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The State of Medicine Quality in the Mekong Sub-Region

 | 
Sauwakon Ratanawijitrasin
, 
Souly Phanouvong

List of figures

Texte intégral

Figure 1: Example of counterfeit chloroquine phosphate tablets found in Cambodia in 2004

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Figure 2: Example of counterfeit artesunate found in the Mekong Subregion in 2004

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Figure 3: Example of counterfeit amoxicillin capsules found in Cambodia, 2009

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Figure 4: Multi-colour medicine sachets of cocktail pills repacked by retail drug outlets are still available in some parts of the countries in the Mekong Subregion. This photo was taken in Cambodia in 2011

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Figure 5: Map of countries of the Mekong Subregion with dots illustrating the locations of pharmaceutical sample collection sites

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Figure 6: Methodological framework on medicine quality monitoring applied in the GMS by the United States Pharmacopeia Promoting the Quality of Medicines Program

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Figure 7: Three levels of testing for checking the quality of the samples

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Figure 8: Basic tests used in the medicines quality monitoring programme in the Mekong Subregion

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Figure 9: Officers conduct a simple disintegration test of oseltamivir tablets in Cambodia

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Figure 10: Training on basic testing for field monitoring of anti-infective medicines in Thailand, 2009

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Figure 11: Training on quality control technique and procedures to detect counterfeit and substandard medicines to central and field laboratory staff in Vietnam

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Figure 12: Percentage of samples failing quality testing by country

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Figure 13: Quality of medicine samples collected in Cambodia between 2002-2008 showing the proportion of products that passed and failed quality testing

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Figure 14: Quality of medicine samples collected in Lao PDR between 2003-2008 showing the proportion of products that passed and failed quality testing

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Figure 15: Quality of medicine samples collected in Vietnam between 2004-2008 showing the proportion of products that passed and failed quality testing

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Figure 16: Quality of four categories of anti-microbial medicine samples collected and tested in the region (2003-2008)

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Figure 17: Quality of anti-malarials collected by country

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Figure 18: Inspectors of the Food and Drug Department of Lao PDR inspect retail pharmacy outlets as part of the monotherapies ban policy implementation in Lao PDR

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Figure 19: Quality of antibiotics collected and tested by country

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Figure 20: Quality of anti-TB medicines collected and tested by country

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Figure 21: Quality of ARVs collected and tested by country

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Figure 22: Counterfeit medicines by country

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Figure 23: Counterfeit medicines found in Cambodia between 2005-2008

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Figure 24: Percentage of counterfeit medicines from each distribution channel out of total counterfeit samples found in the countries surveyed

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Figure 25: Consumers’ risk of receiving bad medicines from pharmacies at the border provinces in each of the countries

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Figure 26: Consumers’ risk of receiving bad medicines from hospitals in the border provinces in each of the countries

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Figure 27: Consumers’ risk of receiving bad medicines from clinics in the border provinces in each of the countries

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Figure 28: Consumers’ risk of receiving bad medicines from malaria clinics in the border provinces in each of the countries

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Figure 29: Consumers’ risk of receiving poor quality medicines from various distribution channels in the border provinces of Cambodia

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Figure 30: Consumers’ risk of receiving poor quality medicines from various distribution channels in the border counties of Yunnan Province

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Figure 31: Consumers’ risk of receiving poor quality medicines from various distribution channels in the border provinces of Lao PDR

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Figure 32: Consumers’ risk of receiving poor quality medicines from various distribution channels in the border provinces of Thailand

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Figure 33: Consumers’ risk of receiving poor quality medicines from various distribution channels in the border provinces of Vietnam

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Figure 34: Diagrammatic depiction of the factors in the medicine process – critical to quality

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Figure 35: Conceptual spheres of regulatory control

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Figure 36: Conceptual spheres of the four main regulatory functions

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© Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine, 2014

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