

Faye O., Konaté L., Mouchet J., Fontenille D., Sy N., Hebrard G., Hervé J.P., 1997 – Indoor resting by outdoor biting females of Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera : Culicidae) in the Sahel of northern Senegal. J. Med. Entomol., 34 : 285-289.

Feldmann A.M., Gemert G.J., Vegte-Bolmer M.G., Jansen R.C., 1998 – Genetics of refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Med. Vet. Entomol., 12 : 302-301.

Feldmann A.M., Ponnudurai T., 1989 – Selection of Anopheles stephensi for refractoriness and susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 3 (1) : 41-52.

Fernandez-Salas I., Roberts D.R., Rodriguez M.H., Rodriguez Mdel C., Marina-Fernandez C.F., 1993 – Host selection patterns of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis under insecticide spraying situations in southern Mexico. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 9 (4) : 375-384.

Fettene M., Koekemoer L.L., Hunt R.H., Coetzee M., 2002 – PCR assay for identification of Anopheles quadriannulatus species B from Ethiopia and other sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Med. Vet. Entomol., 16 (2) : 214-217.

Fettene M., Temu E.A., 2003 – Species-specific primer for identification of Anopheles quadriannulatus sp. B (Diptera : Culicidae) from Ethiopia using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. J. Med. Entomol., 40 : 112-115.

Feyereisen R., 2006 – Evolution on insect P450. Biochem. Soc. Trans., 34 : 1252-1255.

Filion G.J.P., Paul R.E.L., Robert V., 2006 – Transmission and imunity : the importance of heterogeneity in the fight against malaria. Trends Parasitol., 22 (8) : 345-348.

Fillinger U., Knols B.G., Becker N., 2003 – Efficacy and efficiency of new Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines in Western Kenya. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 8 (1) : 37-47.

Finlay C., 1881 – El mosquito hipoteticamente considerado como agente de transmisión de la Fiebre Amarilla. Anales de la Real Academia de Ciencias Médicas, Físicas y Naturales de la Habana, 18 : 147.

Fletcher M., Teklehaimanot A., Yemane G., 1992 – Control of mosquito larvae in the port city of Assab by an indigenous larvivorous fish, Aphanius dispar. Acta Trop., 52(2-3): 155-166.

Fletcher M., Teklehaimanot A., Yemane G., Kassahun A., Kidane G., Beyene Y., 1993 – Prospects for the use of larvivorous fish for malaria control in Ethiopia : search for indigenous species and evaluation of their feeding capacity for mosquito larvae. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 96 (1) : 12-21.

Foley, D.H., Bryan J.H., 1993 – Electrophoretic keys to identify members of the Anopheles punctulatus complex of vector mosquitoes in Papua New Guinea. Med. Vet. Entomo., 7 : 49-53.

Foley D.H., Paru R., Dagoro H., Bryan J.H., 1993 – Allozyme analysis reveals six species within the Anopheles punctulatus complex of mosquitoes in Papua New Guinea. Med. Vet. Entomol., 7 : 37-48.

Fondjo E., Robert V., Le Goff G., Toto J.-C., Carnevale P., 1992 – Le paludisme urbain à Yaoundé, Cameroun : 2- Étude entomologique dans deux quartiers peu urbanisés. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 85 : 57-63.

Fontaine R.E., Najjar A.E., Prince J.S., 1961 – The 1958 malaria epidemic in Ethiopia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 10 : 795-803.

Fontenille D., Lepers J.P., Coluzzi M., Campbell G.H., Rakotoarivony I., Coulanges P., 1992 – Malaria transmission and vector biology on Sainte-Marie Island, Madagascar. J. Med. Entomol., 29 : 197-202.

Fontenille D., Lochouarn L., Diatta M., Sakhna C., Dia I., Diagne N., Lemasson J.J., Ba K., Tall A., Rogier C., Trape J.F., 1997 – Four years’ entomological study of the transmission of seasonal malaria in Senegal and the bionomics of An. gambiae and An. arabiensis. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 91 : 647-652.

Fontenille D., Meunier J.Y., Nkondjo C.A., Tchinkam T., 2001 – Use of circumsporozoites protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay compared with microsocopic examination of salivary glands for calculation of malaria infectivity rates in mosquitoes (Diptera : Culicidae) from Cameroon. J. Med. Entomol., 38 : 451-454.

Fontenille, D., Wanji S., Djouaka R., Awono-Ambene H.-P., 2000 – Anopheles hancocki, vecteur secondaire du paludisme au Cameroun. Bulletin de liaison et de documentation de l’OCEAC, 33 : 23-26.

Fossmark R., Bergstrom A., 1994 – Malaria in Norway : a tropical disease of the track? Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforen, 114 : 3643-3645.

Fowler R.E., Billingsley P.F., Pudney M., Sinden R.E., 1994 – Inhibitory action of the anti-malarial compound atovaquone (566C80) against Plasmodium berghei ANKA in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Parasitology, 108 : 383-388.

Francischetti I.M., Valenzuela J.G., Ribeiro J.M., 1999 – Anophelin : kinetics and mechanism of thrombin inhibition. Biochemistry, 38 : 16678-16685.

Francischetti I.M., Valenzuela J.G., Pham V.M., Garfield M.K., Ribeiro J.M., 2002 – Toward a catalog for the transcripts and proteins (sialome) from the salivary gland of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. J. Exp. Biol., 205 : 2429-2451.

Freyvogel T. A., 1980 – À propos des relations hôtes/parasites entre moustiques et plasmodium. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XVIII (2) : 149-186.

Frizzi G., 1953 – Cytogenetic study of Anopheles maculipennis in Italy ; extension of research to other species of Anopheles. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 9 : 335-344.

Galtier J., Blanchy S., 1982 – Le paludisme à Mayotte et son évolution de 1976 à 1981. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XX (2) : 145-151.

Gamage-Mendis A.C., Carter R., Mendis C., De Zoysa A.P., Herath P.R., Mendis K.N., 1991 – Clustering of malaria infections within an endemic population : risk of malaria associated with the type of human housing construction. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 45 : 77-85.

Garnham P.C.C., 1945 – Malaria epidemics at exceptionally high altitudes in Kenya. Brit. Med. J., 14 july : 45-47.

Garnham P.C.C., 1948 – The incidence of malaria at high altitudes. J. Natl. Mal. Soc. (USA), 7 : 275-284.

Garrett-Jones C., 1950 – A dispersion of mosquitoes by wind. Nature (London), 165 : 285.

Garrett-Jones C., 1962 – The possibility of active long distance migration by Anopheles pharoensis Theobald. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 27 : 299-302.

Garrett-Jones C., 1964 – Prognosis for interruption of malaria transmission through assessment of the mosquito’s vectorial capacity. Nature (London), 204 : 1173-1175.

Garros C., Harbach R.E., Manguin S., 2005a – Morphological assessment and molecular phylogenetics of the Funestus and Minimus Groups of Anopheles (Cellia). J. Med. Entomol., 42 : 522-536.

Garros C., Harbach R.E., Manguin S., 2005b – Systematics and biogeographical implications of the phylogenetic relationships between members of the Funestus and Minimus groups of Anopheles (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol., 42 : 7-18.

Garros C., Koekemoer L.L., Coetzee M., Coosemans M., Manguin S., 2004a – A single multiplex assay to identify major malaria vectors within the African Anopheles funestus and the Oriental An. minimus groups. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 70 : 583-590.

Garros C., Koekemoer L.L., Kamau L., Awolola T.S., Van Bortel W., Coetzee M., Coosemans M., Manguin S., 2004b – Restriction fragment length polymorphism method for the identification of major African and Asian malaria vectors within the Anopheles funestus and An. minimus groups. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 70 : 260-265.

Garros C., Van Bortel W., Trung H.D., Coosemans M., Manguin S., 2006 – Review of the Minimus Complex of Anopheles, main malaria vector in Southeast Asia : from taxonomic issues to vector control strategies. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 11 (1) : 102-114.

Gass R.F., Yeates R.A., 1979 – In vitro damage of cultured ookinetes of Plasmodium gallinaceum by digestive proteinases from susceptible Aedes aegypti. Acta Tropica, 36 : 243-252.

Gay-Andrieu F., Adehossi E., Lacroix V., Gagara M., Ibrahim M.L., Kourna H., Boureima H., 2005 – Epidemiological, clinical and biological features of malaria among children in Niamey, Niger. Malaria J., 4 (1) : 10.

Gazin P., Cot M., Sana S., Halna J.-M., Pazart L., Legrand D., Boillot F., Robert V., Carnevale P., 1988a – La part du paludisme dans les consultations d’un dispensaire sahélien. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 68 : 15-25.

Gazin P., Ovazza L., Brandicourt O., Ouari B., Legros F., 1983 – « Études transversales sur le paludisme dans plusieurs villages de la région de Bobo-Dioulasso ». In : XXIIe Conf. Techn. OCCEGE, Ouagadougou, avril 1983.

Gazin P., Robert V., Carnevale P., 1985 – Étude longitudinale des indices paludologiques de deux villages de la région de Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 65, suppl. 2 : 181-186.

Gazin P., Robert V., Carnevale P., 1987 – Le paludisme urbain à Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). 2- Les indices parasitologiques. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XXV (1) : 27-31.

Gazin P., Robert V., Cot M., Simon J., Halna J.-M., Darriet F., Legrand D., Carnevale P., Ambroise-Thomas P., 1988b – Le paludisme dans l’Oudalan, région sahélienne du Burkina Faso. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 68 : 255-264.

Georghiou G.P., Pasteur N., Hawley M.K., 1980 – Linkage relationships between organo-phosphate resistance and a highly active esterase-B in Culex quinquefaciatus from California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 73 (2) : 301-305.

Gelfand H.M., 1955 – Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles melas Theobald in a coastal area of Liberia, West Africa. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 49 (6) : 508-527.

Ghebreyesus T.A., Haile M., Witten K.H., Getachew A., Yohannes M., Teklemaimanot H.D., Lindsay S.W., Byass P., 1999 – Incidence of malaria among children living near dams in northern Ethiopia : community-based incidence survey. Brit. Med. J., 319 : 663-666.

Ghosh S.K., Tiwari S.N., Sathyanarayan T.S., Sampah T.R., Sharma V.P., Nanda N., Joshi H., Adak T., Subbarao S.K., 2005 – Larvivorous fish in wells target the malaria vector sibling species of the Anopheles culicifacies complex in villages in Karnataka, India. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 99 : 101-105.

Gibson G., 1996 – Genetics, Ecology and behaviour of anophelines. Ciba Found. Symp., 200 : 22-37.

Giglioli M.E., 1964 – Tides, salinity and breeding of Anopheles melas (Theobald, 1903) during the dry season in the Gambia. Rivista di Malariologia, 43 : 245-63.

Giglioli M.E., 1965. Oviposition by Anopheles melas and its effect on egg survival during the dry season in the Gambia, West Africa. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 58 (6) : 885-891.

Giles G.M., 1902 – A handbook of the gnats or mosquitoes. 2nd Edn, London, John Bale, Sons, Danielsson, 511 p.

Gillet J.D., 1957 – Age-analysis in the biting cycle of the mosquito Taenyorhychus (Mansonicides) africanus Theobald based on the presence of parasitic mites. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 51 : 151-559.

Gillies M.T., 1953 – The duration of the gonotrophic cycle in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, with a note on the efficiency of hand catching. E. Afr. Med. J., 30 : 129-135.

Gillies M.T., 1956 – A new character for the recognition of nulliparous females of Anopheles gambiae. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 15 : 451-459.

Gillies M.T., 1958 – A review of some recent Russian publications on the technique of age determination in Anopheles. Trop. Dis. Bull., 55 : 713-731.

Gillies M.T., 1961 – Studies on the dispersion and survival of Anopheles gambiae Giles in East Africa, by means of marking and release experiments. Bull. Ent. Res., 52 : 99-127.

Gillies M.T., 1980 – The role of carbon dioxide in host-finding by mosquitoes (Diptera : Culicidae) : a review. Bull. Ent. Res., 70 : 525-532.

Gillies M.T., 1988 – « Anopheline mosquitos : vector behaviour and bionomics ». In Wernsdorfer W.H., Mac Gregor I. eds. : Malaria. Principles and Practice of Malariology, Churchill Livingstone : 453-486.

Gillies M.T., Coetzee M., 1987 – A supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa south of the Sahara. 2nd ed., Pub. South Afr. Inst. Med. Res., 55, 143 p.

Gillies M.T., De Meillon B., 1968 – The Anophelinae of Africa south of the Sahara. Pub. South Afr. Inst. Med. Res., 54, 343 p.

Gillies M.T., Wilkes T.J., 1965 – A study of the age-composition of populations of Anopheles gambiae Giles and A. funestus Giles in North-Eastern Tanzania. Bull. Ent. Res., 56 : 237-262.

Gillies M.T., Wilkes T.J., 1976 – The vertical distribution of some West African mosquitoes (Diptera : Culicidae) over open farmland in a fresh water area of The Gambia. Bull. Ent. Res., 66 : 5-15.

Ginsberg H.S., 2001 – Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector borne diseases. J. Vector Ecol., 26 (1) : 32-38.

Gison G., Torr S.J., 1999 – Visula and olfactory responses of hematophagous Diptera to host stimuli. Med. Vet. Ent., 13 : 2-23.

Githeki K.A., Service M.W., Mbogo M.C., Atielo K.F., Jumba O.F., 1994 – Origin of blood meal in indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in western Kenya. Acta Tropica, 58 : 307-316.

Gladen B.C., Klebanoff M.A., Hediger M.L., Katz S.H., Barr D.B., Davis M.D., Longnecker M.P., 2004 – Prenatal DDT exposure in relation to anthropometric and pubertal measures in adolescent males. Environ. Health Perspect., 112 (17) : 1761-1767.

Gokhale K., Patole M., Shouche Y.S., 2007 – Understanding Anopheles and Plasmodium interactions : lessons from the real world. J. Biosci., 32 (6) : 1045-1047.

Gokool S., Smith D.F., Curtis C.F., 1992 – The use of PCR to help quantify the protection provided by impregnated bednets. Parasitol. Today, 8 : 347-350.

Golgi C., 1929 – « Gli Studi di Camillo Golgi sulla Malaria Raccolt e ordinate del Prof ». In Aldo Perroncito : Classica della Malaria, 2, Roma, Casa Luigi Pozzi.

Gooding R.H., 1972 – Digestive processes in haematophagous insects. I- A literature review. Questiones Entomologicae, 8 : 5-60.

Gordeev M.I., Ezhov M.N., Zvantsov A.B., Goriacheva I.I., Shaïkevitch E.V., Karimov S.S., Kadamov D.S., 2004. Supplement to the list of Anopheles (Diptera, Culicidae) mosquitoes of Tadjikistan and the predominant types of vectors in the current foci of malaria in the republic. Med. Parazitol. (Mosk.), 3 : 16-21.

Gorman M.J., Cornel A.J., Collins F.H., Paskewitz S.M., 1996 – A shared genetic mechanism for melanotic encapsulation of CM-Sephadex beads and a malaria parasite, Plasmodium cynomolgi B, in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Exp. Parasitol., 84 (3) : 380-386.

Gorman M.J., Severson D.W., Cornel A.J., Collins F.H., Paskewitz S.M., 1997 – Mapping a quantitative trait locus involved in melanotic encapsulation of foreign bodies in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Genetics, 146 : 965-971.

Gouagna L.C., Mulder B., Noubissi E., Tchuinkam T., Verhave J.P., Boudin C., 1998 – The early sporogonic cycle of Plasmodium falciparum in laboratory-infected Anopheles gambiae : an estimation of parasite efficacy. Trop. Med. Int. Health., 3 (1) : 21-28.

Gouagna L.-C., Robert V., 1993 – Les anophèles perçoivent-ils les couleurs ? Bull. Liais. Doc. OCEAC, 26 : 73-74.

Graham K., Mohammad N., Rehman H., Nazari A., Ahmad M., Kamal M., Skovmand O., Guillet P., Zaim M., Yates A., Lines J., Rowland M., 2002 – Insecticide-treated plastic tarpaulins for control of malaria vectors in refugee camps. Med. Vet. Ent., 16 : 404-408.

Graham K., Rehman H., Ahmad M., Kamal M., Khan I., Rowland M., 2004 – Tents pre-treated with insecticide for malaria control in refugee camps : an entomological evaluation. Malaria J., 3 : 25.

Graig M.H., Snow R.W., Le Sueur D., 1999 – A Climate-based Distribution Model of Malaria Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa. Parasitol. Today, 15 : 105-111.

Grassi B., 1899 – Ciclo evolutivo delle semilune nell’« Anopheles claviger » ed altri studi sulla malaria dall’ottobre 1898 al maggio 1899. Atti d. Soc. Per gli Studi d. Malaria, I : 14.

Grassi B., 1900 – Studi di uno zoologo sulla malaria. Mem. R. Accad. D. Lincei, 3 : 299.

Grassi B., Bignami A., Bastianelli G., 1899a – Ulteriori ricerche sul ciclo dei parassiti malarici umani nel corpo del zanzarone. Atti Reale Accademia dei Lincei, S 5, 8 : 21.

Grassi B., Bignami A., Bastianelli G., 1899b – Ulteriori ricerche sulla malaria. Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, Roma, VIII : 434-438.

Gratz N., 2004 – The vector-borne human infection of Europe. Their distribution and burden on Public Health. WHO Europe Publication, 144 p.

Green C.A., 1982 – Cladistic analysis of mosquito chromosome data (Anopheles (Cellia) Myzomyia. J. Hered. 73 (1) : 2-11.

Green C.A., Munstermann L.E., Tan S.G., Panyim S., Baimai V., 1992 – Population genetic evidence for species A, B, C and D of the Anopheles dirus complex in Thailand and enzyme electromorphs for their identification. Med. Vet. Entomol., 6 : 29-36.

Green R., 1929 – Observations on some factors influencing the infectivity of malarial gamete carriers in Malaya to Anopheles maculatus. Bulletin of the Institute for Medical Research, Federated Malay States, 5 : 1-41.

Greenhouse B., Myrick A., Dokomajilar C., Woo J.M., Carlson E.J., Rosenthal P.J., Dorsey G., 2006 – Validation of microsatellite markers for use in genotyping polyclonal Plasmodium falciparum infections. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 75(5): 836-842.

Greenwood B.M., Bradley A.K., Greenwood A.M., Byass P., Jammeh K., Marsh K., Tulloch S., Oldfield F.S., Hayes R., 1987 – Mortality and morbidity from malaria among children in a rural area of The Gambia, West Africa. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 81 (3) : 478-486.

Guelmino D.J., 1951 – The physiology of Anopheles maculipennis during hibernation ; an attempt to interpret the phenomenon of gonotrophic dissociation. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 45 : 161-168.

Guelmino D.J., 1952 – Diapause in Anopheles : physiological studies of Anopheles maculipennis and Anopheles bifurcatus during hibernation. Glasnik, 5 : 101-116.

Guerra C.A., Snow R.W., Hay S.I., 2006 – A global assessment of closed forests, deforestation and malaria risk. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 100 : 189-204.

Guillemaud T., Raymond M., Tsagkarakou A., Bernard C., Rochard P., Pasteur N., 1999 – Quantitative variation and selection of esterase gene amplification in Culex pipiens. Heredity 83 (1) : 87-99.

Guillet P., N’Guessan R., Darriet F., Traoré-Lamizana M., Chandre F., Carnevale P., 2001 – Combined pyrethroid and carbamate “two-in-one” treated mosquito nets : field efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Med. Vet. Ent., 15 : 105-112.

Guillet P., Alnwick D., Cham M.K., Neira M., Zaim M., Heymann D., Mukelabai K., 2001 – Long-lasting treated mosquito nets : a break-through in malaria prevention. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 79 (10) : 998.

Guillo du Bodan H., 1982 – Contribution à l’étude de la morbidité et la mortalité chez l’enfant de moins de cinq ans en milieu tropical. Paris, Univ. Paris-XI.

Guintran J.O., Delacolette C., Trigg P., 2006 – Systems for the early detection of malaria epidemics in Africa. WHO/HTM/MAL/2006, 1115, 100 p.

Gunasekaran K., Doss P.S., Vaidyanathan K., 2004 – Laboratory and field evaluation of Teknar HP-D, a biolarvicidal formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, against mosquito vectors. Acta Trop., 92 (2) : 109-118.

Gunasekaran K., Sadanandnane C., Parida S.K., Sahu S.S., Patra K.P., Jambuligam P., 1994 – Observations on nocturnal activity and man-biting habits of malaria vectors, Anopheles fluviatilis, An. annularis and An. culicifacies in the hill tracts of Koraput district, Drissa, India. South. As. J. Trop. Med., Pub. Hlth., 25 : 187-195.

Gunasekaran K., Sahu S.S., Parida S.K., Sadamandane C., Jambuligam P., Das P.K., 1989 – Anopheline fauna of Koraput district, Orissa state, with particular reference to transmission of malaria. Indian J. Med. Res., 89 : 340-343.

Guthmann J.P., Bonnet M., Ahoua L., Dantoine F., Balkan S., van Herp M., Tamrat A., Legros D., Brown V., Checchi F., 2007 – Death rates from malaria epidemics, Burundi and Ethiopia. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 13 (1) : 140-143.

Gutsevich A.V., Monchadskii A.S., Shtakel’berg A.A., 1974 – Fauna of the U.S.S.R. Diptera. Mosquitoes. Family Culicidae. Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 408 p. (traduction du russe).

Gwadz R., Collins F. H., 1996. – « Anopheline mosquitoes and the agents they transmit ». In Beaty B.J., Marquardt W.C. eds. : The biology of disease vectors, University Press of Colorado : 73-84.

Habluetzel A., Cuzin N., Diallo D.A., Nebié I., Belem S., Cousens S.N., Esposito F., 1999 – Insecticide-treated curtains reduce the prevalence and intensity of malaria infection in Burkina Faso. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 4 (8) : 557-564.

Habluetzel A., Diallo D.A., Esposito F., Lamizana L., Pagnoni F., Lengeler C., Traoré C., Cousens S.N., 1997 – Do insecticide-treated curtains reduce all-cause child mortality in Burkina Faso ? Trop. Med. Int. Health, 2 (9) : 855-862.

Habtewold T., Prior A., Torr S.J., Gibson G., 2004 – Could insecticide-treated cattle reduce Afrotropical malaria transmission ? Effects of deltamethrin-treated Zebu on Anopheles arabiensis behaviour and survival in Ethiopia. Med. Vet. Entomol., 8 (4) : 408-417.

Habtewold T., Walker A.R., Curtis C.F., Osir E.O., Thapa N., 2001 – The feeding behaviour and Plasmodium infection of Anopheles mosquitoes in southern Ethiopia in relation to use of insecticide-treated livestock for malaria control. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 95 : 584-586.

Hackett B.J., Gimnig J., Guelbeogo W., Costantini C., Koekemoer L., Coetzee M., Collins F.H., Besansky N.J., 2000 – Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences differentiate Anopheles funestus and An. rivulorum, and uncover a cryptic taxon. Insect Mol. Biol., 9 : 369-374.

Hackett L.J., 1941 – « Malaria and the Community ». In : Symposium on Human Malaria, Publ. 15, Am. A. Adv. Sc. Washington, DC.

Hackett L.W., 1937 – Malaria in Europe. London, Oxford University Press.

Hackett L.W., 1945 – The malaria of the Andean region of South America. Rev. Inst. Salub. Enferm. Trop., 6 : 239-252.

Haddow A.J., 1945 – The mosquitoes of Bwamba County, Uganda. II- Biting activity with special reference to the influence of microclimate. Bull. Ent. Res., 36 : 33-73.

Haldane J.B.S., 1922 – Sex ratio and unisexual sterility in hybrid animals. Journal of Genetics, 12 : 101-109.

Hallett R.L., Dunyo S., Ord R., Jawara M., Pinder M., Randall A., Alloueche A., Walraven G., Targett G.A., Alexander N., Sutherland C.J., 2006 – Chloroquine/sulpha-doxine-pyrimethamine for Gambian children with malaria : transmission to mosquitoes of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. PLoS Clin. Trials, 1 (3) : e15.

Halloran M.E., Struchiner C.J., Spielman A., 1989 – Modeling malaria vaccines. II- Population effects of stage-specific malaria vaccines dependent on natural boosting. Math. Biosci., 94 (1) : 115-149.

Hamon J., 1963 – Les moustiques anthropophiles de la région de Bobo-Dioulasso (République de Haute-Volta) ; cycles d’agressivité et variations saisonnières. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 132 : 85-144.

Hamon J., Chauvet G., Thelin L., 1961a – Observations sur les méthodes d’évaluation de l’âge physiologique des femelles d’Anopheles. Bull. Wld Hlth Organ., 24 : 437-443.

Hamon J., Coz J., 1966 – Épidémiologie générale du paludisme humain en Afrique occidentale, répartition et fréquence des parasites et des vecteurs, et observations récentes sur quelques-uns des facteurs gouvernant la transmission de cette maladie. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 59 : 466-483.

Hamon J., Coz J., Sales S., Ouedraogo C.S., 1965 – Études entomologiques sur la transmission du paludisme dans une zone de steppe boisée, la région de Dori (République de Haute-Volta). Bull. IFAN, sér. A, 27 : 1116-1150.

Hamon J., Grjebine A., Adam J.-P., Chauvet G., Coz J., Gruchet H., 1961b – Les méthodes d’évaluation de l’âge physiologique des moustiques [Dipt. Culicidae]. Ann. Soc. Entomol. France, 66 : 137-161.

Hamon J., Mouchet J., 1961 – Les vecteurs secondaires du paludisme humain en Afrique. Méd. Trop., 21 : 643-660.

Harbach R.E., 1994 – Review of the internal classification of the genus Anopheles (Diptera : Culicidae) : the foundation for comparative systematics and phylogenetic research. Bull. Ent. Res., 84 : 331-342.

Harbach R.E., 2004 – The classification of genus Anopheles (Diptera : Culicidae) : a working hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships. Bull. Ent. Res., 94 : 537-553.

Harbach R.E., Kitching I.J., 1998 – Phylogeny and classification of the Culicidae (Diptera). Systematic Entomol., 23 : 327-370.

Hargreaves K., Hunt R.H., Brooke B.D., Mthembu J., Weeto M.M., Awolola T.S., Coetzee M., 2003 – Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus resistance to DDT in South Africa. Med. Vet. Entomol., 17 : 417-422.

Hargreaves K., Koekemoer L.L., Brooke B.D., Hunt R.H., Mthembu J., Coetzee M., 2000 – Anopheles funestus resistant to pyrethroid insecticide in South Africa. Med. Vet. Ent., 14 : 181-189.

Harrison B.A., Rattanarithikul R., Peyton E.L., Mongkolpanya K., 1990 – Taxonomic changes, revised occurrence records and notes on the Culicidae of Thailand and neighboring countries. Mosq. Syst., 22 : 196-227.

Harrison G., 1978 – Mosquitoes, Malaria and Man : A History of the Hostilities Since 1880. London, John Murray.

Harverson G., Wilson M.E., 1968 – Assessment of current malarial endemicity in Bathurst, Gambia. West Afr. Med. J. Niger Pract., 17 (3) : 63-67.

Hastings I.M., 1997 – A model for the origins and spread of drug-resistant malaria. Parasitology, 115 : 133-141.

Hastings I.M., 2006 – Gametocytocidal activity in antimalarial drugs speeds the spread of drug resistance. Trop. Med. Int. Health., 11 (8) : 1206-1217.

Hastings I.M., D’alessandro U., 2000 – Modelling a predictable disaster : the rise and spread of drug-resistant malaria. Parasitol. Today, 16 : 340-347.

Hastings I.M., MacKinnon M.J., 1998 – The emergence of drug-resistant malaria. Parasitology, 117 : 411-417.

Hastings I.M., Watkins W.M., 2005 – Intensity of malaria transmission and the evolution of drug resistance. Acta Trop., 94 (3) : 218-29.

Hawley W.A., Phillips-Howard P.A., ter Kuile F.O., Terlouw D.J., Vulule J.M., Ombok M., Nahlen B.L., Gimnig J.E., Kariuki S.K., Kolczak M.S., Hightower A.W., 2003 – Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 68 (4 Suppl) : 121-127.

Hay S.I., Cox J., Rogers D.J., Randolph S.E., Stern D.I., Shanks G.D., Myers M.F., Snow R.W., 2000a – Climate change and the resurgence of malaria in the East African highlands. Nature, 415 (6874) : 905-909.

Hay S.I., Guerra C.A., Tatem A.J., Atkinson P.M., Snow R.W., 2005a – Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa. Nature Reviews, Microbiology, 3 : 81-90.

Hay S.I., Rogers D.J., Randolph S.E., Stern D.I., Cox J., Shanks G.D., Snow R.W., 2000b – Hot topic or hot air ? Climate change and malaria resurgence in East African highlands. Trends Parasitol., 18 (12) : 530-534.

Hay S.I., Rogers D.J., Toomer J.F., Snow R.W., 2000c – Annual Plasmodium falciparum entomological inoculation rate (EIR) across Africa : litterature survey, internet access and review. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 94 : 113-127.

Hay S.I., Snow R.W., 2006 – The malaria Atlas Project : developing global maps of malaria risk. Public Library of Science Medicine, 3 (12) : e473.

Hay S.I., Snow R.W., Rogers D.J. 1998 – From predicting mosquito habitat to malaria seasons using remotely-sensed data : practice, problems and perspectives. Parasitol. Today, 14 : 306-313.

Hay S.I., Stern D.I., Snow R.W., Randolph S.E., Rogers D.J., 2005b – Climate variability and malaria epidemics in the highlands of East Africa. Trends in Parasitology, 21 : 52-53.

Hayes J., Calderon G., Falcon R., Zambrano V., 1987 – Newly incriminated anopheline vectors of human malaria parasites in Junin Department, Peru. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 3 : 418-422.

Healy T.P., Copland M.J.W., 1995 – Activation of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes by carbon dioxide and human breath. Med. Vet. Ent., 9 : 331-336.

Hemingway J., Field L., Vontas J., 2002 – An overview of insecticide resistance. Science, 298 : 96-97.

Hemingway J., Hawkes N., Prapanthadara L., Jayawardenal K.G., Ranson H., 1998 – The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito insecticide resistance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 353 (1376) : 1695-1699.

Hemingway J., Ranson H., 2000 – Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human disease. Annual review of entomology, 45 : 369-389.

Henry M.C., Assi S.B., Rogier C., Dossou-Yovo J., Chandre F., Guillet P., Carnevale P., 2005 – Protective efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin treated nets in Anopheles gambiae pyrethroid resistant areas of Côte d’Ivoire. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 73 : 859-864.

Henry M.C., Rogier C., Nzeyimana I., Assi S.B., Dossou-Yovo J., Audibert M., Mathonnat J., Keundjian A., Akodo E., Teuscher T., Carnevale P., 2003 – Inland valley rice production systems and malaria infection and disease in the savannah of Côte d’Ivoire. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 8 : 449-458.

Herrel N., Amerasinghe F.P., Ensink J., Mukhtar M., van der Hoek W., Konradsen F., 2001 – Breeding of Anopheles mosquitoes in irrigated areas of South Punjab, Pakistan. Med. Vet. Entomol., 15 : 236-248.

Hervy J.-P., Le Goff G., Geoffroy B., Hervé J.-P., Manga L., Brunhes J., 1998 – Les anophèles de la région afro-tropicale. Orstom éditions, Coll. Didactiques, CD-Rom.

Hewitt S., Rowland M., 1999 – Control of soophilic malaria vectors by applying pyrethroid insecticide to cattle. Trop. Med. Int. Hlth., 4 : 481-486.

Hii J.L., 1985 – Evidence for the existence of genetic variability in the tendency of Anopheles balabacensis to rest in house and bite man. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Hlth., 16 : 173-182.

Hii J.L., Birley M.H., Sang V.Y., 1990 – Estimation of survival rate and oviposition interval of Anopheles balabacensis mosquitoes from mark-recapture experiments in Sabah, Malaysia. Med. Vet. Ent., 4 : 135-140.

Hii J.L., Chew M., Sang V.Y., Munstermann J.E., Tan S.G., Panyim S., Yasothomsrikul S., 1991 – Population genetic analysis of host-seeking and resting behaviors in the malaria vector Anopheles balabacensis (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol., 28 : 675-684.

Hillyer J.F., Barreau C., Vernick K.D., 2007 – Efficiency of salivary gland invasion by malaria sporozoites is controlled by rapid sporozoite destruction in the mosquito haemocoel. Int. J. Parasitol., 37 (6): 673-681.

Himeidan E.E., Chen H., Chandre F., Donnelly M.J., Yan G. – Permethrin and DDT resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis from Eastern Sudan. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2007, 77 : 1066-1068.

Hocking B., 1953 – The intrinsic range and speed of flight of insect. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, 104 : 223-245.

Holstein M., 1949 – Guide pratique de l’anophélisme en A.O.F. Dakar, Direction générale de la Santé publique, 55 p.

Holt R.A., Subramanian G.M., Halpern A., Sutton G.G. et al. 2002 – The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Science, 298 (5591) : 129-149.

Holtz T.H., Marum L.H., Mkandala C., Chizani N., Roberts J.M., Macheso A., Parise M.E., Kachur S.P., 2002 – Insecticide-treated bednet use, anaemia and malaria parasitaemia in Blantyre District, Malawi. Trop. Med., Int. Health, 7 : 220-230.

Hoops A.L., 1934 – The History of Malaria. Malayan Med. J., 9 : 123.

Horsfall W.R., Porter D.A., 1946 – Biologics of two malaria mosquitoes in New Guinea. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 39 : 549-560.

Horwitz P., Wilcox B.A., 2005 – Parasites, ecosystems and sustainability : an ecological and complex systems perspective. Int. J. Paras., 35 : 725-732.

Hougard J.M., Corbel V., N’guessan R., Darriet F., Chandre F., Akogbeto M., Baldet T., Guillet P., Carnevale P., Traoré-Lamizana M., 2003 – Efficacy of mosquito nets treated with an insecticide mixtures or mosaics against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera : Culicidae) in Côte d’Ivoire. Bull. Ent. Res., 93 : 491-498.

Hougard J.M., Duchon S., Darriet F., Zaim M., Rogier C., Guillet P., 2003 – Comparative performances, under laboratory conditions, of seven pyrethroid insecticides used for impregnation of mosquito nets. Bull. World Health Organ., 81 (5) : 324-333.

Hougard J.M., Martin T., Guillet P.F., Coosemans M., Itoh T., Akogbeto M., Chandre F., 2007 – Preliminary field testing of a long-lasting insecticide-treated hammock against Anopheles gambiae and Mansonia spp. (Diptera : Culicidae) in West Africa. J. Med. Entomol., 44 (4) : 651-655.

Huelsenbeck J.P., Ronquist F., Nielsen R., Bollack J.P., 2001 – Bayesian inference of phylogeny and its impact on evolutionary biology. Science, 294 : 2310-2314.

Huff C.G., 1929 – The effects of selection upon susceptibility to bird malaria in Culex pipiens Linn. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 23 : 427-442.

Huff C.G., 1931 – The inheritance of natual immunity to Plasmodium cathemerium in two species of Culex. J. Prev. Med., 5 : 249-259.

Huff C.G, 1934 – Comparative studies on susceptible and insusceptible Culex pipiens in relation to infections with Plasmodium cathemerium and P. relictum. Am. J. Hyg., 19 : 123-147.

Hunt R.H., Coetzee M., Fettene M., 1998 – The Anopheles gambiae complex : a new species from Ethiopia. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 92 : 231-235.

Hunt R.H., Brooke B.D., Pillay C., Koekemoer LL., Coetzee M., 2005 – Laboratory selection for and characteristics of pyrethroid resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Med. Vet. Ent., 19 : 271-275.

Hurlbut H.S., 1938 – Further Notes on the Overwintering of the Eggs of Anopheles walkeri Theobald with a Description of the Eggs. J. Parasitol., 24 : 521.

Hurlbut H.S., 1943 – The Rate of Growth of Anopheles quadrimaculatus in Relation to Temperature. J. Parasitol., 29 : 107.

Hwang U.W., Kim W., 1999 – General properties and phylogenetic utilities of nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA commonly used in molecular systematics. Korean J. Parasitol., 37 : 215-28.

Hwang U.W., Yong T.S., Ree H.I., 2004 – Molecular evidence for synonymy of Anopheles yatsushiroensis and An. pullus. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 20 : 99-104.

Ijumba J.N., Mosha F.W., Lindsay S.W., 2002a – Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania. Med. Vet. Ent., 16 : 28-38.

Ijumba J.N., Shenton F.C., Clarke S.E., Mosha F.W., Lindsay S.W., 2002b – Irrigated crop production is associated with less malaria than traditional agricultural practices in Tanzania. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 96 : 476-480.

Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC), 2006 – Prevention and management of insecticide resistance in vectors and pests of public health importance.

International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, 1985 – The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. London, UK.

Izri A., Konaté L., Dieng Y., Alcais A., Diop A., Faye M.L., Bouges-Michel C., Rousset J.J., Deniau M., 2001 – Efficacy of the combination of DEET (20 %) and EHD (15 %) against mosquito bites. Results of a study carried out in Senegal. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot., 94 (3) : 280-283.

Jaenson T.G., Ameneshewa B., 1991 – Prehibernation diet and reproductive condition of female Anopheles messae in Sweden. Med. Vet. Ent., 5 : 243-252.

Jaenson T.G., Gomes M.J., Barreto DOS

Santos R.C., Petrarca V., Fortini D., Evora J., Crato J., 1994 – Control of endophagic Anopheles mosquitoes and human malaria in Guinea Bissau, West Africa by permethrin-treated bed nets. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 88 (6) : 620-624.

James A.A., Rossignol P.A., 1991 – Mosquito salivary glands : Parasitological and molecular aspects. Parasitol. Today, 7 : 267-271.

James S.P., 1926 – Epidemiological results of a laboratory study of malaria in England. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 20 : 143-165.

Janse C., Mons B., 1987 – DNA synthesis and genome structure of Plasmodium : a review. Acta Leiden., 56 : 1-13.

Jarne P., Lagoda P.J.L., 1996 – Microsatellites, from molecules to populations and back. TREE, 11 : 424-429.

Jawara M., McBeath J., Lines J.D., Pinder M., Sanyang F., Greenwood B.M., 1998 – Comparison of bednets treated with alphacyper-methrin, permethrin or lambdacyhalothrin against Anopheles gambiae in the Gambia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 12 (1) : 60-66.

Jetten T.H., Martens W.J., Takken W., 1996 – Model simulations to estimate malaria risk under climate change. J. Med. Ent., 33 : 361-371.

Jetten T.H., Takken W., 1994 – Anophelism without malaria in Europe : a review of the ecology and distribution of the genus Anopheles in Europe. Wageningen, Wageningen Agricultural University.

Joardar G.K., 2005 – Molecular entomology : a new promising tool for malaria control. Indian J. Pub. Health, 49 : 231-234.

John C.C., Koech D.K., Sumba P.O., Ouma J.H., 2004 – Risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection during a malaria epidemic in highland Kenya, 1997. Acta Trop., 92 : 55-61.

Jones M.D.R., 1980 – « possible use of chemicals to change the programming of behaviour in adult mosquitoes ». In : Insect Neurobiology and pesticide action (Neurotax 1979), London Society of Chemical Industry : 253-260.

Jones W.H.S., 1909 – Malaria and Greek History. Manchester, University Press.

Jones W.H.S., 1923-1931 – Hippocrates. English Translation by Loeb Classical Library, New York, G.P. Putman’s Sons, vols. I, II, IV.

Jordan S., Jelinek T., Aida A.O., Peverl-Hoffmann G., Heuschkel C., Valy A.O., Christophel E.M., 2001 – Population structure of Plasmodium falciparum isolates during an epidemic in southern Mauritania. Trop. Med., Int. Hlth., 6 : 761-766.

Julvez J., 1995 – Histoire du paludisme insulaire en océan Indien : une approche éco-épidémiologique. Cahiers Santé, 5 : 353-358.

Julvez J., Blanchy S., 1988 – Le paludisme dans les îles de l’archipel des Comores. Aspects historiques et géophysiques. Considérations épidémiologiques. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 81 : 847-853.

Julvez J., Develoux M., Mounkaila A., Mouchet J., 1992 – Diversité du paludisme en zone sahélo-soudanienne. Une revue, à propos du statut du Niger, Afrique de l’Ouest. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 72 : 163-177.

Julvez J., Isautier H., Pichon G., 1982 – Aspects épidémiologiques du paludisme dans l’île de la Réunion. Évaluation de certains paramètres constituant le potentiel paludogène. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XX (2) : 161-167.

Julvez J., Mouchet J., Michault A., Fouta A., Hamidine M., 1997a – Éco-épidémiologie du paludisme à Niamey et dans la vallée du fleuve, République du Niger. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 90 : 94-100.

Julvez J., Mouchet J., Michault A., Fouta A., Hamidine M., 1997b – L’évolution du paludisme dans la zone sahélienne orientale du Niger. Une zone écologiquement sinistrée. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 90 : 101-104.

Julvez J., Mouchet J., Ragavoodo G., 1990 – Épidémiologie du paludisme dans l’archipel des Mascareignes (océan Indien). Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 70 : 249-261.

Julvez J., Mouchet J., Suzzoni J., Larrouy G., Fouta A., Fontenille D., 1998 – Les anophèles du Niger. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 92 : 437-440.

Jung J., Jung Y., Min G.S., Kim W., 2007 – Analysis of the population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis in South Korea based on mitochondrial sequences. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 77 : 310-315.

Kabiru E.W., Mbogo C.M., Muiruri S.K., Ouma J.H., Githure J.I., Beier J.C., 1997 – Sporozoites loads of naturally infected Anopheles in Kilifi District, Kenya. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 13 : 259-262.

Kamau L., Mukabana W.R., Hawley W.A., Lehmann T., Irungu L.W., Orago A.A., Collins F.H., 1999 – Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatellite loci. Insect Mol. Biol., 8 : 287-297.

Kamau L., Munyekenye G.O., Koekemoer L.L., Hunt R.H., Coetzee M., 2003 – A survey of the Anopheles funestus (Diptera : Culicidae) group of mosquitoes from 10 sites in Kenya with special emphasis on population genetic structure based on chromosomal inversion karyotypes. J. Med. Entomol., 40 : 664-671.

Kamau L., Vulule J.M., 2006 – Status of insecticide susceptibility in Anopheles arabiensis from Mwea rice irrigation scheme, Central Kenya. Malaria J., 5 : 46.

Kamolratanakul P., Butraporn P., Prasittisuk M., Prasittisuk C., Indaratna K., 2001 – Cost-effectiveness and sustainability of lambdacyhalothrin-treated mosquito nets in comparison to DDT spraying for malaria control in western Thailand. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65 (4) : 279-284.

Kampen H., Proft J., Etti S., Maltezos E., Pagonaki M., Maier W.A., Seitz H.M., 2003 – Individual cases of autochthonous malaria in Evros Province, northern Greece : entomological aspects. Parasitology Research, 89 : 252-258.

Karch S., Asidi N., Manzambi Z.M., Salaun J.J., 1992 – Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and other mosquitoes in swamps and rice fields in Zaire. J. Am. Mosq. Control. Assoc., 8 (4) : 376-380.

Karch S., Mouchet J., 1992 – Anopheles paludis vecteur important du paludisme au Zaïre. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 85 : 388-389.

Kasai S., Shono T., Yamakawa M., 1998 – Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a cytochrome P450 cDNA from a pyrethroid-resistant mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Insect Molecular Biology, 7 (2) : 185-190.

Kasap M., 1986 – Seasonal variation in populations of Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles claviger and Culex pipiens in Turkey. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2 : 478-481.

Kebaier C., Vanderberg J.P., 2006 – Re-ingestion of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites after delivery into the host by mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 75 : 1200-1204.

Keenihan S.H., Gramzinksi R., Ratiwayanto S., Hadiputranto H. et al., 2003 – Mechanisms of innate and acquired protection against Plasmodium falciparum in Javanese transmigrant adults and children newly resident in malaria-endemic Northwest Papua. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 531 : 83-102.

Kellogs F.E., 1970 – Water vapour and carbon dioxid receptors in Aedes aegypti. J. Ins. Physiol., 16 : 99-108.

Kenawy M.A., 1991 – Develoment and survival of Anopheles pharoensis and An. multicolor from Fayum, Egypt. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 7 : 551-555.

Kengne P., Antonio-Nkondjio C., Awono-Ambene H.P., Simard F., Awolola T.S., Fontenille D., 2007 – Molecular differentiation of three closely related members of the mosquito species complex, Anopheles moucheti, by mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA polymorphism. Med. Vet. Entomol., 21 (2) : 177-182.

Kengne, P., Awono-Ambene, P., Antonio-Nkondjio C., Fontenille D., 2003a – Développement d’une PCR spécifique d’espèces du complexe Anopheles nili au Cameroun. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 96 : 165-167.

Kengne P., Awono-Ambene P., Antonio-Nkondjio C., Simard F., Fontenille D.,

2003b – Molecular identification of the Anopheles nili group of African malaria vectors. Med. Vet. Ent., 17 : 67-74.

Kengne P., Trung H.D., Baimai V., Coosemans M., Manguin S., 2001 – A multiplex PCR-based method derived from random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers for the identification of species of the Anopheles minimus group in Southeast Asia. Insect Mol. Biol., 10 : 427-435.

Kent R.J., Coetzee M., Mharakurwa S., Norris D.E., 2006 – Feeding and indoor resting behaviour of the mosquito Anopheles longipalpis in an area of hyperendemic malaria transmission in southern Zambia. Med. Vet. Ent., 20 : 459-463.

Kent R.J., Thuma P.E., Mharakurwa S., Norris D.E., 2007 – Seasonality, blood feeding behaviour, and transmission of Plasmodium falciparum by Anopheles arabiensis after an extended drought in southern Zambia. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 76 : 267-274.

Kere N.K., Arabola A., Bakote’e B., Dalo D., Burkot T.R., Webber R.H., Southgate B.A., 1996 – Permethrin-impregnated bednets are more effective than DDT house-spraying to control malaria in Solomon Islands. Med. Vet. Entomol., 10 : 145-148.

Kerlin R.L., Hughes S., 1992 – Enzymes in saliva from four parasitic arthropods. Med. Vet. Ent., 6 : 121-126.

Key T., Reeves G., 1994 – Organochlorines in the environment and breast cancer. The data so far produced provide reassurance rather than anxiety. BMJ, 308 : 1520-1521.

Khan A.A., Maibach H.I., 1972 – A study of insect repellents. 1. Effect on the flight and approach by Aedes aegypti. J. Econ. Entomol., 65 (5) : 1318-1321.

Kilama W.L., Graig G.B., 1969 – Monofactorial inheritance of susceptibility to Plasmodium gallinaceum in Aedes aegypti. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 63 : 419-423.

Kilian A., Byamukama W., Pigeon O., Atieli F., Duchon S., Phan C., 2008 – Long-term field performance of a polyester-based long-lasting insecticidal mosquito net in rural Uganda. Malaria J., 7 : 49.

Kilian A.H., Langi P., Talisuna A., Kabagambe G., 1999 – Rainfall pattern, El Niño and malaria in Uganda. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 93 (1) : 22-23.

Killeen G.F., Fillinger U., Kiche I., Gouagna L.C., Knols B.G., 2002a – Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil : lessons for malaria control in Africa ? Lancet Infect. Dis., 2 : 618-627.

Killeen G.F., Fillinger U., Knols B.G., 2002b – Advantages of larval control for African malaria vectors : low mobility and behavioural responsiveness of immature mosquito stages allow high effective coverage. Malaria J., 1 : 8.

Killeen G.F., Mac Kenzie F.E., Foy B.D., Bogh C., Beier J.C., 2001 – The availability of potential hosts as a determinant of feeding behaviours and malaria transmission by African mosquito populations. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 95 : 469-476.

Killeen G.F., Smith T.A., 2007 – Exploring the contributions of bed nets, cattle, insecticides and excitorepellency to malaria control : a deterministic model of mosquito host-seeking behaviour and mortality. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 101 (9) : 867-880.

Killeen G.F., Smith T.A., Ferguson H.M., Mshinda H., Abdulla S., Lengeler C., Kachur S.P., 2007 – Preventing childhood malaria in Africa by protecting adults from mosquitoes with insecticide-treated nets. PLoS Med., 4 (7) : e229.

Killeen G.F., Tanner M., Mukabana W.R., Kalongolela M.S, Kannady K., Lindsay S.W., Fillinger U., de Castro M.C., 2006 – Habitat targeting for controlling aquatic stages of malaria vectors in Africa. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 74 (4) : 517-518.

Kimani E.W., Vulule J.M., Kuria I.W., Mugisha F., 2006 – Use of insecticide-treated clothes for personal protection against malaria : a community trial. Malaria J., 5 : 63.

King A.F.A., 1883 – Insects and Disease : Mosquitoes and Malaria. Pop. Sc. Monthly, 23 : 644.

Kitzmiller J.B., 1976 – Genetics, cytogenetics, and evolution of mosquitoes. Adv. Genet., 18 : 315-433.

Kitzmiller J.B., Baker R.H., 1965 – The salivary chromosomes of Anopheles earlei. Can. J. Genet. Cytol., 52 : 275-283.

Kitzmiller J.B., Kreutzer R.D., Tallaferro E., 1973 – Chromosomal differences in populations of Anopheles nuneztovari. Bull. World Health Organ., 48 (4) : 435-445.

Klinkenberg E., Takken W., Huibers F., Touré Y.T., 2003 – The phenology of malaria mosquitoes in irrigated rice fields in Mali. Acta Tropica, 85 : 71-82.

Knight K.L., Stone A., 1977 – A catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World (Diptera : Culicidae). Washington, Thomas Say Foundation, 611 p.

Knols B.G.J., 1996 – An human odour, malaria mosquitoes, and limburger cheese. Lancet, 347 : 1423.

Knols B.G.J., De Jong R., Takken W., 1994a – Trapping system for testing olfactory responses of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae in a wind tunel. Med. Vet. Ent., 8 : 386-388.

Knols B.G.J., Takken W, De Jong R., 1994b – Influence of human breath on selection of biting sites by Anopheles albimanus. J. Mosq. Control Assoc., 10 : 423-426.

Koekemoer L.L., Coetzee M., Hunt R.H., 1998 – Hpall endonuclease distinguishes between two species in the Anopheles funestus group. Insect Mol. Biol., 7 : 273-277.

Koekemoer L.L., Kamau L., Garros C., Manguin S., Hunt R.H., Coetzee M., 2006 – Impact of the Rift Valley on restriction length polymorphism typing of the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol., 43 : 1178-1184.

Koekemoer L.L., Kamau L., Hunt R.H., Coetzee M., 2002 – A cocktail polymerase chain reaction assay to identify members of the Anopheles funestus (Diptera : Culicidae) group. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 66 : 804-811.

Koekemoer L.L., Lochouarn L., Hunt R.H., Coetzee M., 1999 – Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for identification of four members of the Anopheles funestus (Diptera : Culicidae) group. J. Med. Entomol., 36 : 125-130.

Koekemoer L., Rankoe E., La Grange J., Govera J., Coetzee M., 2001 – False detection of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites in Anopheles marshallii group mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 17 : 160-165.

Koella J.C., 1991 – On the use of mathematical models of malaria transmission. Acta Trop., 49 : 1-25.

Koella J.C., 1999 – An evolutionary view of the interactions between anopheline mosquitoes and malaria parasites. Microbes, Infection, 1 : 303-308.

Koella J.C., Parker M.J., 1996 – Malaria parasites enhance blood-feeding of their naturally infected Anopheles punctulatus. Parasitology, 113 : 105-109.

Koella J.C., Sorensen F.L., Anderson R.A., 1998 – The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum increases the frequency of multiple feeding of its mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. Proc. Biol. Sci., 265 (1398) : 763-768.

Koffi A.A., Darriet F., N’guessan R., Doannio J.-M., Carnevale P., 1999 – Évaluation au laboratoire de l’efficacité de l’alpha-cyperméthrine contre les populations d’Anopheles gambiae de Côte d’Ivoire résistantes à la perméthrine et la deltaméthrine. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 92 : 62-66.

Kojevnikov G.A., 1903 – [Observations sur la biologie d’Anopheles, réunies par l’expédition paludologique de Voronej]. Moscou, [Recueil de travaux sur le paludisme en Russie] : 69.

Kolaczinski J.H., Fanello C., Herve J.P., Conway D.J., Carnevale P., Curtis C.F., 2000 – Experimental and molecular genetic analysis of the impact of pyrethroid and non-pyrethoid insecticide-impregnated bednets for mosquito control in an area of pyrethoid resistance. Bull. Entomol. Res., 90 : 125-132.

Konaté L., Diagne N., Brahimi K., Faye O., Legros F., Rogier C., Petrarca V., Trape J.-F., 1994 – Biologie des vecteurs et transmission de P. falciparum, P. malariae et P. ovale dans un village de savane d’Afrique de l’Ouest (Dielmo, Sénégal). Parasite, 1 : 325-333.

Konaté L., Diop A., Sy N., Faye N.M., Deng Y., Izri A., Faye O., Mouchet J., 2001 – Comeback of Anopheles funestus in Sahelian Senegal. Lancet, 358 : 336

Kondo H., Seo N., Yasuda T., Hasizuma M., Koido Y., Ninomiya N., Yamamoto Y., 2002 – Post-flood-infectious diseases in Mozambique. Prehospital Disaster Med., 17 : 126-133.

Korochkina S., Barreau C., Pradel G., Jeffery E., Li J., Natarajan R., Shabanowitz J., Hunt D., Frevert U., Vernick K.D., 2006 – A mosquito-specific protein family includes a candidate receptor for malaria sporozoïte invasion of salivary glands. Cellular Microbiology, 8 : 163-175.

Kostitzin V.-A., 1937 – Biologie mathématique. Armand Colin, 223 p.

Koudou B.G., Tano Y., Doumbia M., Nsanzabana C., Cisse G., Girardin O., Dao D., N’Goran E.K., Vounatsou P., Bordmann G., Keiser J., Tanner M., Utzinger J., 2005 – Malaria transmission dynamics in central Côte d’Ivoire : the influence of changing patterns of irrigated rice agriculture. Med. Vet. Entomol., 19 : 27-37.

Krüger A., Rech A., Su X.Z., Tannich E., 2001 – Two cases of autochthonous Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Germany with evidence for local transmission by indigenous Anopheles plumbeus. Tropical Medicine and International Health 6 : 983.

Krzywinski, J., Besansky N.J., 2003 – Molecular systematics of Anopheles : from subgenera to subpopulations. Annu. Rev. Entomol., 48 : 111-39.

Krzywinski J., Wilkerson R.C., Besansky N.J., 2001a – Evolution of mitochondrial and ribosomal gene sequences in Anophelinae (Diptera : Culicidae) : implications for phylogeny reconstruction. Mol. Phyl. Evol., 18 : 479-487.

Krzywinski J., Wilkerson R.C., Besansky N.J., 2001b – Toward understanding Anophelinae (Diptera, Culicidae) phylogeny : insights from nuclear single-copy genes and the weight of evidence. Syst. Biology, 50 : 540-556.

Kuhn K., Campbell-Lendrum D., Haines A., Cox J., 2005 – Using climate to predict infectious disease epidemics. Wld. Hlth. Org., 54 p.

Kulkarni M.A., Rowland M., Alifrangis M., Mosha F.W., Matowo J., Malima R., Peter J., Kweka E., Lyimo I., Magesa S., Salanti A., Rau M.E., Drakeley C., 2006 – Occurrence of the leucine-to-phenylalanine knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in Anopheles arabiensis populations in Tanzania, detected by a simplified high-throughput SSOP-ELISA method. Malaria J., 5 : 56.

Kumar A., Sharma V.P., Sumodan P.K., Thavaselvam D., 1998 – Field trials of biolarvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. Israelensis strain 164 and the larvivorous fish Aplocheilus blocki against Anopheles stephensi for malaria control in Goa, India. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 14 (4) : 457-462.

Kumar A., Sharma V.P., Thavaselvam D., Sumodan P.K., 1995 – Control of Anopheles stephensi breeding in construction sites and abandoned overhead tanks with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 11 (1) : 86-89.

Laarman J.J., 1958 – Research on the ecology of culicine mosquitoes in a forest region of the Belgian Congo. Acta Leidensia, 28 : 94-98.

Laarman J.J., 1995 – The host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles atroparvus. Acta Leid, 25 : 1-144.

Labbo R., Fouta A., Jeanne I., Ousmane I., Duchemin J.B., 2004 – An. funestus in Sahel : new evidence from Niger. Lancet, 363 (9409) : 660.

Lachmajrowa J., 1952 – Hibernation of female Anopheles maculipennis atroparvus. Biul. Panstw. Inst. Med. Morsk. Trop. J.W. Gsdansku, 4 : 79-92.

Lancisi, 1717 – De noxiis paludum effluviis eorumque remediis. Romae, Salvioni.

Languillon J., Mouchet J., Rivola E., Rateau J., 1956 – Contribution à l’étude de l’épidémiologie du paludisme dans la région forestière du Cameroun. Paludométrie, espèces plasmodiales, anophélisme, transmission. Médecine Tropicale, 16 : 347-378.

Lantoarilala J., Ribes G.C., Mouchet J., 1998 – Impact de la lutte antivectorielle sur la morbidité et la mortalité palustres dans un district sanitaire des Hautes Terres de Madagascar. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 91 : 87-90.

Lanzaro G.C., Zheng L., Touré Y.T., Traoré S.F., Kafatos F.C., Vernick K.D., 1995 – Microsatellite DNA and isozyme variability in a West African population of Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol., 4 : 105-112.

Laventure S., Mouchet J., Blanchy S, Marrama L., Rabarison P., Andrianaivolambo L., Rajaonarivelo E., Rakotoarovory I, Roux J., 1966 – Le riz source de vie et de mort sur les plateaux de Madagascar. Cah. Santé, 6 : 79-86.

Laveran A., 1880 – Note sur un nouveau parasite trouvé dans le sang de plusieurs malades atteints de fièvre palustre. Bull. Acad. Méd., 2e série, 9 : 1235-1236.

Laveran A., 1884 – Traité des fièvres palustres. Paris, Doin.

Lawrance C.E., Croft A.M., 2004 – Do mosquito coils prevent malaria ? A systematic review of trials. J. Travel Med., 11 (2) : 92-96.

Leeson H.S., 1930 – Variations in the wing ornmentation of Anopheles funestus Giles. Bull. Entomol. Res., 21 : 421.

Lehane M.J., 1991 – Biology of blood-sucking insects. London, Harper Collins Academic, 288 p.

Lehmann T., Elissa N., Maega B.T., Chimumbwa J.M., Watsenga F.T., Wondji C.S., Simard F., Hawley W.A., 2003 – Population structure of Anopheles gambiae in Africa. J. Hered., 94(2): 133-147.

Lemasson J.J., Fontenille D., Lochouarn L., Dia I., Simard F., Ba K., Diop A., Diatta M., Molez J.F., 1997 – Comparison of behaviour and vector efficiency of Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis (Diptera : Culicidae) in Barkedji, a Sahelian area of Senegal. J. Med. Entomol., 34 : 396-403.

Lengeler C., 2000 – Insecticide-treated bednets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev., (2) : CD000363.

Lengeler C., 2004 – Insecticide-treated nets for malaria control : real gains. Bull. World Health Organ., 82 (2) : 84.

Lengeler C., Armstrong-Schellenberg J., D’Alessandro U., Binka F., Cattani J., 1998 – Relative versus absolute risk of dying reduction after using insecticide-treated nets for malaria control in Africa. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 3 (4) : 286-290.

Lengeler C., Smith T.A., Armstrong Schellenberg J., 1997 – Focus on the effect of bednets on malaria morbidity and mortality. Parasitol. Today, 13 (3) : 123-124.

Lensen A., Bril A., van de Vegte M., van Gemert G.J., Eling W., Sauerwein R., 1999 – Plasmodium falciparum : infectivity of cultured, synchronized gametocytes to mosquitoes. Exp. Parasitol., 91 (1) : 101-103.

Levashina E.A., 2004 – Immune responses in Anopheles gambiae. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol., 34 : 673-678.

Le Bras M., Soubiran G., Baraze A., Meslet B., Combe A., Giap G., Fabre A., 1986 – Le paludisme urbain et rural au Niger. Le cas du département de Maradi. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 79 : 695-706.

Le Goff G., Toto J.-C., Nzeyimana I., Gouagna L.-C., Robert V., 1993 – Les moustiques et la transmission du paludisme dans un village traditionnel du bloc forestier sud-camerounais. Bull. Liais. Doc. OCEAC, 26 : 133-137.

Le Sueur D., Sharp B.L., 1991 – Temperature-dependent variation in Anopheles merus larval head capsule width and adult wing length : implication for anopheline taxonomy. Journal of Medical Entomology, 5 : 55-62.

Li J., Collins W.E., Wirtz R.A., Rathore D., Lal A., McCutchan T.F., 2001 – Geographic subdivision of the range of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 7 (1) : 35-42.

Lindblade K.A., Walker E.D., Wilson M.L., 2000 – Early warning of malaria epidemics in African highlands using Anopheles (Diptera : Culicidae) indoor resting density. J. Med. Ent., 37 : 664-674.

Lindsay S.W., Ansell J., Selman C., Cox V., Hamilton K., Walvaren G.E.L., 2000 – Effect of pregnancy on exposure to malaria mosquitoes. Lancet, 355 : 1972.

Lindsay S.W., Birley M.H., 1996 – Climate change and malaria transmission. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 90 (6) : 573-588.

Lindsay S.W., Bødker R., Malima R., Msangeni H.A., Kisinza W., 2000 – Effect of 1997-98 El Niño on highland malaria in Tanzania. Lancet, 355 (9208) : 989-990.

Lindsay S.W., Martens W.J., 1998 – Malaria in the African highlands : past, present and future. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 76 : 33-45.

Lines J.D., Lyimo E.O., Curtis C.D., 1986 – Mixing of indoor and outdoor resting adults of Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l. and An. Funestus Giles (Diptera : Culicidae) in coastal Tanzania. Bull. Ent. Res., 76 : 171-178.

Lines J.D., Myamba J., Curtis C.F., 1987 – Experimental hut trials of permethrin-impregnated mosquito nets and eave curtains against malaria vectors in Tanzania. Med. Vet. Entomol., 1 (1) : 37-51.

Linton Y.M., Harbach R.E., Chang M.S., Anthony T.G., Matusop A., 2001 – Morphological and molecular identity of Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Diptera : Culicidae), the nominotypical member of a malaria vector species complex in Southeast Asia. Syst. Entomol., 26 (3) : 357-366.

Linton Y.M., Samanidou-Voyadjoglou A., Harbach R.E., 2002 – Ribosomal ITS2 sequence data for Anopheles maculipennis and An. messeae in northern Greece, with a critical assessment of previously published sequences. Insect Mol. Biol., 11 (4) : 379-383.

Liu W., Zhang J., Hashim J.H., Jalaludin J., Hashim Z., Goldstein B.D., 2003 – Mosquito coil emissions and health implications. Environ. Health Perspect., 111 (12) : 1454-1460.

Lochouarn L., Fontenille D., 1999 – ELISA detection of malaria sporozoites : false-positive results in Anopheles gambiae s.l. associated with bovine blood meals. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 93 : 101-102.

Loevinsohn M.E., 1994 – Climatic warming and increased malaria incidence in Rwanda. Lancet, 343 : 714-718.

Longnecker M.P., Klebanoff M.A., Haibo Zhou H., Brock J.W., 2001 – Association between maternal serum concentration of the DDT metabolite DDE and preterm and small-for-gestational-age babies at birth. The Lancet, 358 : 110-114.

Loretti A., Tegegn Y., 1996 – Disasters in Africa : old and new hazards and growing vulnerability. World Health Stat. Q., 49 : 179-184.

Louis J.-P., Albert J.-P., 1988 – Le paludisme en République de Djibouti - Stratégies de lutte par des campagnes antilarvaires biologiques : le poisson larvivore indigène (Aphanius dispar) et les toxines bactériennes. Méd. Trop., 48 : 127-131.

Lounibos, L.P., Coetzee M., Duzak D., Nishimura N., Linley J.R., Service M.W., Cornel A.J., Fontenille D., Mukwaya L.G., 1999 – A description and morphometric comparison of eggs of species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 15 : 157-185.

Loveridge B.W., Henner J.R., Lee P.C., 2003 – Accurate clinical diagnosis of malaria in a postflood epidemic : a field study in Mozambique. Wilderness Environ. Med., 14 : 17-19.

Lüleyap H.U., Alptekin D., Kasap H., Kasap M.J., 2002 – Detection of knockdown resistance mutations in Anopheles sacharovi (Diptera : Culicidae) and genetic distance with Anopheles gambiae (Diptera : Culicidae) using cDNA sequencing of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. J. Med. Entomol., 39 : 870-874.

Lynd A., Ranson H., Mccall P.J., Randle N.P., Black W.C. 4th, Walker E.D., Donnelly M.J., 2005 – A simplified high-throughput method for pyrethroid knock-down resistance (kdr) detection in Anopheles gambiae. Malaria J., 4 (1) : 16.

Ma Y., Qu F., Lei X., Dong X., 2000 – Comparison of rDNA-ITS2 sequences and morphological characters of Anopheles kunmingensis and Anopheles langshanensis in China, with discussion on taxonomic status. Chinese J. Parasitol. Parasitic Dis., 18 : 65-68.

Mabaso M.L., Sharp B., Lengeler C., 2004 – Historical review of malarial control in southern Africa with emphasis on the use of indoor residual house-spraying. Trop. Med., Int. Hlth., 9 : 846-856.

Mac Call P.J., Mosha F.W., Njunwa K.J., Sherlock K., 2001 – Evidence for memorized site fidelity in Anopheles arabiensis. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 95 : 587-590.

Mac Callum W.G., 1897 – On the Flagellated Form of the Malarial Parasite. Lancet, 2 : 1240.

Macdonald G., 1950 – The analysis of infection rates in diseases in which superinfection occurs. Trop. Dis. Bull., 47 : 907-915.

Macdonald G., 1957 – The epidemiology and control of malaria. London, New York, Toronto, Oxford University Press.

Mackinnon M.J., Hastings I.M., 1998 – The evolution of multiple drug resistance in malaria parasites. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 92 : 188-195.

Magesa S.M., Wilkes T.J., Mnzava A.E., Njunwa K.J., Myamba J., Kivuyo M.D., Hill N., Lines J.D., Curtis C.F., 1991 – Trial of pyrethroid impregnated bednets in an area of Tanzania holoendemic for malaria. Part 2- Effects on the malaria vector population. Acta Trop., 49 (2) : 97-108.

Magnarelli L.A., 1978 – Nectar feeding by female mosquitos and its relation to follicular development and parity. J. Med. Ent., 14 : 527-530.

Mahande M.A., Mosha F.W., Johnson M., Mahande J.M., Kweka E.J., 2007 – Role of cattle treated with deltamethrine in areas with a high population of Anopheles arabiensis in Moshi, Northern Tanzania. Malaria J., 6 : 109.

Maibach H.I., Skinner W.A., Strauss W.G., Khan A.A., 1966 – Factors that attracts and repel mosquitoes in human skin. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 196 : 173-176.

Makhnev M.V., 2002 – Local cases of three-day malaria in the Moscow area. Ter. Arkh., 74 : 31-33.

Manga L., Robert V., Carnevale P., 1995b – Efficacité des serpentins et des diffuseurs en plaquettes dans la protection contre les vecteurs du paludisme au Cameroun. Cahiers Santé, 5 : 85-88.

Manga L., Robert V., Messi J., Desfontaine M., Carnevale P., 1992 – Le paludisme urbain à Yaoundé : étude entomologique dans deux quartiers centraux. Mém. Soc. Roy. Belge Ent., 35 : 155-162.

Manga L., Toto J.C., Carnevale P., 1995a – Malaria vectors and transmission in an area deforested for a new international airport in southern Cameroon. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 75 : 43-49.

Manguin S., Boussinesq M., 1999 – Apport de la télédétection en santé publique : l’exemple du paludisme et autres perspectives. Méd. Mal. Infect., 29 : 318-324.

Manguin S., Fontenille D., Chandre F., Lochouarn L., Mouchet J., Kengne P., Guillet P., 1999a – Génétique des populations anophéliennes. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot., 92 : 229-235.

Manguin S., Garros C., Dusfour I., Harbach R.E., Coosemans M., 2008. – Bionomics, taxonomy, and distribution of the major malaria vector taxa of Anopheles subgenus Cellia in Southeast Asia : an updated review. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 2008, 8 (4) : 489-503.

Manguin S., Kengne P., Sonnier L., Harbach R.E., Baimai V., Trung H.D., Coosemans M., 2002 – SCAR markers and multiplex PCR-based identification of isomorphic species in the Anopheles dirus complex in Southeast Asia. Med. Vet. Ent., 16 : 46-54.

Manguin S., Roberts D.R., Andre R.G., Rejmankova E., Hakre S., 1996a – Characterization of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera : Culicidae) larval habitats in Belize, Central America. J. Med. Entomol., 33 : 205-211.

Manguin S., Roberts D.R., Peyton E.L., Fernandez-Salas I., Barreto M., Fernandez Loayza R., Elgueta Spinola R., Martinez Granaou R., Rodriguez M.H., 1995 – Biochemical systematics and population genetic structure of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, vector of malaria in Central and South America. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53 (4) : 362-377.

Manguin S., Roberts D.R., Peyton E.L., Rejmankova E., Pecor J., 1996b – Characterization of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis larval habitats. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 12 : 619-626.

Manguin S., Wilkerson R., Conn J.E., Rubio-Palis Y., Danoff-Burg J.A., Roberts D.R., 1999b – Population structure of the primary malaria vector in South America, Anopheles darlingi, using isozyme, random amplified polymorphic DNA, internal transcribed spacer 2, and morphologic markers. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60 : 364-376.

Manonmani A., Townson H., Adeniran T., Jambulingam P., Sahu S., Vijayakumar T., 2001 – rDNA-ITS2 polymerase chain reaction assay for the sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis. Acta Tropica, 78 : 3-9.

Manoucheri A.V., Djanbakhsh B., Ashghi N., 1976 – The biting cycle of Anopheles dthali, A. fluviatilis and A. stephensi in southern Iran. Trop. Geogr. Med., 28 : 224-227.

Manson P., 1883 – The Filaria sanguinis humanis and Certain New Forms of the Parasitic Disease in India, China and Warm Countries. London, H.K. Lewis.

Manson P., 1894 – On the Nature and Significance of hte Crescentic and Flagellated Bodies in Malarial Blood. Brit. M. J., 2 : 1306

Marbiah N.T., Petersen E., David K., Magbity E., Lines J., Bradley D.J., 1998 – A controlled trial of lambda-cyhalothrin-impregnated bed nets and/or dapsone/pyrimethamine for malaria control in Sierra Leone. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 58 (1) : 1-6.

Marcovitch S., 1941 – New data on the biology of A. bifurcatus (observations in north Caucasus). Med. Parazitol., Parazit. Bolezni (Moskva), 10 : 24-34.

Marimbu J., Ndayiragije A., Le Bras M., Chaperon J., 1993 – Environnement et paludisme au Burundi. À propos d’une épidémie de paludisme dans une zone montagneuse non endémique. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 86 : 399-401.

Marinucci M., Romi R., Mancini P., Di Luca M., Severini C., 1999 – Phylogenetic relationships of seven palearctic members of the maculipennis complex inferred from ITS2 sequence analysis. Insect Molecular Biology, 8 (4) : 469-480.

Marrama L., Jambou R., Rakotoarivony I., Ponck Tsi L., Duchemin J.B., Laventure S., Mouchet J., Roux J., 2004 – Malaria transmission in Southern Madagascar : influence of the environment and hydro-agricultural works in sub-arid and humid regions. Part 1- Entomological investigations. Acta Tropica, 89 : 193-203.

Marrama L., Laventure S., Rabarison P., Roux J., 1999 – Anopheles mascarensis (De Meillon, 1947) : vecteur principal de paludisme dans la région de Fort-Dauphin (sud-est de Madagascar). Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 92 : 136-138.

Marrama L., Rajaonarivelo E., Laventure S., Rabarison P., 1995 – Anopheles funestus et la riziculture sur les plateaux de Madagascar. Cahiers Santé, 5 (6) : 415-419.

Martens P., 1999 – MIASMA : Modelling framework for the health impact assessment of man-induced atmospheric changes. ESIAM, CD-Rom n° 2.

Martens P., Jetten T.H., Focks D.A., 1997 – Sensitivity of malaria, schistosomiasis and dengue to global warming. Climatic Changes, 35 : 145-156.

Martens P., Jetten T.H., Rotmans J., Niessen L.W., 1995a – Climatic changes and vector-borne diseases : a global modelling perspective. Global Environmental Change, 5 : 195-209.

Martens P., Kovats R.S., Nijhof S., de Vries P., Livermore M.T.J., Bradley D.J., Cox J., Mcmichael A.J., 1999 – Climate changes and future populations at risk of malaria. Global Environmental Changes, 9 : S89-S107.

Martens P., Niessen L.W., Rotmans J., Jetten T.H., McMichael A.J., 1995b – Potential impact of global climate change on malaria risk. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103 : 458-464.

Martinez-Torres D., Chandre F., Williamson M.S., Darriet F., Berge J.B., Devonshire A.L., Guillet P., Pasteur N., Pauron D., 1998 – Molecular characterization of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Insect Mol. Biol., 7 : 179-184.

Martini E., 1923 – Ueber einige für das System bedeutungsvolle Merkmale der Stechmucken. Zool. Jber. 46, Abd. Systematik : 517-590.

Masendu H.T., Hunt R.H., Govere J., Brooke B.D., Awolola T.S., Coetzee M., 2004 – The sympatric occurrence of two molecular forms of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto in Kanyemba, in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 98 : 393-396.

Mastbaum O., 1954 – Observations on two epidemic malaria seasons (1946 and 1953) before and after malaria control in Swaziland. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 48 : 325-331.

Matambo T.S., Abdallah H., Brooke B.D., Koekemoer L.L., Mnzava A., Hunt R.H., Coetzee M., 2007 – Insecticide resistance in the malarial mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and association with the kdr mutation. Med. Vet. Ent., 21 : 97-102.

Mattingly P.F., Brown E.S., 1956 – The mosquitoes (Diptera : Culicidae) of the Seychelles. Bulletin of entomological Research, 46 : 69-110.

Maxwell C.A., Chambo W., Mwaimu M., Magogo F., Carneiro I.A., Curtis C.F., 2003 Variation of malaria transmission and morbidity with altitude in Tanzania and with introduction of alphacypermethrin treated nets. Malaria J., 2 : 28.

Mayer M.S., James J.D., 1969 Attraction of Aedes aegypti (L.) : responses to human arms, carbon dioxide, and air current in a new type of olfactomater. Bull. Ent. Res., 58 : 629-642.

Mayne B., 1930 – A Study of the Influence of Relative Humidity on the Life and Infectibility of the Mosquito. Indian J. M. Research, 17 : 1119.

Mayr E., 1942 – Systematics and the origin of species. Columbia University press.

McCombie S.C., 1996 – Treatment seeking for malaria : a review of recent research. Soc. Sci. Med., 43 : 933-945.

McGready R., Hamilton K.A., Simpson J.A., Cho T., Luxemburger C., Edwards R., Looareesuwan S., White N.J., Nosten F., Lindsay S.W., 2001 – Safety of the insect repellent N, N-diethyl-M-toluamide (DEET) in pregnancy. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65 (4) : 285-289.

McGregor I.A., Rahman A.K., Thomson A.M., Billewicz W.Z., Thompson B., 1970 – The health of young children in a West African (Gambian) village. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 64 (1) : 48-77.

McGregor I.A., Wilson M.E., Billewicz W.Z., 1983 – Malaria infection of the placenta in The Gambia, West Africa ; its incidence and relationship to stillbirth, birth weight and placenta weight. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 77 : 323-244.

McKendrick A.G., 1926 – Applications of mathematics to medical problems. Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society, 44 : 98-130.

McKenzie F.E., 2000 – Why model malaria ? Parasitol. Today, 16 (12) : 511-516.

McKenzie F.E., Baird J.K., Beier J.C., Lal A.A., Bossert W.H., 2002b – A biologic basis for integrated malaria control. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 67 (6) : 571-577.

McKenzie F.E., Bossert W.H., 1997 – Mixed-species Plasmodium infections of Anopheles (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol., 34 (4) : 417-425. Erratum in : J. Med. Entomol., 1997, 34 (5) : ii.

McKenzie F.E., Bossert W.H., 2005 – An integrated model of Plasmodium falciparum dynamics. J. Theor. Biol., 232 (3) : 411-426.

McKenzie F.E., Jeffery G.M., Collins W.E., 2002a – Plasmodium malariae infection boosts Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte production. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 67 (4) : 411-414.

McKenzie F.E., Samba E.M., 2004 – The rôle of mathematical modeling in evidence-based malaria control. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 71 (2 Suppl) : 94-96.

Medlock J.M., Aryemo M., Bean J., 2007 – Impact of mosquito proofing of night shelters in refugee camps in Kitgum, northern Uganda. Trop. Med. Int. Hlth., 12 : 370-376.

Meek S.R., 1995 – Vector control in some countries of Southeast Asia : comparing the vectors and the strategies. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 89 (2) : 135-147.

Meijerink J., Braks M.A.H., Van Loon J.J.A., 2001 – Olfactory receptors on the antennae of the main malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae are sensitive to ammonia and other sweat-borne components. J. Ins. Physiol., 47 : 455-464.

Meijerink J., Van Loon J.J.A., 1999 – Sensitivities of antennal olfactory neurons of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to carboxylic acids. J. Ins. Physio., 45 : 365-373.

Mellink J.J., Van Den Bovenkamp, 1981 – Functional aspects of mosquito salivation in blood feeding in Aedes aegypti. Mosq. News, 41 : 110-115.

Ménard R., Sultan A.A., Cortes C., Altszuler R., van Dijk M.R., Janse C.J., Waters A.P., Nussenzweig R.S., Nussenzweig V., 1997 – Circumsporozoite protein is required for development of malaria sporozoites in mosquitoes. Nature, 385 (6614) : 336-340.

Menendez C., 1995 – Malaria during pregnancy : a priority area of malaria research and control. Parasitol. Today, 11 : 178-183.

Menendez C., 2006 – Malaria during pregnancy. Curr. Mol. Med., 6 : 269-273.

Mer G.G., 1932 – The Determination of the age of Anopheles by differences in the size of the common oviduct. Bull. Ent. Res., 23 : 563.

Mer G.G., 1936 – Experimental study on the development of the ovary in Anopheles elutus, Edw. (Dipt. Culic.). Bull. Ent. Res., 27 : 351-359.

Mer G., Birnbaum D., Aioub A., 1947 – The attraction of mosquitos by human beings. Parasitol., 38 : 1-9.

Merritt R.W., Craig D.A., Walker E.D., Vanderploeg H.A., Wotton R.S., 1992 – Interfacial feeding behaviour and particle flow patterns of Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Ins. Behav., 5 : 741-761.

Metcalf R.L., 1945 – The physiology of the salivary glands of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. J. Natl. Malaria Soc., 4 : 271-278.

Metcalfe J.T., 1862 – Report of a Committee of the Associate Members of the Sanitary Commission on the Nature and Treatment of Miasmatic Fevers. Washington D.C., U.S. Sanitary Commission.

Michael E., Ramaiah K.D., Hoti S.L., Barker G., Paul M.R., Yuvaraj J., Das P.K., Grenfel B.T., Bundy D.A., 2001 – Quantifying mosquito biting patterns on humans by DNA fingerprinting of bloodmeals. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 65 : 722-728.

Michel A.P., Grushko O., Guelbeogo W.M., Lobo N.F., Sagnon N., Costantini C., Besansky N.J., 2006 – Divergence with gene flow in Anopheles funestus from the Sudan Savanna of Burkina Faso, West Africa. Genetics, 173 (3) : 1389-1395.

Michel A.P., Guelbeogo W.M., Grushko O., Schemerhorn B.J., Kern M., Willard M.B., Sagnon N., Costantini C., Besansky N.J., 2005a – Molecular differentiation between chromosomally defined incipient species of Anopheles funestus. Insect Mol. Biol., 14 (4) : 375-387.

Michel A.P., Ingrasci M.J., Schemerhorn B.J., Kern M., Le Goff G., Coetzee M., Edissa N., Fontenille D., Vulule J., Lehmann T., Sagnon N., Costantini C., Besansky N.J., 2005b – Rangewide population genetics of the African malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Mol. Ecol., 14 : 4235-4238.

Michel K., Suwanchaichinda C., Morlais I., Lambrechts L., Cohuet A., Awono-Ambene P., Simard F., Fontenille D., Kanost M.R., Kafatos F.C., 2006 – Increased melanizing activity in Anopheles gambiae does not affect development of Plasmodium falciparum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103 (45) : 16858-16863.

Micks D.W., 1949 – Investigations on the mosquito transmission of Plasmodium elongatum Huff. J. Nat. Mal. Soc., 8 : 206-218.

Miller J.E., Gibson G., 1994 – Behavioural response of host-seeking mosquitoes (Diptera : Culicidae) to insecticide-impregnated bed net : a new approach to insecticide bioassays. J. Med. Ent., 31 : 114-122.

Miller J.E., Lindsay S.W., Armstrong Schellenberg J.R., Adiamah J., Jawara M., Curtis C.F., 1995 – Village trial of bednets impregnated with wash-resistant permethrin compared with other pyrethroid formulations. Med. Vet. Entomol., 9 (1) : 43-49.

Milon G., David P.H., 1999 – Transmission stages of Plasmodium : does the parasite use the one same signal, provided both by the host and the vector, for gametocytogenesis and sporozoite maturation? Parassitologia, 41 (1-3) :159-62.

Mittal P.K., 2003 – Biolarvicides in vector control : challenges and prospects. J. Vector Borne Dis., 40 (1-2) : 20-32.

Mittal P.K., Adak T., Sharma V.P., 1998 – Variations in the response to Bacillus sphaericus toxins in different strains of Anopheles stephensi Liston. Indian J. Malariol., 35 (4) : 178-184.

Mnzava A.E.P., Rwegoshora R.T., Wilkes T.J., Tanner M., Curtis C.F., 1995 – Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae chromosomal inversions polymorphism, feeding and resting behaviour in relation to insecticide house-spraying in Tanzania. Med. Vet. Ent., 9 : 316-324.

Moffett A., Shackelford N., Sarkar S., 2007 – Malaria in Africa : vector species’ niche models and relative risk maps. PLoS ONE, 2 : e824.

Mohamed A.A., 2003 – Study of larvivorous fish for malaria vector control in Somalia, 2002. East Mediterr. Health J., 9 (4) : 618-626.

Mohammed H.A., 1997 – The responses of malarial mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. to components of human odour. London UK, MSc Thesis, University of London.

Mohanty A., Kar P., Mishra K., Singh D.V., Mohapatra N., Kar S.K., Dash A.P., Hazra R.K., 2007 – Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of Anopheles fluviatilis species complex, human host preference, and Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite presence, using a unique mosquito processing method. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76 (5) : 837-843.

Molez J.-F., Desenfant P., Jacques J.-R., 1998 – Bio-écologie en Haïti d’Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, 1820 (Diptera : Culicidae). Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot., 91 (4) : 334-339.

Molineaux L., 1985 – The pros and cons of modelling malaria transmission. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 79 : 743-747.

Molineaux L., 1988 – « The epidemiology of human malaria as an explanation of its distribution, including some implications for its control ». In Wernsdorfer W.H., Mac Gregor I. eds. : Malaria – Principles and Practice of Malariology, Churchill Livingstone : 913-998.

Molineaux L., 1996 – Plasmodium falciparum malaria : some epidemiological implications of parasite and host diversity. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 90 : 379-393.

Molineaux L., 1997 – Nature’s experiment : what implications for malaria prevention. Lancet, 349 : 1636-1637.

Molineaux L., Diebner H.H., Eichner M., Collins W.E., Jeffery G.M., Dietz K., 2001 – Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia described by a new mathematical model. Parasitology, 122 (Pt 4) : 379-391.

Molineaux L., Dietz K., 1999 – Review of intra-host models of malaria. Parassitologia, 41 (1-3) : 221-231.

Molineaux L., Gramiccia G., 1980 – Le projet Garki. Recherches sur l’épidémiologie du paludisme et la lutte antipaludique dans la savane soudanienne de l’Afrique occidentale. Genève, Organisation mondiale de la santé, 354 p.

Molineaux L., Shidrawi G.R., Clarke J.L., Boalzaguet J.R., Ashkar T.S., 1978 – The assessment of insecticidal impact on the malaria mosquito’s vectorial capacity, from data on the man-biting rate and age-composition. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 57 : 265-274.

Moore S.J., Lenglet E., Hill N., 2002 – Field evaluation of three plant-based insect repellents against malaria vectors inVaca Diez Province, the Bolivian Amazon. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 18 : 107-110.

Morault B., 1982 – Aspect du paludisme chez l’enfant congolais. Thèse médecine, Univ. Paris-Ouest.

Moreno M., Cano J., Nzambo S., Bobuakasi L., Buatiche J.N., Ondo M., Micha F., Benito A., 2004 – Malaria Panel Assay versus PCR : detection of naturally infected Anopheles melas in a coastal village of Equatorial Guinea. Malaria J., 3 : 20.

Moreno M., Salgueiro P., Vicente J.L., Cano J., Berzosa P.J., de Lucio A., Simard F., Caccone A., Do Rosario V.E., Pinto J., Benito A., 2007 – Genetic population structure of Anopheles gambiae in Equatorial Guinea. Malaria J., 6 : 137.

Morris J., Bate R., 1999 – Fearing Food : Risk, Health and Environment. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford.

Morsy T.A., El Kadery A.A., Salama M.M., Sabry A.H., El Sharkawy I.M., 1995a – Studies on the bionomics and vector competence of adult anopheline mosquitoes in El Fayum Governorate, Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 25 : 213-244.

Morsy T.A., El Kadery A.A., Salama M.M., Sabry A.H., Kotb M.M., el Sharkawy I.M., 1995b – Studies on anopheline larvae in El Faiyum Governorate, Egypt. J. Egypt. Soc. Parasitol., 25 : 329-353.

Mosha F.W., Naju R.J.A., Alfred J., 1992 – Efficacy of esbiothrin mosquito coils at community level in northern Tanzania. Med. Vet. Entomol., 6 : 44-46.

Moshkovsky S.D., 1946 – The dependance upon temperature of the speed of development of malaria plasmodia in the mosquito. Med. Parazit., (Mosk.), 15 : 19.

Mouchet J., 1957 – Observations sur quelques anophèles exophiles au Cameroun. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 50 : 378-381.

Mouchet J., 1962 – Influence des fleuves sur la biologie d’Anopheles gambiae pendant la saison sèche dans le Sud-Cameroun. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 55 : 1163-1171.

Mouchet J., 1987 – Mission in Swaziland – June 14-21, 1987. Rep. to WHO Regional Office for Africa, 19 p.

Mouchet J., 1994 – Le DDT et la Santé Publique. Cahiers Santé, 4 : 257-262.

Mouchet J., 1998 – L’origine des épidémies de paludisme sur les plateaux de Madagascar et les montagnes d’Afrique de l’Est et du Sud. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 91 : 64-66.

Mouchet J., 1999 – Vecteurs et facteurs d’environnement du paludisme. Tranfus. Clin. Biol., 6 : 35-43.

Mouchet J., Blanchy S., Rakotonjanabelo A., Ranaivoson G., Rajaonarivelo E., Laventure S., Rosella M., Aknouche F., 1993 – Stratification épidémiologique du paludisme à Madagascar. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Madagascar, 60 : 50-59.

Mouchet J., Brengues J., 1990 – Les interfaces agriculture-santé dans les domaines de l’épidémiologie des maladies à vecteurs et de la lutte antivectorielle. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 83 : 376-393.

Mouchet J., Carnevale P., 1981 – Malaria endemicity in the various phytogeographic and climatic areas of Africa, south of Sahara. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Pub. Hlth., 12 : 439-440.

Mouchet J., Carnevale P., 1997 – Impact des modifications de l’environnement sur les maladies à transmission vectorielle. Cahiers Santé, 7 : 263-269.

Mouchet J., Carnevale P., Coosemans M., Julvez J., Manguin S., Richard-Lenoble D., Sircoulon J., 2004 – Biodiversité du paludisme dans le monde. Montrouge, John Libbey Eurotext, 428 p.

Mouchet J., Faye O., Julvez J., Manguin S., 1996 – Drought and malaria retreat in the Sahel, West Africa. The Lancet, 348 : 1735-1736.

Mouchet J., Gariou J., 1960 – Anophélisme et paludisme dans le département Bamiléké. Rech. Ét. Camerounaises, 1 : 92-114.

Mouchet J., Gariou J., 1966 – Anopheles moucheti au Cameroun. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Med., IV (6) : 71-81.

Mouchet J., Manguin S., 1999 – Le réchauffement de la planète et l’expansion du paludisme. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr., 35 : 549-555.

Mouchet J., Manguin S., Sircoulon J., Laventure S., Faye O., Onapa A.W., Carnevale P., Julvez J., Fontenille D., 1998 – Evolution of malaria for the past 40 years : impact of climatic and human factors. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 14 : 121-130.

Muentener P., Schlagenhauff P., Steffen R., 1999 – Imported malaria (1985-95) : trends and perspectives. Bull. Wrld. Hlth. Org., 77 : 560-566.

Muirhead-Thomson R.C., 1951 – Mosquito behaviour in relation to malaria transmission and control in the Tropics. Arnold London.

Mulder B., Tchuinkam T., Dechering K., Verhave J.P., Carnevale P., Meuwissen J., Robert V., 1994 – Malaria transmission-blocking activity in experimental infections of Anopheles gambiae from naturally infected Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 88 : 121-125.

Muller J., Mehlen A., Vetter G., Yatskou M., Muller A., Chalmel F., Poch O., Friederich E., Vallar L., 2007 – Design and evaluation of Actichip, a thematic microarray for the study of the actin cytoskeleton. BMC Genomics 8 : 294.

Müller H.M., Dimopoulos G., Blass C., Kafatos F.C., 1999 – A hemocyte-like cell line established from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae expresses six prophenoloxidase genes. J. Biol. Chem., 274 (17) : 11727-11735.

Müller O., Traoré C., Kouyaté B., Y., Frey C., Coulibaly B., Becher H., 2006 – Effects of insecticide-treated bednets during early infancy in an African area of intense malaria transmission : a randomized controlled trial. Bull. World Health Organ., 84 (2) : 120-126.

Mutero C.M., Mosha F.W., Subra R., 1984 – Biting activity and resting behaviour of Anopheles merus Donitz (Diptera : Culicidae) on the Kenya coast. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 78 : 43-47.

Muturi E.J., Muriu S., Shililu J., Mwangangi J., Jacob B.G., Mbogo C., Githure J., Novak R.J., 2008 – Effect of rice cultivation on malaria transmission in Central Kenya. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 78 : 270-275.

Mwangi T.W., Ross A., Marsh K., Snow R.W., 2003 – The effects of untreated bednets on malaria infection and morbidity on the Kenyan coast. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 97 (4) : 369-372.

Nabeshima T., Mori A., Kozaki T., Iwata Y., Hidoh O., Harada S., Kasai S., Severson D.W., Kono Y., Tomita T., 2004 – An amino acid substitution attributable to insecticide-insensitivity of acetylcholinesterase in a Japanese encephalitis vector mosquito, Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 313 (3) : 794-801.

Nachtigall W., 1974 – Insects in flight. New York, Mc Graw-Hill.

Naitza S., Spano F., Robson K.J.H., Crisanti A., 1998 – The thromspondin-related protein family of apicomplexan parasites : the gears of the cell invasion machinery. Parasitol. Today, 14 : 479-484.

Najera J.A., 1974 – A critical review of the field application of a mathematical model of malaria eradication. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 50 : 449-457.

Najera A.J., Zaim M., 2005 – Lutte contre les vecteurs de paludisme. Critères et procédures pour prise de décisions pour une utilisation raisonnée des insecticides. WHO/CDS/WHOPES/2005.2.

Nanda N., Das M.K., Wattal S., Adak T., Subbarao S.K., 2004 – Cytogenetic characterization of Anopheles sundaicus (Diptera : Culicidae) population from Car Nicobar Island, India. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 97 : 171-176.

Narang N., Narang S., Kitzmiller J.B., 1973 – The salivary chromosomes of Anopheles subpictus. Parassitologia, 15 (1) : 99-120.

Nedelman J., 1984 – Inoculation rate and recovery rates in the malaria model of Dietz, Molineaux and Thomas. Math. Biosc., 73 : 159-182.

Nevill C.G., Some E.S., Mung’ala V.O., Mutemi W., New L., Marsh K., Lengeler C., Snow R.W., 1996 – Insecticide-treated bednets reduce mortality and severe morbidity from malaria among children on the Kenyan coast. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 1 (2) : 139-146.

N’guessan R., Darriet F., Guillet P., Carnevale P., Traoré-Lamizana M., Corbel V., Koffi A.A., Chandre F., 2003 – Resistance to carbosulfan in Anopheles gambiae from Ivory Coast, based on reduced sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase. Med. Vet. Ent., 17 : 19-25.

N’guessan R., Knols B.G., Pennetier C., Rowland M., 2008 – DEET microencapsulation : a slow-release formulation enhancing the residual efficacy of bed nets against malaria vectors. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 102 (3) : 259-262.

N’guessan R., Rowland M., Moumouni T.L., Kesse N.B., Carnevale P., 2006 – Evaluation of synthetic repellents on mosquito nets in experimental huts against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 100 : 1091-1097.

Nguyen Tang A., Le Quy R., Vu Thi H., Ngyuen Bieh L., 1993 – Études entomoépidémiologiques du paludisme dans la zone côtière de Ho Chi Minh-Ville, 1990-1992. Cahiers Santé, 3 : 464-473.

Nicolas L., Darriet F., Hougard J.M., 1987 – Efficacy of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 against larvae of Anopheles gambiae under laboratory and field conditions in West Africa. Med. Vet. Entomol., 1 (2) : 157-162.

Nicholson A.J., 1921 – The development of the ovary and ovarian egg of a mosquito, Anopheles maculipennis, Meig. Quart. J. Micr. Sc., 65 : 396.

Nielsen E.T., Haeger J.S., 1960 – Swarming and mating in mosquitos. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, 1 : 71-95.

Nikou D., Ranson H., Hemingway J., 2003 – An adult-specific CYP6 P450 gene is overexpressed in a pyrethroid-resistant strain of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Gene, 318 : 91-102.

Njan Nlonga A., Robert V., Toto J.-C., Carnevale P., 1993 – La durée du cycle gonotrophique d’Anopheles moucheti varie de trois à quatre jours en fonction de la proximité par rapport aux gîtes de ponte. Bull. Liais. Doc. OCEAC, 26 : 69-72.

Noden B.H., Beadle P.S., Vaughan J.A., Pumpuni C.B., Kent M.D., Beier J.C., 1994 – Plasmodium falciparum : the population structure of mature gametocyte cultures has little effect on their innate fertility. Acta Tropica, 58 (1) : 13-19.

Nott I.C., 1848 – Yellow Fever Contrasted with Bilious Fever etc. New Orleans M., S. J., 4 : 563.

Nyachieo A., Van Overmeir C., Laurent T., Dujardin J.C., D’Alessandro U., 2005 – Plasmodium falciparum genotyping by microsatellites as a method to distinguish between recrudescent and new infections. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 73 (1) : 210-213.

Nzeyimana I., Henry M.-C., Dossou-Yovo J., Doannio J.-M., Diawara L., Carnevale P., 2002 – Épidémiologie du paludisme dans la forêt du sud-ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire (région de Taï). Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot., 95 (2) : 89-94.

Oganov L.I., 1947 – Malaria and its seasonal changes in the Moscow Oblast. Moscow Thesis.

Ohba M., Saitoh H., Miyamoto K., Higuchi K., Mizuki E., 1995 – Bacillus thuringiensis serovar higo (flagellar serotype 44), a new serogroup with a larvicidal activity preferential for the anopheline mosquito. Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 21 (5) : 316-318.

Okech B.A., Gouagna L.C., Kabiru E.W., Walczak E., Beier J.C., Yan G., Githure J.I., 2004 – Resistance of early midgut stages of natural Plasmodium falciparum parasites to high temperatures in experimentally infected Anopheles gambiae (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Parasitol., 90 (4) : 764-768.

Okech B.A., Gouagna L.C., Yan G., Githure J.I., Beier J.C., 2007 – Larval habitats of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera : Culicidae) influence vector competence to Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Malaria J., 6 : 50.

Olivar M., Develoux M., Chegou A.A., Loutan L., 1991 – Presumptive diagnosis of malaria results in a significant risk of mistreatment of children in urban Sahel. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 85 : 729-730.

Omer S.M., 1979 – Responses of females of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex pipiens fatigans to air currents, carbon dioxyde and human hands in a flight tunnel. Entomologia Experimentalis, Applicata, 26 : 142-151.

Omer S.M., Cloudsley-Thomson J.L., 1968 – Dry season biology of Anopheles gambiae Giles in the Sudan. Nature, 217 : 879-880.

Omer S.M., Cloudsley-Thomson J.L., 1970 – Survival of female Anopheles gambiae Giles through a 9-month dry season in Sudan. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 42 : 319-330.

OMS, 1994 – Techniques entomologiques pratiques pour la lutte antipaludique ; Part. I, Guide du stagiaire. Genève, publication hors série, 77 p.

OMS, 2003 – Guidelines for integrated vector management. WHO Regional office for Africa, Division of prevention and control of communicable diseases, Vector biology and control unit, Harare, Zimbabwe, 30 p.

OMS, 2004a – Malaria epidemics : forecasting, prevention, early detection and control : from policy to practice. Geneva, World Health Organization.

OMS, 2004b – Using climate change to predict disease outbreaks : a review. Geneva, World Health Organization, WHO/SDE/OEH 04 01.

Opota O., Charles J.F., Warot S., Pauron D., Darboux I., 2008 – Identification and characterization of the receptor for the Bacillus sphaericus binary toxin in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B Biochem. Mol. Biol., 149 : 419-427.

Orach C.G., 1999 – Morbidity and mortality amongst southern Sudanese in Koboko refugee camps, Arua District, Uganda. East Afr. Med. J., 76 : 195-199.

Osborn F.R., Herrera M.J., Gómez C.J., Salazar A., 2007 – Comparison of two commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Israelensis for the control of Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera : Culicidae) at three salt concentrations. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 102 (1) : 69-72.

Othnigue N., Wyss K., Tanner M., Genton B., 2006 – Urban malaria in the Sahel : prevalence and seasonality of preseumptive malaria and parasitaemia at primary care level in Chad. Trop. Med., Int. Hlth., 11 : 204-210.

Packard R.M., 1986 – Agricultural development, migrant labor and the resurgence of malaria in Swaziland. Soc. Sci. Med., 22 : 861-867.

Pagès F., Orlandi-Pradines E., Corbel V., 2007 – Vecteurs du paludisme : biologie, diversité, contrôle et protection individuelle. Méd. Mal. Infect., 37 (3) : 153-161.

Pal M.K., Tandon N., 2001 – Field evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bacticide) against Anopheles stephensi breeding in Calcutta city. J. Commun. Dis., 33 (2) : 143-146.

Palsson K., Pinto J., Do Rosario V.E., Jaenson T.G., 1998 – The palpal ration method compared with PCR to distinguish between Anopheles gambiae s.s. and A. melas from Guinea Bissau, West Africa. Acta Tropica, 70 : 101-107.

Pape T., 1992 -Cladistic analysis of mosquito chromosome data in Anopheles subgenus Cellia Myzomyia (Diptera : Culicidae). Mosquito Systematics, 24 : 1-11.

Pappas L.G., Pappas C.D., Grossman G.L., 1986 – Hemodynamics of human skin during mosquito (Diptera : Culicidae) blood feeding. J. Med. Entomol., 23 : 581-587.

Parent G., Ouedraogo A., Zagre N.M., Camparoe I., Kambire R., Poda J.N., 1997 – Grands barrages, santé et nutrition en Afrique : au-delà de la controverse. Cahiers Santé, 7 : 417-422.

Parent G., Vercruysse J., Blanchot M., Slavov R., Gazin P., Carnevale P., Naudin J.-C., Delgado G., Roffi J., 1983 – « Étude longitudinale et pluridisciplinaire du paludisme en zone sahélienne ». In : IIe Conf. Int. Paludisme et Babésioses, Annecy, sept. 1983.

Parent G., Vercruysse J., Gazin P., Roffi J., Slavov R., Blanchot M., 1987 – Paludisme, anémie et statut nutritionnel : une étude longitudinale de leurs interactions en zone sahélienne du Sénégal. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot., 80 : 546-560.

Parmakelis A., Russello M.A., Caccone A., Marcondes C.B., Costa J., Forattini O.P., Sallum M.A., Wilkerson R.C., Powell J.R., 2008 – Historical Analysis of a Near Disaster : Anopheles gambiae in Brazil. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 78 (1) : 176-178.

Pascual M., Ahumada J.A., Chaves L.F., Rodo X., Bouma M., 2006 – Malaria resurgence in the East African highlands : temperature trends revisited. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103 : 5829-5834.

Paskewitz S.M., Brown M.R., Lea A.O., Collins F.H., 1988 – Ultrastructure of the encapsulation of Plasmodium cynomolgi (B strain) on the midgut of a refractory strain of Anopheles gambiae. J. Parasitol., 74 (3) : 432-439.

Paskewitz, S.M., Collins F.H., 1990 – Use of the polymerase chain reaction to identify mosquito species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Med. Vet. Entomol., 4 : 367-373.

Paskewitz S.M., Schwartz A.M., Gorman M.J., 1998 – The role of surface characteristics in eliciting humoral encapsulation of foreign bodies in Plasmodium-refractory and -susceptible strains of Anopheles gambiae. J. Insect Physiol., 44 (10) : 947-954.

Paskewitz S.M., Wesson D.M., Collins F.H., 1993 – The internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA in five members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Insect Mol. Biol., 2 : 247-257.

Pasteur N., Iseki A., Georghiou G.P., 1981 – Genetic and biochemical studies of the highly active esterases A’ and B associated with organo-phosphate resistance in mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex. Biochemical Genetics, 19 (9-10) : 909-919.

Pasteur N., Pasteur G., 1987 – Manuel technique de génétique par électrophorèse des protéines. Lavoisier, Technique, Documentation, 232 p.

Paterson H.E., 1964a – Direct evidence for the specific distinctness of form A, B and C of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Riv. Malariol., 43 : 191-196.

Paterson H.E., 1964b – « Saltwater Anopheles gambiae » on Mauritius. Bull. World Health Organ., 31 : 635-644.

Pates H.V., Takken W., Curtis C.F., Huisman P.W., Akinpelu O., Gill G.S., 2001 – Unexpected anthropophagic behaviour in Anopheles quadriannulatus. Med. Vet. Ent., 15 : 293-298.

Patz J.A., Olson S.H., 2006 – Malaria risk and temperature : influences from global climate change and local land use practices. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103 : 5635-5636.

Paul R.E., Bonnet S., Boudin C., Tchuinkam T., Robert V., 2007 – Aggregation in malaria parasites places limits on mosquito infection rates. Infect. Genet. Evol., 7 (5) : 577-586.

Paul R.E., Brey P., Robert V., 2002 – Plasmodium sex determination and transmission to mosquitoes. Trends in Parasitology, 18 : 32-38.

Paul R.E., Doerig C., Brey P.T., 2000 – Erythropoiesis and molecular mechanisms for sexual determination in malaria parasites. IUBMB Life, 49 (4) : 245-248.

Pennetier C., Corbel V., Hougard J.M., 2005 – Combination of a non-pyrethroid insecticide and a repellent : a new approach for controlling knock down-resistant mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 72 : 739-744.

Perry A.S., Hoskins W.M., 1950 – The detoxification of DDT by resistant houseflies and inhibition of this process by piperonyl cyclonene. Science, 111 (2892) : 600-601.

Peyton E.L., 1989 – A new classification for the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles (Cellia). Mosq. Syst., 21 : 197-205.

Phillips R.S., 2001 – Current status of malaria and potential for control. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 14 : 208-226.

Phuc H.K., Ball A.J., Son L., Hanh N.V., Tu N.D., Lien N.G., Verardi A., Townson H., 2003 – Multiplex PCR assay for malaria vector Anopheles minimus and four related species in the Myzomyia Series from Southeast Asia. Med. Vet. Ent., 17 : 423-428.

Pichon G., Awono-Ambene H.P., Robert V., 2000 – High heterogeneity in the number of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in the bloodmeal of mosquitoes fed on the same host. Parasitology, 121 : 115-120.

Pichon G., Robert V., Tchuinkam T., Mulder B., Verhave J.-P., 1996 – Analyse quantitative de la distribution des oocystes de Plasmodium falciparum chez Anopheles gambiae. Parasite, 3 : 161-167.

Pickett J.A., Woodcock C.M., 1996 – « The role of mosquito olfaction in oviposition site location and in the avoidance of unsuitable hosts ». In Bock R.G., Cardew G., eds. : Olfaction in Mosquito-Host Interactions, CIBA Foundation Symposium 200, J. Wiley, Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK : 109-123.

Pinto J., Lynd A., Elissa N., Donnelly M.J., Costa C., Gentile G., Caccone A., Do Rosário V.E., 2006 – Co-occurrence of East and West African kdr mutations suggests high levels of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in Anopheles gambiae from Libreville, Gabon. Med. Vet. Entomol., 20 (1) : 27-32.

Pinto J., Lynd A., Vicente J.L., Santolamazza F., Randle N.P., Gentile G., Moreno M., Simard F., Charlwood J.D., do Rosário V.E., Caccone A., Della Torre A., Donnelly M.J., 2007 – Multiple origins of knockdown resistance mutations in the Afrotropical mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. PLoS ONE, 2 (11) : e1243.

Pock Tsy J.M., Duchemin J.B., Marrama L., Rabarison P., Le Goff G., Rajaonarivelo V., Robert V., 2003 – Distribution of the species of the Anopheles gambiae complex and first evidence of Anopheles merus as a malaria vector in Madagascar. Malaria J., 8 : 33.

Poinar G. Jr., 2005. Plasmodium dominicana n. sp. (Plasmodiidae : Haemospororida) from Tertiary Dominican amber. Syst. Parasitol. 61 : 47-52.

Poirié M., Pasteur N., 1991 – La résistance aux insecticides. La recherche, 22 (234) : 874-881.

Polovodova V.P. 1941 – Age changes in the ovaries of Anopheles and methods of determination of age composition in mosquito populations. Med. Parazitol. Parazitarn. Bolezni 10 : 387-395.

Polovodova V.P., 1949 – Determination of the physiological age of female Anopheles. Med. Parazitol. Parazitarn. Bolezni, 18 : 352.

Ponnudurai T., Lensen A.H., Van Gemert G.J., Bolmer M.G., Meuwissen J.H., 1991 – Feeding behaviour and sporozoite ejection by infected Anopheles stephensi. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 85 : 175-80.

Port G.R., Boreham P.F.L., Bryan J.H., 1980 – The relationship of host size to feeding by mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Diptera : Culicidae). Bull. Ent. Res., 70 : 133-144.

Porter C.H., Collins F.H., 1991 – Species-diagnostic differences in a ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer from the sibling species Anopheles freeborni and Anopheles hermsi (Diptera : Culicidae). Am. J. Trop. med., Hyg., 45 : 271-279.

Prasad H., Prasad R.N., HAQ S., 1993 – Control of mosquito breeding through Gambusia affinis in rice fields. Indian J. Malariol., 30 : 57-65.

Premji Z., Lubega P., Hamisi Y., Mchopa E., Minjas J., Checkley W., Shiff C., 1995 – Changes in malaria associated morbidity in children using insecticide-treated mosquito nets in the Bagamoyo district of coastal Tanzania. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 46 (3) : 147-153.

Pringle G., 1966 – A quantitative study of naturally-acquired malaria infections in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus in a highly malarious area of East Africa. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60 : 626-632.

Prior A., Torr S.J., 2002 – Host selection by Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus feeding on cattle in Zimbabwe. Med. Vet. Ent., 16 : 207-213.

Proft J., Maier W.A., Kampen H., 1999 – Identification of six sibling species of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera : Culicidae) by a polymerase chain reaction assay. Parasitol. Res., 85 : 837-843.

Pruss-Ustun A., Corvalan C., 2007 – How much disease burden can be prevented by environmental interventions ? Epidemiology, 18 : 167-178.

Quiñones M.L., Lines J.D., Thomson M.C., Jawara M., Morris J., Greenwood B.M., 1997 – Anopheles gambiae gonotrophic cycle duration, biting and exiting behaviour unaffected by permethrin-impregnated bednets in The Gambia. Med. Vet. Ent., 11 : 71-78.

Rabarison P., Ramambanirina L., Rajaonarivelo E., Rakotoarivony I., Andrianaivolambo L., Jambou R., Lepers J.-P., Laventure S., 1995 – Étude de l’impact de l’utilisation des rideaux imprégnés de deltaméthrine sur la morbidité palustre à Ankazobé, sur les hautes terres de Madagascar. Méd. Trop., 55, (4 Suppl) : 105-108.

Ramsdale C.D., 1967 – Studies of the Anopheles gambiae complex in West Africa. Bull. World Health Organ., 36 (3) : 494-500.

Ramsdale C.D., Haas E., 1978 – Some aspects of epidemiology of resurgent malaria in Turkey. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 72 : 570-580.

Ramsdale C.D., Rivola E., 1964 – A note on the response of An. gambiae to spraying with HCH in Swaziland. WHO/MAL/481.64.

Ramsdale C.D., De Zulueta J., 1983 – Anophelism in the Algerian Sahara and some implications of the construction of a trans-saharan highway. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 86 : 51-58.

Ranford-Cartwright L.C., Balfe P., Carter R., Walliker D., 1991 – Genetic hybrids of Plasmodium falciparum identified by amplification of genomic DNA from single oocysts. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol., 49 (2) : 239-243.

Ranson H., Claudianos C., Ortelli F., Abgrall C., Hemingway J., Sharakova M.V., Unger M.F., Collins F.H., Feyereisen R., 2002a – Evolution of supergene families associated with insecticide resistance. Science, 298 : 179-181.

Ranson H., Jensen B., Vulule J.M., Wang X., Hemingway J., Collins F.H., 2000a – Identification of a point mutation in the voltagegated sodium channel gene of Kenyan Anopheles gambiae associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Insect Mol. Biol., 9 : 491-497.

Ranson H., Jensen B., Wang X., Prapanthadara L., Hemingway J., collins F.H., 2000b – Genetic mapping of two loci affecting DDT resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol., 9 (5) : 499-507.

Ranson H., Nikou D., Hutchinson M., Wang X., Roth C.W., Hemingway J., Collins F.H., 2002b – Molecular analysis of multiple cytochrome P450 genes from the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol., 11 (5) : 409-418.

Rattanarithikul R., Harrison B.A., Harbach R.E., Panthusiri P., Coleman R.E., Panthusiri P., 2006 – Illustrated keys to the mosquitoes of Thailand. II- Anopheles. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health, suppl. 2 : 1-128.

Rayevsky G.E., 1942 – Methods of epidemiological assessment of entomological observations. Med. Parazit. (Mosk.), 11 : 46.

Read A.F., Narara A., Nee S., Keymer A.E., Day K.P., 1992 – Gametocyte sex ratios as indirect measures of outcrossing rates in malaria. Parasitology, 104 : 387-395.

Ree H.I., 2005 – Studies on Anopheles sinensis, the vector species of vivax malaria in Korea. The Korean J. Parasitol., 43 : 75-92.

Reimer L.J., Tripet F., Slotman M., Spielman A., Fondjo E., Lanzaro G.C., 2005 – An unusual distribution of the kdr gene among populations of Anopheles gambiae on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. Insect Mol. Biol., 14 (6) : 683-688.

Reinert J.F. – Revisited list of abbreviations for genera and subgenera of Culicidae (Diptera) and notes on generic and subgeneric changes. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 2001, 17 : 51-55.

Reiter P., 1998 – Global-warming and vectorborne disease in temperate regions and at high altitude. Lancet, 351 (9105) : 839-840.

Reiter P., 2001 – Climate change and mosquitoborne disease. Environ. Health Perspect., 109 Suppl 1 : 141-161.

Réquier-Desjardins M., Bied-Charreton M., 2002 – Désertification et environnement mondial. Comité scientifique français de la Désertification, Fonds français pour l’Environnement mondial, Centre d’Économie et d’Éthique pour l’Environnement et le Développement, 58 p.

Ribeiro J.M.C., 1987 – Role of saliva in blood feeding by arthropods. Ann. Rev. Entomol., 32 : 463-478.

Ribeiro J.M., 1995 – Blood-feeding arthropods : live syringes or invertebrates pharmacologists ? Infectious Agents and Disease, 4 : 143-152.

Ribeiro J.M.C., Rossignol P.A., Spielman A., 1984 – Role of mosquito saliva in blood vessel location. J. Exp. Biol., 108 : 1-7.

Ribeiro J.M.C., Rossignol P.A., Spielman A., 1985 – Salivary gland apyrase determines probing time in anopheline mosquitoes. J. Ins. Physiol., 31 : 89-692.

Ribeiro J.M.C., Seulu F., Abose T., Kidane G., Teklehaimanot A., 1996 – Temporal and spatial distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in an Ethiopian village : implications for malaria control strategies. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 74 : 299-305.

Ricci I., Santolamazza F., Costantini C., Favia G., 2002 – Molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of transcripts having tissu-specific expression in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae : possible involvement in visual or olfactory process. Parasitol. Res., 88 : 1-8.

Richard A., Lallemant M., Trape J.-F., Carnevale P., Mouchet J., 1988a – Le paludisme dans la région forestière du Mayombé, République du Congo. I- Présentation de la région et données entomologiques. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 68 : 293-303.

Richard A., Lallemant M., Trape J.-F., Carnevale P., Mouchet J., 1988b – Le paludisme dans la région forestière du Mayombé, République du Congo. II- Observations parasitologiques. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 68 : 305-316.

Richard A., Lallemant M., Trape J.-F., Carnevale P., Mouchet J., 1988c – Le paludisme dans la région forestière du Mayombé, République du Congo. III- Place du paludisme dans la morbidité générale. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 68 : 317-329.

Richman A.M., Bulet P., Hetru C., Barillas-Mury C., Hoffmann J.A., Kafalos F.C., 1996 – Inducible immune factors of the vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae : biochemical purification of a defensin antibacterial peptide and molecular cloning of preprodefensin cDNA. Insect Mol. Biol., 5 (3) : 203-210.

Richman A.M., Dimopoulos G., Seeley D., Kafatos F.C., 1997 – Plasmodium activates the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. EMBO J., 16 : 6114-6119.

Rickman L.S., Jones T.R., Long G.W., Paranello S., Schneider I., Paul C.F., Beaudoin R.L., Hoffman S.L., 1990 – Plasmodium falciparum-infected Anopheles stephensi inconsistently transmit malaria to humans. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 43 : 441-445.

Riehle M.M., Markianos K., Lambrechts L., Xia A., Sharakhov I., Koella J.C., Vernick K.D., 2007 – A major genetic locus controlling natural Plasmodium falciparum infection is shared by East and West African Anopheles gambiae. Malaria J., 6 : 87.

Riehle M.M., Markianos K., Niare O, Xu J., LI J., Touré A.M., Podiougou B., Oduol F., Diawara S., Diallo M., Coulibaly B., Ouatara A., Kruglyak L., Traoré S.F., Vernick K.D., 2006 – Natural malaria infection in Anopheles gambiae is regulated by a single genomic control region. Science, 312 : 577-579.

Rioux J.A., 1960 – Contribution à l’étude des culicidés au Nord-Tchad. Mission épidémiologique au Nord-Tchad. Paris, Arts et Mét. Graph. : 54-63.

Rishikesh N., 1962 – Anopheles gambiae Giles and epidemic malaria in the Hand and the Northern Region of Somali Republic. WHO/MAL/342.

Rivola E., Holstein M.-H., 1957 – Note sur une variété d’Anopheles nili Theo. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot., 50 : 382.

Robert V., 1999 – Les relations Anopheles-Plasmodium : conséquences pour la transmission du paludisme. Malaria and Infectious Diseases in Africa, 9 bis : 22-35.

Robert V., Awono-Ambene H.P., Le Hesran J.Y., Trape J.F., 2000 – Gametocytaemia and infectivity to mosquitoes of patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria attacks treated with chloroquine or sulfadoxyne plus pyrimethamine. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 62 : 210-216.

Robert V., Brey P.T., 1998 – Biting physiology of Anopheles affecting Plasmodium transmission. Res., Rev. Parasitol., 58 : 203-208.

Robert V., Carnevale P., 1991 – Influence of deltamethrin-treatment of bed nets on malaria transmission in the Kou Valley, Burkina Faso. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 69 : 735-740.

Robert V., Carnevale P., Ouedraogo V., Petrarca V., Coluzzi M., 1986a – La transmission du paludisme humain dans un village de savane du sud-ouest du Burkina Faso. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 68 : 107-1021.

Robert V., Carnevale P., Ouedraogo V., Petrarca V., Coluzzi M., 1988 – La transmission du paludisme humain dans un village de savane du sud-ouest du Burkina Faso. Annales de la Société Belge de Médecine Tropicale, 68 (2) : 107-121.

Robert V., Dieng H., Lochouarn L., Traoré S.-F., Trape J.-F., Simondon F., Fontenille D., 1998 – La transmission du paludisme dans la zone rurale de Niakhar, Sénégal. Trop. Med., Int. Hlth., 3 : 667-677.

Robert V., Gazin P., Boudin C, Molez J.-F., Ouedraogo V., Carnevale P., 1985 – La transmission du paludisme en zone de savane arborée et en zone rizicole des environs de Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 65, suppl. 2 : 201-214.

Robert V., Gazin P., Carnevale P., 1989 – « De la difficulté de prévoir les répercussions sanitaires des aménagements hydroagricoles : le cas du paludisme dans la rizière de la vallée du Kou ». In Eldin M., Melville P., éd. : Le risque en agriculture, Paris, Orstom, coll. À travers champ : 541-543.

Robert V., Gazin P., Ouedraogo V., Carnevale P., 1986b – Le paludisme urbain à Bobo-Dioulasso : 1. Étude entomologique de la transmission. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XXIV (2) : 121-128.

Robert V., Le Goff G., Gouagna L.C., Sinden M., Kieboom J., Kroneman R., Verhave J.P., 1998 – Kinetics and efficiency of Plasmodium falciparum development in the midguts of Anopheles gambiae, An. funestus and An. nili. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 92 : 115-118.

Robert V., Macintyre K., Keating J., Trape J.F., Duchemin J.B., Warren MCW., Beier J.C., 2003a – Malaria transmission in urban sub-saharan Africa. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 68 : 169-176.

Robert V., Molez J.F., Trape J.F., 1996a – Gametocytes, chloroquine pressure, and the relative parasite survival advantage of resistant strains of falciparum malaria in West Africa. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 55 : 350-351.

Robert V., Ouedraogo V., Carnevale P., 1991 – « La transmission du paludisme humain dans un village au centre de la rizière de la vallée du Kou, Burkina Faso ». In : Le paludisme en Afrique de l’Ouest ; études entomologiques et épidémiologiques en zone rizicole et en milieu urbain, Paris, Orstom, coll. Études et thèses : 5-15.

Robert V., Read A., Essong J., Tchuinkam T., Mulder B., Verhave J.P., Carnevale P., 1996b – Effect of gametocyte sex ratio on infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum to Anopheles gambiae. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 90 : 621-624.

Robert V., Sokhna C.S., Rogier C., Ariey F., Trape J.F., 2003b – Sex ratio of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in inhabitants of Dielmo, Senegal. Parasitology, 127 : 1-8.

Robert V., Tchuinkam T., Mulder B., Bodo J.M., Verhave J.P., Carnevale P., Nagel R., 1996c – Effect of sickle cell trait status of gametocyte carriers of Plasmodium falciparum on infectivity to anophelines. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 54 : 111-113.

Robert V., Tchuinkam T., Mulder L., Cot M., Gelas H., Verhave J.-P., Carnevale P., 1993 – Infectivité des porteurs de gamétocytes de Plasmodium falciparum pour les anophèles vecteurs dans la ville de Yaoundé, Cameroun. Revue d’Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, 41 suppl. 1 : S86.

Robert V., Verhave J.P., Carnevale P., 1990 – Plasmodium falciparum infection does not increase the precocious mortality rate of Anopheles gambiae. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 84 : 346-347.

Roberts D.R., Laughlin L.L., Hsheih P., Legters L.J., 1997 – DDT, global strategies, and a malaria control crisis in South America. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 3 (3) : 295-302.

Roberts D.R., Manguin S., Mouchet J., 2000 – DDT spraying and re-emerging malaria. Lancet, 356 : 330-332.

Roberts D.R., Paris J.F., Manguin S., Harbach R.E., Woodruff R., Rejmankova E., Polanco J., Wullschleberger B., Legters J.J., 1996 – Predictions of malaria vector distributions in Belize using multispectral satellite data. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 54 : 304-308.

Rogers D.J., Randolph S.E., 2000 – The Global Spread of Malaria in a Future, Warmer World. Science, 289 : 1763-1766.

Rogier C., 2003 – Childhood malaria in endemic areas : epidemiology, acquired immunity and control strategies. Méd. Trop., 63 (4-5) : 449-464.

Rogier C., Fusaï T., Pradines B., Trape J.-F., 2005a – Evaluating malaria attributable morbidity in endemic areas. Rev. Épidémiol. Santé Publique, 53 (3) : 299-309.

Rogier C., Henry M.C., Spiegel A., 2001 – Diagnostic des accès palustres en zone d’endémie : bases théoriques et implications pratiques. Méd. Trop., 61 (1) : 27-46.

Rogier C., Pradines B., Bogreau H., Koeck J.L., Kamil M.A., Mercerau-Puijalon O., 2005b – Malaria epidemic and drug resistance, Djibouti. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 11 : 317-321.

Romans P., Black W.C., Sakai R.K., Gwadtz R.W., 1999a – Linkage of a gene causing malaria refractoriness to Diphenol oxydase A2 on chromosome 3 of Anopheles gambiae. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60 : 22-29.

Romans P., Black W.C., Sakai R.K., Gwadtz R.W., 1999b – A gene effecting malaria refractoriness is linked to Diphenol oxydase A2 on chromosome 3 of Anopheles gambiae. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60 : 29

Romi R., Boccolini D., Di Luca M., La Rosa G., Marinucci M., 2000 – Identification of the sibling species of the Anopheles maculipennis complex by heteroduplex analysis. Insect Mol. Biol., 9 : 509-513.

Romi R., Pierdominici G., Severini C., Tamburro A., Cocchi M., Menichetti D., Pili E., Marchi A., 1997 – Status of malaria vectors in Italy. J. Med. Entomol., 34 : 263-271.

Romi R., Sabatinelli G., Marjori G., 2001 – Could malaria reappear in Italy ? Emerg. Infect. Dis., 7 : 915-919.

Romi R., Severini C., Pierdominici G., Marchi A., Erbi G., Mantega V., Pinna G., Lavagnino A., Vitale F., 1994 – Residual anophelism in Italy : distribution in 4 southern regions. Ann. Ist super Sanita, 30 : 237-242.

Rongnoparut P., Rodpradit P., Kongsawadworakul P., Sithiprasasna R., Linthicum K.J., 2006 – Population genetic structure of Anopheles maculatus in Thailand. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 22 : 192-197.

Rongnoparut P., Sirichotpakorn N., Rattanarithikul R., Yaicharoen S., Linthicum K., 1999 – Estimates of gene flow among Anopheles maculatus populations in Thailand using microsatellite analysis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60 : 508-515.

Rooker S., Guillemaud T., Bergé J., Pasteur N., Raymond M., 1996 – Coamplification of esterase A and B genes as a single unit in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. Heredity, 77 (5) : 555-561.

Rosenberg R., Rungsiwongse J., 1991 – The number of sporozoites produced by individual malaria oocysts. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 45 : 574-577.

Rosenberg R., Wirtz R.A., Schneider I., Burge R., 1990 – An estimation of the number of malaria sporozoites ejected by a feeding mosquito. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 84 : 209-212.

Ross R., 1897 – On some peculiar pigmented cells found in two mosquitoes fed on malarial blood. Brit. Med. J., 18 : 1786-1788.

Ross R., 1898 – Report on the cultivation of Proteosoma, Labbe, in grey mosquitoes. Calcutta, Gov’t Press, 21 May, 1898.

Ross R., 1911 – The prevention of malaria. 2nd edn., London, Murray.

Ross R., 1916 – An application of the theory of probabilities to the study of a priori pathometry. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Series A 92 : 204-230.

Rossignol P.A., Ribeiro J.M.C., Spielman A., 1984 – Increased intradermal probing time in sporozoite-infected mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 33 : 17-20.

Rossignol P.A., Ribeiro J.M.C., Spielman A., 1986 – Increased biting rate and reduced fertility in sporozoite-infected mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 35 : 277-279.

Roubaud E., 1918 – Recherches sur la transmission du paludisme par les anophèles français de régions non palustres (Yonne et région parisienne). Annales de l’Institut Pasteur, 10 : 430-462.

Roubaud E., 1929 – Cycle autogène d’attente et générations hivernales suractives inapparentes chez le moustique commun, Culex pipiens. Paris, C. R. Acad. Sci., 188 : 735-738.

Rougemont A., Breslow N., Brenner E., Moret A.L., Dumbo O., Dolo A. Soula G., Perrin L., 1991 – Epidemiological basis for clinical diagnosis of childhood malaria in endemic zone in West Africa. Lancet, 338, (8778) : 1292-1295.

Rowe A.K., Rowe S.Y., Snow R.W., Korenromp E.L., Schellenberg J.R., Stein C., Nahlen B.L., Bryce J., Black R.E., Steketee R.W., 2006 – The burden of malaria mortality among African children in the year 2000. Int. J. Epidemiol., 35 : 691-704.

Rozendaal J.A., 1997 – Vector Control, methods for individual and community. WHO, Geneva.

Rueda L.M., Peyton E.L., Manguin S., 2004 – Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis Theobald (Diptera : Culicidae) : Neotype designation and description. J. Med. Entomol., 41 : 12-22.

Russell P.F., 1931 – Daytime resting places of anopheles mosquitoes in the Philippines (first report). Phillipp. J. Sci., 46 : 639-648.

Russell P.F., Knipe F.W., Rao T.R., Putnam P., 1944 – Some experiment on flight range of Anopheles culicifacies. J. Exp. Zool., 97 : 135-163.

Russell P.F., Rao T.R., 1942 – On the swarming mating and oviposition behaviour of Anopheles culicifacies. Am. J. Trop. Med., 22 : 417-427.

Russell P.F., West L.S., Manwell R.D., Macdonald G., 1963 – Practical malariology. 2nd edition, London, Oxford Univ Press.

Sabatinelli G., Blanchy S., Majori G., Papakay M., 1991 – Impact de l’utilisation des poissons larvivores Poecillia reticulata sur la transmission du paludisme en RFI des Comores. Ann. Parasitol. Hum. Comp., 66 : 84-88.

Sabatinelli G., Majori G., 1998 – Malaria surveillance in Italy : 1986-1996 analysis and 1997 provisional data. Eurosurveillance, 3 : 38-40.

Saeed I.E., Ahmed E.S., 2003 – Determinants of malaria mortality among displaced people in Khartoum state, Sudan. East Medditerr. Health, 9 : 593-599.

Saitoh H., Higuchi K., Mizuki E., Ohba M., 1998 – Larvicidal toxicity of Japanese Bacillus thuringiensis against the mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Med. Vet. Entomol., 12 (1) : 98-102.

Sallum M.A., Peyton E.L., Wilkerson R.C., 2005 – Six new species of the Anopheles leucosphyrus group, reinterpretation of An. elegans and vector implications. Med. Vet. Entomol., 19 (2) : 158-199.

Sallum M.A., Wilkerson R.C., Forattini O.P., 1999 – Taxonomic study of species formerly identified as Anopheles mediopunctatus and resurrection of An. costai (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol., 36 : 282-300.

Samarawickrema W.A., Parkinson A.D., Kere N., Galo O., 1992 – Seasonal abundance and biting behaviour of Anopheles punctulatus and An. koliensis in Maloita Province, Solomon Islands, and a trial of permethrin-impregnated bednets against malaria transmission. Med. Vet. Ent., 6 : 371-378.

Santolamazza F., Calzetta M., Etang J., Barrese E., Dia I., Caccone A, Donnelly M.J., Petrarca V., Simard F., Pinto J., Della Torre A., 2008 – Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa. Malaria J., 7, 74.

Scarpassa V.M., Conn J.E., 2007 – Population genetic structure of the major malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera : Culicidae) from the Brazilian Amazon, using microsatellite markers. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 102 : 319-327.

Schaffner F., Angel G., Geoffroy B., Hervy J.-P., Rhaiem A., Brunhes J., 2001 – Les moustiques d’Europe – The mosquitoes of Europe. Paris, IRD éditions, coll. Didactiques, CD-Rom.

Schlein Y., Gratz N.G., 1973 – Age determination of some anopheline mosquitoes by daily growth layers of skeletal apodemes. WHO/MAL/73-800, WHO/VBC/73-435.

Schmidt E.R., Foley D.H., Hartel G.F., Willaims G.M., Bryan J.H., 2001 – Descriptions of the Anopheles (Cellia) farauti complex of sibling species (Diptera : Culicidae) in Australia. Bull. Ent. Res., 91 : 389-411.

Schreck C.E., Kline D.L., 1989 – Repellency of two controlled-release formulations of deet against Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Aedes taeniorhynchus mosquitoes. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 5 (1) : 91-94.

Schreck C.E., Leonhardt B.A., 1991 – Efficacy assessment of Qwenling, a mosquito repellent from China. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 7 : 433-436.

Schreck C.E., Mount G.A., Carlson D.A., 1982 – Pressurized sprays of permethrin on clothing for personal protection against the lone star tick (Acari : Ixodidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 75 : 1059-1061.

Schreck C.E., Posey C.E., Smith D., 1978 – Durability of permethrin as a potential clothing treatment to protect against blood-feeding arthropods. J. Econ. Entomol., 71 : 397-400.

Schreck C.E., Snoddy E.L., Mount G.A., 1980 – Permethrin and repellents as clothing impregnants for protection from the lone star tick. J. Econ. Entomol., 73 : 436-439.

Schreck C.E., Snoddy E.L., Spielman A., 1986 – Pressurized sprays of permethrin or DEET on military clothing for personal protection against lxodes dammini (Acari : Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol., 23 : 396-399.

Schwartz A., Koella J.C., 2002 – Melanization of Plasmodium falciparum and C-25 sephadex beads by field-caught Anopheles gambiae (Diptera : Culicidae) from southern Tanzania. J. Med. Entomol., 39 (1) : 84-88.

Scott H., 1939 – A History of Tropical Medicine. 2 vol., London, Edward Arnold, Co.

Scott J.A., Brogdon W.G., Collins F.H., 1993 – Identification of single specimens of the Anopheles gambiae complex by the polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Trop. Med., Hyg., 49 : 520-529.

Sella M., 1920 – Relazione della campagna antianofelica di Fiumicino (1919) con speciale riguardo alla biologia degli Anofeli ed agli Anofeli infetti. Ann. Igiene 30 : supplemento 85.

Sergent É., 1950 – Définition de l’immunité et de la prémunition. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Algérie, 28 : 429-440.

Sergent É., Sergent É., Parrot L., 1929 – La découverte de Laveran, Constantine 6 novembre 1880. Paris, Masson, Collection du Centenaire de l’Algérie.

Service M.W., 1971 – Feeding behaviour and host-preference of British mosquitoes. Bull. Ent. Res., 60 : 653-661.

Service M.W., 1980 – A guide to medical entomology. Macmillan Press Ltd. p. 404.

Service M.W., 1993 – Mosquito ecology : Field sampling methods. 2nd edition, Elsevier applied science, 988 p.

Service, M.W., 1997 – Mosquito (Diptera : Culicidae) dispersal – the long and short of it. J. Med. Entomol., 34 : 589-593.

Sexton J.D., Ruebush T.K. 2nd, Brandling-Bennett A.D., Breman J.G., Roberts J.M., Odera J.S.., Were J.B., 1990 – Permethrin-impregnated curtains and bed-nets prevent malaria in western Kenya. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 43 (1) : 11-18.

Shahabuddin M., 2002 – Do Plasmodium ookinetes invade a specific cell type in the mosquito midgut ? Trends Parasitol., 18 : 157-161.

Shahabuddin M., Cociancich S., Zieler H., 1998a – The Search for Novel Malaria Transmission-blocking Targets in the Mosquito Midgut. Parasitol. Today, 14 (12) : 493-497.

Shahabuddin M., Fields I., Bulet P., Hoffmann J.A., Miller L.H., 1998b – Plasmodium gallinaceum : differential killing of some mosquito stages of the parasite by insect defensin. Exp. Parasitol., 89 (1) : 103-112.

Shahabuddin M., Pimenta P.F., 1998 – Plasmodium gallinaceum preferentially invades vesicular ATPase-expressing cells in Aedes aegypti midgut. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95 (7) : 3385-3389.

Shanks G.D., Biomndo K., Hay S.I., Snow R.W., 2000 – Changing patterns of clinical malaria since 1965 among a tea estate population located in the Kenyan highlands. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 94 (3) : 253-255.

Shanks G.D., Hay S.I., Omumbo J.A., Snow R.W., 2005 – Malaria in Kenya’s western highlands. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 11 (9) : 1425-1432.

Shanks G.D., Hay S.I., Stern D.I., Biomndo K., Snow R.W., 2002 – Meteorologic influences on Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Highland Tea Estates of Kericho, western Kenya. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 8 (12) : 1404-1408.

Sharakhov I., Braginets O., Grushko O., Cohuet A., Guelbeogo W.M., Boccolini D., WEILL M., Costantini C., Sagnon N., Fontenille D., Yan G., Besansky N.J., 2004 – A microsatellite map of the African human malaria vector Anopheles funestus. J. Hered., 95 (1) : 29-34.

Sharma S.N., 1994 – Larvivorous capacity of some indigenous fish of Haryana state. J. Commun. Dis., 26 (2) : 116-119.

Sharma S.K., Upadhyay A.K., Haque M.A., Padhan K., Tyagi P.K., Batra C.P., Adak T., Dash A.P., Subbarao S.K., 2006 – Effectiveness of mosquito nets treated with a tablet formulation of deltamethrin for malaria control in a hyperendemic tribal area of Sundargarsh District, Orissa, India. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 22 : 111-118.

Sharma S.N., Sharma T., Prasad H., 1998 – Impact of Spherix (Bacillus sphaericus B-101, serotype H5a, 5b) spraying on the control of mosquito breeding in rural areas of Farrukhabad District, Uttar Pradesh. Indian J. Malariol., 35 (4) : 185-196.

Sharma S.N., Shukla R.P., Mittal P.K., Adak T., Kumar A., 2003 – Efficacy of a new formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Israelensis (Bti) in laboratory and field conditions of Kumaun foothills of Uttaranchal, India. J. Commun. Dis., 35 (4) : 290-299.

Sharma V.P., Nagpal B.N., Srivastava A., 1993 – Effectiveness of neem oil mats in repelling mosquitoes. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 87 (6) : 626.

Sharp L.B., Le Sueur L.D., 1991 – Behavioural variation of Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera : Culicidae) population in Natal, South Africa. Bull. Ent. Res., 81 : 107-110.

Sharp L.B., van Wyk P., Sikasote J.B., Banda P., Kleinschmidt I., 2002 – Malaria control by residual insecticide spraying in Chingola and Chililabombwe, Copperbelt Province, Zambia. Trop. Med., Int. Health, 7 : 732-736.

Sharpe R. G., Hims M.M., Harbach R.E., Butlin R.K., 1999 – PCR-based methods for identification of species of the Anopheles minimus group : allele-specific amplification and single-strand conformation polymorphism. Med. Vet. Ent., 13 : 265-273.

Shawarby A.A., Mahdi A.H., Kolta S., 1967 – Protective measures against Anopheles gambiae invasions to U.A.R. J. Egypt Public Health Assoc., 42 : 194-198.

Shears P., Berry A.M., Murphy R., Nabil M.A., 1987 – Epidemiological assessment of the health and nutrition of Ethiopian refugees in emergency camps in Sudan, 1985. Br. Med. J., 295 : 314-318.

Shehata M.G., Kenawy M.A., el Said S.M., Beier J.C., Gwadz R., Shaaban M., 1989 – Anopheles sergenti (Theobald) a potential vector in Egypt. Ann. Parasito. Hum. Comp., 64 : 72-76.

Shen H., Main K.M., Andersson A.M., Damgaard I.N., Virtanen H.E., Skakkebaek N.E., Toppari J., Schramm K.W., 2008 – Concentrations of persistent organochlorine compounds in human milk and placenta are higher in Denmark than in Finland. Hum. Reprod., 23 (1) : 201-210.

Shiff C., 2002 – Integrated approach to malaria control. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 15 : 278-293.

Shililu J.I., Grueber W.B., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I., Riddiford L.M., Beier J.C., 2004 – Development and survival of Anopheles gambiae eggs in drying soil : influence of the rate of drying, egg age, and soil type. J. Am. Mosq. Ctrl. Assoc., 20 : 243-247.

Shililu J.I., Tewolde G.M., Brantly E., Githure J.I., Mbogo C.M., Beier J.C., Fusco R., Novak R.J., 2003 – Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus and temephos for managing Anopheles larvae in Eritrea. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 19 (3) : 251-258.

Shin E.H., Hong H.K., 2001 – A new synonym of Anopheles (Anopheles) pullus Yamada, 1937 : A. (A.) yatsushiroensis Miyazaki, 1951. Korean J. Parasitol., 31 : 1-5.

Shirai Y., Funada H., Kamimura K., Seke T., Moroshashi M., 2002a – Landing site on the human body preferred by Aedes albopictus. J. Mosq. Control Assoc., 18 : 97-99.

Shirai Y., Tsuda T., Kitagawa S., Naitoh K., Seki T., Kamimura K., Morohashi M., 2002b – Alcohol ingestion stimulates mosquito attraction. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 18 : 91-96.

Shlenova M.F., 1938 – Vitesse de la digestion du sang par la femelle de l’Anopheles maculipennis messae aux températures effectives constantes. Med. Parasitol., Moscow, 7 : 716-735 [en russe, avec un résumé en français].

Sholdt L.L., Rogers E.J., Gerberg E.J., Schreck C.E., 1989a – Effectiveness of permethrin-treated military uniform fabric against human body lice. Milit. Med., 154 : 90-93.

Sholdt L.L., Schreck C.E., Mwangelwa M.I., Nondo J., Siachinji V.J., 1989b – Evaluations of permethrin-impregnated clothing and three topical repellent formulations of deet against tsetse flies in Zambia. Med. Vet. Entomol., 3 (2) : 153-158.

Shousha A.T., 1948 – Species eradication : The eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Upper Egypt, 1942-1945. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org., 1 : 309-348.

Shute P.G., 1945 – Malaria in England. Public Health, 58 : 62-65.

Sierra D.M., Velez I.D., Linton Y.M., 2004 – Malaria vector Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari comprises one genetic species in Colombia based on homogeneity of nuclear ITS2 rDNA. J. Med. Entomol., 41 : 302-307.

Silvain J.-F., Pajot F.-X., 1981 – Écologie d’Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis Curry, 1932 en Guyane française : 1- Dynamique des populations imaginales, caractérisation des gîtes larvaires. Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XIX (1) : 11-21.

Simard F., Lehmann T., Lemasson J.J., Diatta M., Fontenille D., 2000 – Persistence of Anopheles arabiensis during the severe dry season conditions in Senegal : an indirect approach using microsatellite loci. Ins. Mol. Biol., 9 : 467-479.

Simon C., Frati F., Beckenbach A., Crespi B., Liu H., Flook P., 1994 – Evolution, weighting, and phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial gene sequences and a compilation of conserved polymerase chain reaction primers. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87 (6) : 651-701.

Simsek F.M., 2006 – [Investigation of the ecological characteristics of the Malaria vector species Anopheles claviger (Diptera : Culicidae) in Sanliurfa (Siverek)]. Turkiye Parazitol. Derg., 30 : 115-120.

Sinden R.E., 1983 – Sexual development of malaria parasites. Adv. Parasitol., 22 : 153-216.

Sinden R.E., 1991 – Mitosis and meiosis in malarial parasites. Acta Leiden., 60 (1) : 19-27.

Sinden R.E., 1998 – « Gametocytes and sexual development ». In Sherman I.W. ed. : Malaria : parasite biology, pathogenesis, and protection, American Society for Microbiology Press : 25-48.

Sinden R.E., 1999 – Plasmodium differentiation in the mosquito. Parassitologia, 41 : 139-148.

Sinden R.E., 2007 – Malaria, mosquitoes and the legacy of Ronald Ross. Bull. World Health Organ., 85 (11) : 894-896.

Sinden R.E., Alavi Y., Raine J.D., 2004 – Mosquito-malaria interactions : A reappraisal of the concepts of susceptibility and refractoriness. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol., 34 : 625-629.

Sinden R.E., Butcher G.A., Billker O., Fleck S.L., 1996 – Regulation of infectivity of Plasmodium to the mosquito vector. Adv. Parasitol., 38 : 53-117.

Sinden R.E., Canning E.U., Bray R.S., Smalley M.E., 1978 – Gametocyte and gamete development in Plasmodium falciparum. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci., 201 (1145) : 375-399.

Sinden R.E., Dawes E.J., Alavi Y., Waldock J., Finney O., Mendoza J., Butcher G.A., Andrews L., Hill A.V., Gilbert S.C., Basáñez M.G., 2007 – Progression of Plasmodium berghei through Anopheles stephensi is density-dependent. PLoS Pathog., 3 (12) : e195.

Sinden R.E., Hartley R.H., 1985 – Identification of the meiotic division of malarial parasites. J. Protozool., 32 (4) : 742-744.

Singh N., Shukla M.M., Mishra A.K., Singh M.P., Paliwai J.C., Dash A.P., 2006 – Malaria control using indoor residual spraying and larvivorous fish : a case study in Betul, central India. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 11 : 1512-1520.

Singh O.P., Chandra D., Nanda N., Raghavendra K., Sunil S., Sharma S.K., Dua V.K., Subbarao S.K., 2004 – Differentiation of members of the Anopheles fluviatilis species complex by an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction based on 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 70 : 27-32.

Sitaraman N.L., Karim M.A., Reddy G.V., 1975 – Observations on the use of Gambusia affinis Holbrooki to control A. stephensi breeding in wells. Results of two years’ study in Greater Hyderabad City, India. Indian J. Med. Res., 63 : 1509-1516.

Skovmand O., Sanogo E., 1999 – Experimental formulations of Bacillus sphaericus and B. thuringiensis israelensis against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae (Diptera : Culicidae) in Burkina Faso. J. Med. Entomol., 36 (1) : 62-67.

Sleigh A.C., Liu X.L., Jackson S., Li P., Shang L.Y., 1998 – Resurgence of vivax malaria in Henan Province, China. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org.; 76 : 265-70.

Slotman M.A., Parmakelis A., Marshall J.C., Awono-Ambene P.H., Antonio-Nkondjo C., Simard F., Caccone A., Powell J.R., 2007a – Patterns of selection in anti-malarial immune genes in malaria vectors : evidence for adaptive evolution in LRIM1 in Anopheles arabiensis. PLoS ONE, 2 (8) : e793.

Slotman M.A., Tripet F., Cornel A.J., Meneses C.R., Lee Y., Reimer L.J., Thiemann T.C., Fondjo E., Fofana A., Traoré S.F., Lanzaro G.C., 2007b – Evidence for subdivision within the M molecular form of Anopheles gambiae. Mol. Ecol., 16 : 639-649.

Smith A., 1959 – The effect of residual house spraying in the plain on anopheline densities in huts of the Pare Mountains. Nature (London), 183 : 198-199.

Smith D.M., 1981 – Mosquito records from the Republic of Niger with reference to the construction of the new “Trans Sahara Highway”. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 84 : 95-100.

Smith C.N., Smith N., Gouck H.K., Weidhaus D.E., Gilbert I.H., Mayer M.S., Smittle B.J., Hofbauer A., 1970 – L-lactic acid as a factor in the attraction of Aedes aegypti (Diptera : Culicidae) to human hosts. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 63 : 760-770.

Smith D.L., Dushoff J., Snow R.W., Hay S.I., 2005 – The entomological inoculation rate and Plasmodium falciparum infection in African children. Nature, 438 (7067) : 492-495.

Smith D.L., McKenzie F.E., Snow R.W., Hay S.I., 2007 – Revisiting the basic reproductive number for malaria and its implications for malaria control. PLoS Biol., 5 : e42.

Smith T., Charlwood J.D., Takken W., Tanner M., Spiegelhalter D.J., 1995 – Mapping densities of malaria vectors within a single village. Acta Tropica, 59 : 1-18.

Snounou G., Viriyakoso S., Zhu X.P., Jarra W., Pinheiro L., Do Rosario V.E., Thaithong S., Brown K.N., 1993 – High sensitivity of detection of human malaria parasites by the use of nested polymerase chain reaction. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol., 61 : 315-320.

Snow R.W., Rowan K.M., Greenwood B.M., 1987 – A trial of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of malaria in Gambian children. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 81 (4) : 563-567.

Snow R.W., Rowan K.M., Lindsay S.W., Greenwood B.M., 1988 – A trial of bed nets (mosquito nets) as a malaria control strategy in a rural area of The Gambia, West Africa. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 82 (2) : 212-215.

Snow W.F., 1979 – The vertical distribution of flying mosquitoes (Diptera : Culicidae) near area of irrigated rice-fields in the Gambia. Bull. Ent. Res., 69 : 561-571.

Snow W.F., 1980 – Field estimates of the flight speed of some West African mosquitoes. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 74 : 239-242.

Snow W.F., 1982 – Further observations on the vertical distribution of flying mosquitoes (Diptera : Culicidae) in West African Savanna. Bull. Ent. Res., 75 : 695-708.

Sokhna C.S., Diagne N., Lochouarn L., Rogier C., Trape J.-F., Spiegel A., Fontenille D., 1998 – Évaluation comparée par ELISA et par dissection de l’infection plasmodiale des anophèles : conséquences pour l’évaluation de la transmission du paludisme en 1995 à Ndiop, Sénégal. Parasite, 5 : 273-279.

Sokhna C.S., Trape J.F., Robert V., 2001 – Gametocytaemia in Senegalese children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with chloroquine, amodiaquine or sulfadoxine+pyrimethamine. Parasite, 8 : 243-250.

Sokolova M.I., Snow K., 2002 – Malaria vectors in European Russia. European Mosquito Bulletin, 12 : 1-5.

Somboon P., Morakote N., Koottathep S., Trisanarom U., 1993 – Detection of sporozoites of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in mosquitoes by ELISA : false positivity associated with bovine and swine blood. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 87 : 322-324.

Somboon P., Walton C., Sharpe R.G., Higa Y., Tuno N., Tsuda Y., Takagi M., 2001 – Evidence for a new sibling species of Anopheles minimus from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 17 : 98-113.

Soper F.L., Wilson D.B., 1943 – Anopheles gambiae in Brazil 1930 to 1940. New York City, The Rockfeller Foundation.

Sorge F., Imbert P., Laurent C., Minodier P., Banerjee A., Guerin N., Gendrel D., 2007 – Protection antivectorielle de l’enfant : insecticides et insectifuges. Archives de Pédiatrie, 14 (12) : 1442-1450.

Spencer S., Grant A.D., Piola P., Okia M., Garcia M., Salignon P., Genevier C., Kiguli J., Guthmann J.P., 2004 – Malaria in camps for internally-displaced persons in Uganda : evaluation of an insecticide-treated bednet distribution programme. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 98 : 719-727.

Statz G., 1944 – Neue Diptern (Nematocera) aus dem Oberoligocaen von Rott. Familie Culicidae (Stechmuecken). Palaeontographica, 95 : 108-121.

Stegnii V.N., Kabanova V.M., 1976 – Cytoecological study of indigenous populations of the malaria mosquito in the territory of the U.S.S.R. I- Identification of a new species of Anopheles in the maculipennis complex by the cytodiagnostic method. En russe, Meditsinskaya Parazitologiya i Parazitarnye Bolezni, 45 : 192-198, et traduction en anglais en 1978 dans Mosquito Systematics, 10 : 1-12.

Steketee R.W., Nahlen B.L., Parise M.E., Menendez C., 2001 – The burden of malaria in pregnancy in malaria-endemic areas. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 64 : 28-35.

Stephens J.W.W., Christophers S.R., 1906 – Étude pratique du paludisme et des parasites du sang. Paris, Éditions Octave Doin : 194.

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP), 2001 – UNEP/Chemicals/ 2001/3.

Struchiner C.J., Halloran M.E., Spielman A., 1989 – Modeling malaria vaccines. I- New uses for old ideas. Math. Biosci., 94 (1) : 87-113.

Struchiner C.J., Halloran M.E., Brunet R.C., Ribeiro J.M., Massad E., 1994 – Malaria vaccines : lessons from field trials. Cad. Saude Publica., 10 Suppl 2 : 310-326.

Stump A.D., Atieli F.K., Vulule J.M., Besanskt N.J., 2004 – Dynamics of the pyrethroid knockdown resistance allele in western Kenyan populations of Anopheles gambiae in response to insecticide-treated bed net trials. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 70 : 591-596.

Su X.Z., Mu J., Joy D.A., 2003 – The “Malaria Eve” hypothesis and the debate concerning the origin of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Microb. Infect., 5 : 891-896.

Subbarao S.K., 1988 – The Anopheles culicifacies complex and control of malaria. Parasitol. Today, 4 (3) : 72-75.

Subbarao S.K., Nanda N., Chandrahas R.K., Sharma V.P., 1993 – Anopheles culicifacies complex : cytogenetic characterization of Rameshwaram island populations. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 9 (1) : 27-31.

Subbarao S.K., Nanda N., Vasantha K., Dua V.K., Malhotra M.S., Yadav R.S., Sharma V.P., 1994 – Cytogenetic evidence for three sibling species in Anopheles fluviatilis. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87 : 116-121.

Subbarao S.K., Vasantha K., Raghavendra K., Sharma V.P., Sharma G.K., 1988 – Anopheles culicifacies : sibling species composition and its relationship to malaria incidence. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 4 : 29-33.

Sucharit S., Komalamisra N., 1997 – Differentiation of Anopheles minimus species complex by RAPD-PCR technique. J. Med. Assoc. Thai., 80 : 598-602.

Sukowati S., Baimai V., Harun S., Dasuki Y., Andris H., Efriwati M., 1999 – Isozyme evidence for three sibling species in the Anopheles sundaicus complex from Indonesia. Med. Vet. Ent., 13 : 408-414.

Sultan A.A., Thathy V., Frevert U., Robson K.J., Crisanti A., Nussenzweig V., Nussenzweig R.S., Ménard R., 1997 – TRAP is necessary for gliding motility and infectivity of plasmodium sporozoites. Cell, 90 (3) : 511-522.

Surendran S.N., Abhayawardana T.A., De Silva B.G., Ramasamy R., Ramasamy M.S., 2000 – Anopheles culicifacies Y-chromosome dimorphism indicates sibling species (B and E) with different malaria vector potential in Sri Lanka. Med. Vet. Entomol., 14 : 437-440.

Swellengrebel N.H., 1924 – Malaria in the Kingdom of the Netherlands. League of Nations, C.H. 196, Hlth. Org.

Swellengrebel N.H., 1929 – La dissociation des fonctions sexuelles et nutritives (dissociation gonotrophique) d’Anopheles maculipennis comme cause du paludisme dans les Pays-Bas et ses rapports avec l’infection domiciliaire. Ann. Inst. Pasteur, 43 : 1370.

Tahar R., Boudin C., Thiery I., Bourgoin C., 2002 – Immune response of Anopheles gambiae to the early sporogonic stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. EMBO, 21 : 6673-6680.

Takken W., Charlwood J.D., Billingsley P.F., Gort G., 1998 – Dispersal and survival of Anopheles funestus and A. gambiae s.l. (Diptera : Culicidae) during the rainy season in southeast Tanzania. Bull. Ent. Res., 88 : 561-566.

Takken W., Dekker T., Wijnholds Y.G., 1997 – Odor-mediated flight behavior of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto and An. stephensi Liston in response to CO2, acetone and 1-octen-2-ol (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Ins. Beh., 10 : 395-407.

Takken W., Geene R., Adam W., Jetten T.H., Van der Velden J.A., 2002 – Distribution and dynamics of larval populations of Anopheles messae and A. atroparvus in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, The Netherlands. Ambio, 31 : 212-218.

Takken W., Kager P.A., Van Der Kaay H.J., 1999 – [A return of endemic malaria to the Netherlands is highly unlikely]. Nederlands Tijdscrift Voor Geneeskunde, 143 (16) : 836-838.

Takken W., Kager P.A., Verhave J.P., 2007 – « Will malaria return to North-West Europe ? » In Takken W. and Knols B.G.J. eds. : Emerging Pests and Vector-Borne Diseases in Europe, The Netherlands, Wageningen Academic Publishers : 23-34.

Takken W., Knols B.G., 1999 – Odor-mediated behavior of Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes. Ann. Rev. Ent., 44 : 131-157.

Takken W., Van Loon J.J., Adam W., 2001 – Inhibition of the host-seeking response and olfactory responsiveness on Anopheles gambiae following blood feeding. J. Insect. Physiol., 47 : 303-310.

Talman A.M., Domarle O., Mckenzie E., Ariey F., Robert V., 2006 – Gametocytogenesis : the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum. Malaria J., 3 : 24.

Tanser F.C., Sharp B., Le Sueur D., 2003 – Potential effect of climate change on malaria transmission in Africa. Lancet, 362 : 1792-1798.

Targett G., Drakeley C., Jawara M., Von Seidlen L., Coleman R., Deen J., Pinder M., Doherty T., Sutherland C., Walraven G., Miligan P., 2001 – Artesunate reduces but does not prevent posttreatment transmission of Plasmodium falciparum to Anopheles gambiae. J. Infect. Dis., 183 : 1254-1259.

Taylor C.E., Touré Y.T., Coluzzi M., Petrarca V., 1993 – Effective population size and persistence of Anopheles arabiensis during dry season in West Africa. Med. Vet. Ent., 7 : 351-357.

Tchuinkam T., Mulder B., Dechering K., Verhave J.P., Cot M., Carnevale P., Meuwissen J., Robert V., 1993 – Experimental infections of Anopheles gambiae with Plasmodium falciparum of naturally infected gametocyte carriers in Cameroon : factors influencing the infectivity to mosquitoes. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 44 : 271-276.

Temu E.A., Minjas J.N., Coetzee M., Hunt R.H., Shift C.J., 1998 – The role of four anopheline species (Diptera : Culicidae) in malaria transmission in coastal Tanzania. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 92 : 152-158.

Thelwell N. J., Huisman R.A., Harbach R.E., Butlin R.K., 2000 – Evidence for mitochondrial introgression between Anopheles bwambae and Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol., 9 : 203-210.

Thomas C.J., Lindsay S.W., 2000 – Local-scale variation in malaria amongst rural Gambian children estimated by satellite remote sensing. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 94 : 113-127.

Thomson M.C., Connor S.J., 2001 – The development of malaria early warning systems for Africa. Trends Parasitol., 17 : 438-445.

Thomson M.C., Doblas-Reyes F.J., Mason S.J., Hagedorn R., Connor S.J., Phindela T., Morse A.P., Palmer T.N., 2006 – Malaria early warnings based on seasonal climate forecasts from multi-model ensembles. Nature, 439 : 576-579.

Thompson R., Begtrup K., Cuamba N., Dgedge M., Mendis C., Gamage-Mendis A., Enosse S.M., Barreto J., Sinden R.E., Hogh B., 1997 – The Matola project : a temporal and spatial study of malaria transmission and disease in a suburban area of Maputo, Mozambique. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 57 : 550-559.

Thomson R.C.M., 1938 – The reactions of mosquitoes to temperature and humidity. Bull. Ent. Res., 29 : 125.

Thomson R.C.M., 1940 – Studies on the Behaviour of Anopheles minimus. Part III- The Influence of Water Temperature on the Choice and Suitability of the Breeding Site. J. Malaria Inst. India, 3 : 323.

Tia E., Akogbeto M., Koffi A.A., Touré Zhou G., Minakawa N., Githeko A.K., Yan M., Adja A.M., Moussa K., Yao T., Carnevale P., Chandre F., 2006 – Résistance aux pyréthrinoides et au DDT d’Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera : Culicidae) dans cinq écosystèmes agriculturaux en Côte d’Ivoire. Bull. Soc. Path. Exot., 99 : 278-282.

Toole M.J., 1995 – Mass population displacement. A global public health challenge. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am., 9 : 353-366.

Torres, E.P., Foley D.H., Saul A., 2000 – Ribosomal DNA sequence markers differentiate two species of the Anopheles maculatus (Diptera : Culicidae) complex in the Philippines. J. Med. Entomol, 37 : 933-937.

Torres E.P., Salazar N.P., Belizario V.Y., Saul A., 1997 – Vector abundance and behaviour in an area of low malaria endemicity in Bataan, the Philippines. Acta Tropica, 63 : 209-220.

Tosta C.E., 2007 – Coadaptation and malaria control. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 702 : 385-404.

Touré Y.T., Dolo G., Petrarca V., Traoré S.F., Bouare M., Dao A., Carnahan J., Taylor C.E., 1998a – Mark-release-recapture experiments with Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Banambani village Mali to determine population size and structure. Med. Vet. Ent., 12 : 74-83.

Touré Y.T., Petrarca V., Traoré S.F., Coulibaly A., Maiga H.M., Sankaré O., Sow M., Di Deco M.A., Coluzzi M., 1998b – The distribution and inversion polymorphism of chromosomally recognised taxa of the Anopheles gambiae complex in Mali, West Africa. Parassitologia, 40 : 477-511.

Trager W., 1942 – A strain of mosquito Aedes aegypti selected for susceptibility to the avian parasite Plasmodium lophurae. J. Parasitol., 28 : 457-465.

Trape J.F., Lefebvre-Zante E., Legros F., Ndiaye G., Bouganali H., Druilhe P., Salem G., 1992 – Vector density gradients and the epidemiology of urban malaria in Dakar, Senegal. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 47 : 181-189.

Trape J.F., Zoulani A., 1987 – Malaria and Urbanization in Central Africa : the example of Brazzaville. Part II- Results of entomological surveys and epidemiological analysis. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 81 : 10-18

Trindade D.B., Scarpassa V.M., 2002 – Genetic differentiation and diagnostic loci among Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli, An. (Nys.) nuneztovari, and An. (Nys.) dunhami (Diptera : Culicidae) in the Brazilian Amazon. J. Med. Ent., 39 : 613-620.

Tripet F., Touré Y.T., Dolo G., Lanzaro G.C., 2003 – Frequency of multiple inseminations in field-collected Anopheles gambiae females revealed by DNA analysis of transferred sperm. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 68 : 1-5.

Tripet F., Touré Y.T., Taylor C.E., Norris D.E., Dolo G., Lanzaro G.C., 2001 – DNA analysis of transferred sperm reveals significant levels of gene flow between molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae. Mol. Ecol., 10 : 1725-1732.

Tripet F., Wright J., Cornel A., Fofana A., McAbee R., Meneses C., Reimer L., Slotman M., Thiemann T., Dolo G., Traoré S., Lanzaro G., 2007 – Longitudinal survey of knockdown resistance to pyrethroid (kdr) in Mali, West Africa, and evidence of its emergence in the Bamako form of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76 (1) : 81-87.

Trung H.D., Bortel W.V., Sochantha T., Keokenchanh K., Briet O.J., Coosemans M., 2005 – Behavioural heterogeneity for Anopheles species in ecologically different localities in Southeast Asia : a challenge for vector control. Trop. Med. Int. Hlth., 10 : 251-261.

Tudor S.K., 1997 – “Public Health” for Whose Benefit ? Multiple Discourses on Malaria in Sri Lanka. Medical Anthropology, 17 (3) : 195-214.

Van Bortel W., Sochanta T., Harbach R.E., Socheat D., Roelants P., Backeljau T., Coosemans M., 2002 – Presence of Anopheles culicifacies B in Cambodia established by the PCR-RFLP assay developed for the identification of Anopheles minimus species A and C and four related species. Med. Vet. Entomol., 16 : 329-334.

Van Bortel W., Trung H.D., Manh N.D., Roelants P., Verle P., Coosemans M., 1999 – Identification of two species within the Anopheles minimus complex in northern Vietnam and their behavioural divergences. Trop. Med., Int. Hlth., 4 : 257-265.

Van Bortel W., trung H.D., Roelants P., Backeljau T., Coosemans M., 2003 – Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles minimus A in Vietnam. Heredity, 91 : 487-493.

Van Bortel W., Trung H.D., Roelants P., Harbach R.E., Backeljau T., Coosemans M., 2000 – Molecular identification of Anopheles minimus s.l. beyond distinguishing the members of the species complex. Insect Mol. Biol., 9 : 335-340.

Van Den Broek I.V.F., Den Otter C.J., 2000 – Odour sensitivity of antennal olfactory cells underlying grooved pegs of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. quadriannulatus. Ent. Exp. App., 96 : 167-175.

Vatandoost H., Shahi H., Abai M.R., Hanafi-Bojd A.A., Oshaghi M.A., Zamani G., 2004 – Larval habitats of main malaria vectors in Hormozgan province and their susceptibility to different larvicides. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health, 35 : 22-25.

Vaughan J.A., 2007 – Population dynamics of Plasmodium sporogony. Trends Parasitol., 23 (2) : 63-70.

Vaughan J.A., Noden B.H., Beier J.C., 1991 – Concentration of human erythrocytes by anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera : Culicidae) during feeding. J. Med. Ent., 28 : 780-786.

Vaughan J.A., Vernick K.D., Fujioka H., Seeley D.C., Tandler B., Aikawa M., Miller L.M., 1995 – Plasmodium gallinaceum : a refractory mechanism of ookinete killing in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Exp. Parasitol., 80 : 583-595.

Vercruysse J., 1983 – Évaluation de la durée du cycle gonotrophique d’Anopheles arabiensis dans une zone urbaine (Pikine, Sénégal). Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XXI (2) : 83-90.

Vercruysse J., 1985 – Étude entomologique de la transmission du paludisme humain dans le bassin du fleuve Sénégal (Sénégal). Ann. Soc. Belg. Méd. Trop., 65 Suppl 2 : 171-179.

Vercruysse J., Jancloes J., 1981 – Étude entomologique sur la transmission du paludisme humain dans la zone de Pikine (Sénégal). Cah. Orstom, sér. Ent. Méd. Parasitol., XIX (3) : 165-178.

Verhaeghen K., Van Bortel W., Roelants P., Backeljau T., Coosemans M., 2006 – Detection ot the East and West African kdr mutation in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis from Uganda using a new assay based on FRET/Melt Curve analysis. Malaria J., 5 : 16.

Verhave J.P., Fass B., Tchuinkam T., Arens T., Robert V., 1995 – Detection of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes by quantitative buffy coat (QBC) analysis. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 89 : 214.

Verhoeff F.H., Brabin B.J., Chimsuku L., Kazembe P., Brohead R.L., 1999 – Malaria in pregnancy and its consequence for the infant in rural Malawi. Ann. Trop. Med. Hyg., 93 : S25-S33.

Vernick K.D., Barreau C., Seeley D.C., 1995a – Plasmodium : a quantitative molecular assay for detection of sporogonic-stage malaria parasites. Exp. Parasitol., 81 (4) : 436-444.

Vernick K.D., Collins F.H., 1989 – Association of a Plasmodium-refractory phenotype with an esterase locus in Anopheles gambiae. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 40 : 593-597.

Vernick K.D., Collins F.H., Gwadz R.W., 1989 – A general system of resistance to malaria infection in Anopheles gambiae controlled by two main genetic loci. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 40 : 585-592.

Vernick K.D., Fujioka H., Seeley D.C., Tandler B., Aikawa M., Miller L.H., 1995b – Plasmodium gallinaceum : a refractory mechanism of ookinete killing in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Exp. Parasitol., 80 (4) : 583-595.

Vernick K.D., Oduol F., Lazzaro B.P., Glazebrook J., XU J., Riehle M., Li J., 2005 – Molecular genetics of mosquito resistance to malaria parasites. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol., 295 : 383-415.

Vulule J.M., Beach R.F., Atieli F.K., McAllister J.C., Brogdon W.G., Roberts J.M., Mwangi R.W., Hawley W.A., 1999 – Elevated oxidase and esterase levels associated with permethrin tolerance in Anopheles gambiae from Kenyan villages using permthrin-impregnated nets. Med. Vet. Ent., 13 : 239-244.

Vulule J.M., Beach R.F., Atieli F.K., Roberts J.M., Mount D.L., Mwangi R.W., 1994 – Reduced susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to permethrin associated with the use of permethrin-impregnated bednets and curtains in Kenya. Med. Vet. Ent., 8 : 71-75.

Vythilingam I., Chan S.T., Shanmugratnam C., Tanrang H., Chooi K.H., 2005 – The impact of development and malaria control activities on its vectors in the Kinabatangan area of Sabah, East Malaysia. Acta Trop., 96 (1) : 24-30.

Walker K., Lynch M., 2007 – Contributions of Anopheles larval control to malaria suppression in Tropical Africa : reviews of achievements and potential. Med. Vet. Ent., 21 : 2-21.

Wallace J.R., Grimstad P.R., 2002 – A preliminary characterization of the physiological ecology of overwintering Anopheles mosquitoes in the midwestern USA. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 18 : 126-127.

Walsh J.F., Molyneux D.H., Birley M.H., 1993 – Deforestation : effects on vector-borne disease. Parasitology, 106 : S55-75.

Walton, C., Chang M.S., Handley J.M., Harbach R.E., Collins F.H., Baimai V., Butlin R.K., 2000a – The isolation and characterization of microsatellites from Anopheles dirus mosquitoes. Mol. Ecol., 9 : 1665-1667.

Walton C., Handley J.M., Collins F.H., Baimai V., Harbach R.E., Deesin V., Butlin R.K., 2001 – Genetic population structure and introgression in Anopheles dirus mosquitoes in South-east Asia. Mol. Ecol., 10 : 569-580.

Walton C., Handley J.M., Kuvangkadilok C., Collins F.H., Harbach R.E., Baimai V., Butlin R.K., 1999a – Identification of five species of the Anopheles dirus complex from Thailand, using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Med. Vet. Ent., 13 : 24-32.

Walton C., Handley J.M., Tun-Lin W., Collins J.H., Harbach R.E., Baimai V., Butlin R.K., 2000b – Population structure and population history of Anopheles dirus mosquitoes in Southeast Asia. Mol. Biol. Evol., 17 : 962-974.

Walton C., Sharpe R.G., Pritchard S.J., Thelwell N.J., Butlin R.K., 1999b – Molecular identification of mosquito species. Biol. J. Linnean Soc., 68 : 241-256

Walton C., Somboon P., O’Loughlin S.M., Zhang S., Harbach R.E., Linton Y.M., Chen B., Nolan K., Duong S., Fong M.Y., Vythilingum I., Mohammed Z.D., Trung H.D., Butlin R.K., 2007 – Genetic diversity and molecular identification of mosquito species in the Anopheles maculatus group using the ITS2 region of rDNA. Infect. Genet. Evol., 7 : 93-102.

Walton C., Thelwell N.J., Priestman A., Butlin R.K., 1998 – The use of microsatellites to study gene flow in natural populations of Anopheles malaria vectors in Africa : potential and pitfalls. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 14 : 266-272.

Walton W.E., 2007 – Larvivorous fish including Gambusia. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 23 (2 Suppl.) : 184-220.

Ward R.A., 1963 – Genetic aspects of the susceptibility of mosquitoes to malarial infections. Exp. Parasitol., 13 : 328-341.

Warren MCW., Collins W.E., Richardson B.B., Skinner J.C., 1977 – Morphologic variants of Anopheles albimanus and susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 26 : 607-611.

Washino R.K., 1977 – The physiological ecology of gonotrophic dissociation and related phenomena in mosquitoes. J. Med. Ent., 13 : 381-388.

Washino R.K., Bailey S.F., 1970 – Overwintering of Anopheles punctipennis (Diptera : Culicidae) in California. J. Med. Ent., 7 : 95-98.

Watson M., 1935 – Some Pages from the History of the Prevention of Malaria (Finlayson Lecture). Glasgow, Alex. Macdougal.

Weekly epidemiological record, 1999 – Paludisme, Kenya. WER, Jul. 23, 74 (29) : 243.

Weekly epidemiological record, 2001 – Malaria, Burundi. WER, Jan. 5, 76 (1) : 6.

Weeto M.M., Loekemoer L.L., Kamau L., Hunt R.H., Coetzee M., 2004 – Evaluation of a species-specific PCR assay for the Anopheles funestus group from eleven African countries and Madagascar. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med., Hyg., 98 : 142-147.

Weill M., Chandre F., Brengues C., Manguin S., Akogbeto M., Pasteur N., Guillet P., Raymond M., 2000 – The kdr mutation occurs in the Mopti form of Anopheles gambiae s.s. through introgression. Insect Mol. Biol., 9 (5) : 451-455.

Weill M., Malcolm C., Chandre F., Mogensen K., Berthomieu A., Marquine M., Raymond M., 2004 – The unique mutation in ace-1 giving high insecticide resistance is easily detectable in mosquito vectors. Insect Mol. Biol., 13 : 1-7.

Weill M., Marquine M., Berthomieu A., Dubois M.P., Bernard C., Qiao C.L., Raymond M., 2001 – Identification and characterization of novel organophosphate detoxifying esterase alleles in the Guangzhou area of China. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association, 17 (4) : 238-244.

Wekesa J.W., Copeland R.S., Mwangi R.W., 1992 – Effect of Plasmodium falciparum on blood feeding behaviour of naturally infected Anopheles mosquitoes in Western Kenya. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 47 : 484-488.

Wernsdorfer W.H., McGregor J., 1988 – Malaria Principles and Practices of Malariology. Churchill Livingstone Longman Group, UK LH, 912 p.

White G.B., 1985 – Anopheles bwambae sp. n., a malaria vector in the Semliki Valley, Uganda, and its relationships with other sibling species of the An. gambiae complex (Diptera : Culicidae). Systematic Entomology, 10 : 501-522.

White G.B., Stegnii V.N., Kabanova V.M., 1978 – Systematic reappraisal of the Anopheles maculipennis complex. Mosq. Syst., 10 : 13-44.

WHO, 1976 – Résistance des vecteurs et des réservoirs de maladies aux pesticides. 22e rapport du Comité d’experts des insecticides, RTS n° 585.

WHO, 1992 – Vector resistance to insecticides. 15th Report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control. Wld. Hlth. Org., Tech. Rep. Ser., n° 818 : 1-62.

WHO, 1998 – Techniques to detect insecticide resistance mechanisms (field and laboratory manual). WHO/CDS/CPC/MAL/98.6.

WHO, 2001a – Malaria Burundi. Weekly Epidemiological Report, 5 January, 76 (1) : 6.

WHO, 2001b – Report of the fourth WHOPES working group Meeting. WHO/CDS/WHOPES/ 2001.2 (IR 35 35 ; KBR 3023).

WHO, 2003a – Guidelines for integrated vector management. WHO regional office for Africa, Division of prevention and control of communicable diseases, Vector biology and control unit, Hararae, Zimbabwe, Sept., 30 p.

WHO, 2003b – « Fourth update on Long-Lasting Impregnated Nets, Currents status and programmatic issues ». Geneva, 10/11/2003 at

WHO, 2004 – Malaria epidemics : forecasting, prevention, early detection and control : from policy to practice. Geneva, World Health Organization.

WHO, 2004 – Using climate change to predict disease outbreaks : a review. Geneva, WHO/SDE/OEH 04 01, World Health Organization.

WHO, 2004 – Frequently asked questions on DDT use for disease vector control. WHO/HTM/RBM/2004·54.

WHO, 2005 – Weekly Epidemiological Record, Emergency measures against malaria in Niger, sept. 23, 80 (38) : 331-333.

WHO, 2006 – Guidelines for testing Mosquito Adulticides for Indoor Residual Spraying and Treatment of Mosquito Nets. WHO/CDS/NTD/WHOPES/GCDPP/2006.3.

WHO, 2007 – Report of the WHO consultation on integrated vector management (IVM). Geneva, Switzerland, WHO Headquarters, 1-4 May, WHO/CDS/NTD/VEM/2007.1.

WHO, 2007 – Manual for indoor residual spraying. Application of residual sprays for vector control. 3rd edition, WHO/CDS/NTD/WHOPES/GCDPP/2007.3

WHOPES, 2007 – Report of the Tenth WHOPES Working Group Meeting. WHO/CDS/NTD/ WHOPES/2007.1.

Wilkerson R.C., Li C., Rueda L.M., Kim H.C., Klein T.A., Song G.H., Strickman D., 2003 – Molecular confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles) lesteri from the Republic of South Korea and its genetic identity with (Ano.) anthropophagus from China (Diptera : Culicidae). Zootaxa, 378 : 1-14.

Wilkerson R.C., Reinert J.F., Li C., 2004 – Ribosomal DNA ITS2 sequences differentiate six species in the Anopheles crucians complex (Diptera : Culicidae). J. Med. Ent., 41 : 392-401.

Wilkes T.J., Matola Y.G., Charlwood J.D., 1996 – Anopheles rivulorum, a vector of human malaria in Africa. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 10 (1) : 108-110.

Williamson M.S., Martinez Torres D., Hick C.A., Devonshire A.L., 1996 – Identification of mutations in the housefly para-type sodium channel gene associated with knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroid insecticides. Molecular and General Genetics, 252 : 51-60.

Wilson B., 1949 – « Malaria incidence in central and south Africa ». In : Malariology. A Comprehensive Survey of All Aspects of This Group of Diseases from a Global Standpoint, Philadelphia, London, W.B. Saunders Company.

Wilson D.B., Notley F.B., 1943 – Malaria in Southern Somalia. East African M. J., 20 : 255.

Wilson D.B., Wilson M.E., 1937 – Manifestations and Measurement of Immunity to Malaria in Different Races. Trans. Roy. Trop. Med., Hyg., 30 : 431.

Wirtz R., MacArthur A., O’Brien M., Causer L., 2002 – Local transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Virginia, MMWR, 51 (41) : 921-923.

Wirtz R.A., Zavala F., Charoenvit Y., Campbell G.H., Burkhot T.R., Schneider I., Esser K.M., Beaudoin R.L., Andre R.G., 1987 – Comparative testing of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites monoclonal antibodies for ELISA development. Bull. Wld. hlth. Org., 65 : 39-45.

Wondji C.S., Morgan J., Coetzee M., Hunt R.H., Steen K., Black W.C. 4th, Hemingway J., Ranson H., 2007 – Mapping a quantitative trait locus (QTL) conferring pyrethroid resistance in the African malaria vector Anopheles funestus. BMC Genomics, 8 : 34.

Wondji C.S., Simard F., Fontenille D., 2002 – Evidence for genetic differentiation between the molecular forms M and S within the Forest chromosomal form of Anopheles gambiae in an area of sympatry. Insect Mol. Biol., 11 : 11-19.

Wright K.A., 1969 – The anatomy of salivary glands of Anopheles stephensi Liston. Can. J. Zool., 47 : 579-587.

Wright J., Ford H., 1992 – Another African disaster. BMJ, 305 : 1479-1480.

Wu C.I., 2001 – The genic view of the process of speciation. J. Evol. Biology, 14 : 851-865.

Yamey G., 2004 – Roll back malaria : a failing global health campaign. Brit. Med. J., 328 : 1086-1087.

Yasuoka J., Levine R., 2007 – Impact of deforestation and agricultural development on anopheline biology and malaria epidemiology. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76 : 450-460.

Yates A., N’Guessan R., Kaur H., Akogbeto M., Rowland M., 2005 – Evaluation of KO-Tab 1-2-3 : a wash-resitant “dip-it-yourself” insecticide formulation for long-lasting treatment of mosquito nets. Malaria J., 4 : 52.

Yoshida S., Sudo T., Niimi M., Tao L., Sun B., Kambayashi J., Watanabe H., Luo E., Matsuoka H., 2008 – Inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation by anopheline anti-platelet protein, a saliva protein from a malaria vector mosquito. Blood, 111 (4) : 2007-2014.

Zamburlini R., Cargnus E., 1999 – [Residual mosquitoes in the northern Adriatic seacoast 50 years after the disappearance of malaria]. Parassitologia, 40 : 431-437.

Zavortink T.J., Poinar O.G., 2000 – Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dominicanus sp. n. (Diptera : Culicidae) from Dominican amber. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 93 : 1230-1235.

Zhang Q., Devers D., Desch A., Justice C.O., Townshend J., 2005 – Mapping tropical deforestation in Central Africa. Environ. Monit. Assess., 101 : 69-83.

Zheng L., 1999 – Genetic basis of encapsulation response in Anopheles gambiae. Parassitologia, 41 (1-3) : 181-184.

Zheng L., Benedict M.Q., Cornel A.J., Collins F.H., Kafatos F.C, 1996 – An integrated genetic map of the African malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Genetics, 143 : 941-952.

Zheng L., Cornel A.J., Wang R., Erfle H., Voss H., Ansorge W., Kafatos F.C., Collins F.H., 1997 – Quantitative trait loci controlling refractoriness of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium cynomolgi B. Science, 276 : 425-428.

Zheng L., Wang S., Romans P., Zhao H., Luna C., Benedict M.Q., 2003 – Quantitative trait loci in Anopheles gambiae controlling the encapsulation response against Plasmodium cynomolgi Ceylon. BMC Genetics, 4 : 16

Zhou G., Minakawa N., Githeko A.K., Yan G., 2004 – Association between climate variability and malaria epidemics in the East African highlands. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences USA, 101 : 2375-2380.

Zhou G., Minakawa N., Githeko A.K., Yan G., 2005 – Climate variability and malaria epidemics in the highlands of East Africa. Trends in Parasitology, 21 : 54-56.

Zieler H., Dvorak J.A., 2000 – Invasion in vitro of mosquito midgutcells by the malaria parasite proceeds by a conserved mechanism and results in death of the invaded midgut cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97 : 11516-11521.

Zieler H., Garon C.F., Fischer E.R., Shahabuddin M., 1998 – Adhesion of Plasmodium gallinaceum ookinetes to the Aedes aegypti midgut : sites of parasite attachment and morphological changes in the ookinete. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 45 (5) : 512-520.

Zieler H., Nawrocki J.P., Shahabuddin M., 2000 – Plasmodium gallinaceum ookinetes adhere specifically to the midgut epithelium of Aedes aegypti by interaction with a carbohydrate ligand. J. Exp. Biol., 202 (5) : 485-495.

Zoulani A., Carnevale P., Penchenier L., 1994 – Influence des moustiquaires imprégnées de deltaméthrine sur le cycle d’agressivité d’Anopheles gambiae à Djoumouna, Congo. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop., 74 (2) : 83-891

© IRD Éditions, 2009

Conditions d’utilisation :

Rechercher dans OpenEdition Search

Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search