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Building Beyond The Mediterranean

 | 
Claudine Piaton
, 
Ezio Godoli
, 
David Peyceré

Settlements

European construction companies in the towns along the Suez Canal

Les entreprises de construction européennes dans les villes du canal de Suez

Claudine Piaton

Texte intégral

Figure 1: A 1903 map of Ismailia

Figure 1: A 1903 map of Ismailia

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

Figure 2: Voisin’s preliminary draft plan for Port Said, 1860

Figure 2: Voisin’s preliminary draft plan for Port Said, 1860

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

  • 1 Juliette Gallois, “Le patrimoine archivistique de Suez”, Cahier de l’association du souvenir de Fer (...)
  • 2 See for example: Nathalie Montel, Le chantier du canal de Suez (1859-1869), Paris: Presses de l’ENP (...)
  • 3 Term used by the Company to designate any outside firm.
  • 4 There were also many Egyptian companies active there, especially in the field of earthworks, but be (...)

1The archive collection of the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de Suez (known in English as the “Suez Canal Company”), the joint-stock company formed in 1858 by Ferdinand de Lesseps to build, maintain and operate a canal connecting the Mediterranean to the Red Sea, is one of the richest corporate groups of archives in France. This private collection, placed on deposit at the Archives Nationales in 1977 by the Association du Souvenir de Ferdinand de Lesseps et du Canal de Suez, has been located since 1995 at the Archives Nationales du Monde du Travail in Roubaix.1 The main source for primary university research on the history of techniques and economic history,2 it has yet to be studied extensively by architectural historians, despite the fact that the structures built by the Suez Company during its tenure in Egypt (1859-1956) constitute an exemplary case study of the ways European corporate architecture spread south of the Mediterranean in the 19th and 20th centuries. The Suez Company, which had not contracted to build anything other than the canal and its ports, was very quickly faced with the issue of accommodation for its employees. The canal’s route crossed desert zones where construction camps had to be created from scratch to house the men and to store and maintain the machines used on the worksite. After the canal began operating in 1869, the company had to undertake further construction projects, building offices for the Company’s administration and, throughout the 20th century, accommodations for its numerous expatriated European employees (accountants, engineers, pilots, skilled workers, etc.). Although the town plans are attributed to Company engineers, construction projects were systematically contracted out to “entrepreneurs”.3 In the same way, until 1921, the Company lacked an in-house architecture department, and had to call upon independent architects to draft plans, the supervision of which was then entrusted to its engineers. Thus the Company’s archives can inform us about various facets of the entrepreneurial world in Egypt between 1860 and 1950. On the one hand, they shed light on the role of the Company as designer and then administrator of the towns: like other 19th century French company towns, Port Said and Ismailia were created by Suez engineers. It laid them out, defined the zoning, conceded plots, and managed the public areas until 1869, when the Egyptian government integrated them into Egyptian common law. Moreover, the abundant material the archives contain documenting construction (architects’ plans, technical drawings, works contracts, photographs) reveals the swarm of European construction businesses gravitating around the Company: small companies which owned innovative patents, Egyptian branches of major European corporations, small traditional building-trade companies managed by Europeans living in Egypt.4 Before examining these contractors more closely, we shall briefly review the Company’s role in the creation of town plans.

Company towns

  • 5 See for example the mine towns of the western United States, or South America. John S. Garner, The (...)
  • 6 The freshwater canal planned at the same time as the maritime canal connected the Nile to Ismailia (...)
  • 7 Nathalie Montel, “Ismaïlia (Égypte): une ville d’ingénieurs”, Revue du monde musulman et de la Médi (...)
  • 8 Plan of Port Said: sketch in the July 1, 1859 report by the chief of works to the management commit (...)

2In 1861, a master plan for the first camps, established along the route of the future canal and spaced at regular intervals from north to south, was drawn by the Company engineers, under the supervision of the civil engineer François-Philippe Voisin (known as Voisin Bey), general manager of works and chief agent of the Company between 1861 and 1870. The two main camps, each of which housed a division of the works, spawned two of the three cities of the isthmus: Port Said, located at the mouth of the canal in the Mediterranean, and Ismailia, placed halfway between Port Said and Suez, the small Red Sea port which existed before the canal. The plans adopted grid layout pattern from military engineering, but without walling off the compounds. Like other company towns,5 however, communities were segregated by “race.” Housing and community services for European managers and workers were separated from the “Arab village” for Egyptian laborers by the garages for heavy machinery. The initial plan for Ismailia – located at the canal’s halfway point to serve as the capital of the isthmus – comprised a series of repetitive square modules (the Greek square, the European square, the Arab square). Depending on the company’s needs, it could extend unimpeded along the freshwater canal6 and a large port (which would finally be abandoned). According to Nathalie Montel, the plan was “the ultimate manifesto of the reasoning of a Second Empire engineer, applied on a city-wide scale.”7 Less known, because they were not implemented in the field, the initial layout for Port Said represented the same bias: as early as 1859, the engineers projected a town on a grid pattern centered on a harbor basin separating the European neighborhood from the Arab one.8

Figure 3: Suez Company European workers’ housing, Port Tewfik, Suez (1922), Paul Albert, arch.; Almagià, cont. (photo by A. du Boistesselin)

Figure 3: Suez Company European workers’ housing, Port Tewfik, Suez (1922), Paul Albert, arch.; Almagià, cont. (photo by A. du Boistesselin)

Source: Arnaud du Boistesselin (http://apb.free.fr/​)

Figure 4: Suez Company warehouses, Port Tewfik, Suez (1930), Paul Albert, arch.; Baume & Marpent, cont. (photo by A. du Boistesselin)

Figure 4: Suez Company warehouses, Port Tewfik, Suez (1930), Paul Albert, arch.; Baume & Marpent, cont. (photo by A. du Boistesselin)

Source: Arnaud du Boistesselin (http://apb.free.fr/​)

The contractors who built the towns

3Between the beginning of the works and 1956, the profile of the entrepreneurs (nationalities, geographical area of activity, etc.) and their method of selection evolved. Early on, French companies were preferred, irrespective of what was being commissioned, but later decision-makers chose contractors depending on the type of structure to be made.

Figure 5: Suez Company headquarters in Ismailia (1863), Fréret & Cie, cont.: The wooden veranda

Figure 5: Suez Company headquarters in Ismailia (1863), Fréret & Cie, cont.: The wooden veranda

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

  • 9 Camps 1861-1869, ANMT 1995 060 4390.

4In 1858, in anticipation of the beginning of the works, the Company issued its first invitations to tender for the supply of “workers cabins.” About twenty companies, mostly French, responded. Some were suppliers to the army, such as Godillot which made tents, in addition to the soldiers’ boots to which it gave its name. Unusual designs were suggested, such as the construction of huts in matting (“Guillot system, patented sgdg”) by Frédéric Latour based in Clichy. Likewise, Stierlin & Cie presented constructions in sand roofing felt, entrepreneur Émile Revest suggested using asphalt roofing paper, and the British Caoutchouc Company, Beck and Peupin, recommended its specialty, rubber.9

  • 10 Report by the chief of works, 15 November 1859, ANMT 1995 060 4390.

5The Company finally opted for wooden constructions from Victor Fréret & Cie in Fécamp (Normandy), because “it was the only one to agree to take care of the transport and mounting in situ for a fixed price [...], and in addition it was perfectly familiar with Egypt where it supplied provisions to barracks [...], and it was a shareholder in the Company.”10

  • 11 Constructions at Port Said (1904-1951), ANMT 1995 060 3153.
  • 12 Constructions at Ismailia (1885-1955). Contracts for the Company circle and office additions for Ma (...)
  • 13 Letter from the chief agent to the director, 7 February 1914, ANMT 1995 060 3230.
  • 14 Archimede Petraia created the workers’ cooperative of Port Said and the chief engineer’s mansion at (...)
  • 15 ANMT 1995 060 3139 and 1995 060 3230.

6In addition to supplying the cabins for the camp along Port Said beach and a special cabin for Ferdinand de Lesseps in Ismailia, the company was hired to make and install the imposing Oriental-style veranda on the “headquarters” at Ismailia in 1863. The letters exchanged with the Company’s engineer, James Pouchet, demonstrate how difficult it was, day by day, simply to finalize the technical details. The construction phase was also arduous, because the French company had trouble dispatching workers to assemble the prefabricated elements. This experience perhaps explains why the Company quickly stopped importing prefabricated components from Europe. After the canal was opened, carpenters and masons worked onsite using imported materials, such as Nordic wood, lime from the Teil, and tiles and bricks from Marseille. As time went on, more locally-produced materials were used: Egyptian cement bricks, rubble stone, and “Sornaga” tiles. By the early 1900s, the Company method for awarding contracts for the construction of housing and offices left little room for innovation. Specifications were prepared by the Company (which imposed materials, such as rough stone and marl produced in its own quarries).11 The contracts were then put to restricted tender or, for smaller contracts, allocated by mutual agreement. It was Company strategy to stagger its operations, to limit the size of the contracts. Most contracts were awarded to small firms, local licensees of maintenance work on the Company’s buildings, which rarely did business beyond the eastern Nile delta. J.-W. Williamson, then Marino & Bevilacqua of Ismailia,12 won many contracts, as did R. Lomolino, Figlio & Cie in Suez, which was retained without a call for tenders for a job in 1911 because, wrote the Company senior officer, “we consider from several points of view that there is an advantage in giving work to our ordinary entrepreneurs who are familiar with our methods, including the workers, among which we have eliminated the least good, are today the best in the country, and finally because, working constantly for us, they do not try to exploit us, because they know that in this case, the punishment would be the cancellation of the contract for repair, which we renew at the beginning of each year.”13 This distrust of large local entrepreneurs explains no doubt the small number of contracts awarded to the big Port Said construction firms during the inter-war period. The Italians, Archimede Petraia and Spiro Scarpa, missed out, as did Alberti, originally from Switzerland. Like Suez contractor Ugo Roccheggiani, they had all built tenements for private investors as well as large structures for the Egyptian government or foreign communities.14 Mutually agreed contracts were also used for low cost operations involving a specific construction process. For example, the stone quarrying company in Attaka, near Suez, owned by A. Bos (domiciled in Dordrecht in the Netherlands) was chosen to build tenements for indigenous workers at Port Fuad in 1919 thanks to “its interesting design for 3 blocks of 16 home units. Bos was lauded by Suez managers in 1931 for “again reducing the price of the 24 home units by adopting an economical type of construction in thin and porous concrete, common in the Netherlands and Belgium.”15

Figure 6: Duplex housing for Suez Company employees, Port Tewfik, Suez (1906), Agence Fabricius Pacha, arch.: Facade

Figure 6: Duplex housing for Suez Company employees, Port Tewfik, Suez (1906), Agence Fabricius Pacha, arch.: Facade

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

Figure 7: 16-unit Arab workers’ compound, Port Fuad, Port Said (1919), A. Bos, cont.: Overall plan and view of the facilities near completion

Figure 7: 16-unit Arab workers’ compound, Port Fuad, Port Said (1919), A. Bos, cont.: Overall plan and view of the facilities near completion

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

Figure 8: 16-unit apartment building for Suez Company employees, Port Said (c. 1919), Paul Albert, arch.; U. Griffoni, cont.: Under construction

Figure 8: 16-unit apartment building for Suez Company employees, Port Said (c. 1919), Paul Albert, arch.; U. Griffoni, cont.: Under construction

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

Figure 9 : Garden city of the Suez Company, Port-Fuad, Port-Saïd (1919-1924)

Figure 9 : Garden city of the Suez Company, Port-Fuad, Port-Saïd (1919-1924)

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

  • 16 Management committee meeting of 1 August 1907, ANMT 1995 060 3139.
  • 17 ANMT 1995 060 3153.

7When there was a restricted call to tender, the Company preferred to invite three or four European companies that were well established in Egypt, considering them capable of meeting very tight deadlines. In 1907, it consulted three companies from Cairo for the construction of villas designed in 1906 “by the staff of the architect Fabricius Pacha”:16 Garozzo & Son, Guérin, and MM. Padova & Rolin. Garozzo had built the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities of Cairo and, like Padova & Rolin (which would become Léon Rolin & Cie), a licensee of the Hennebique reinforced concrete patent in Egypt. Companies based in Alexandria were also involved in major contracts for housing: Fumaroli built 50 homes for European workers in Port Said in 1912 and then won the contract for another 60 homes in 1921. Lanari & Dessberg built 44 homes for indigenous workers in 191917 and responded to the call for tender for the construction of two apartment buildings in Port Said for canal pilots, a job Léon Rolin & Cie also submitted a bid.

Figure 10: Suez Company workshops, Port Tewfik, Suez (1930), Paul Albert, arch.; Baume & Marpent, cont.: Southern facade

Figure 10: Suez Company workshops, Port Tewfik, Suez (1930), Paul Albert, arch.; Baume & Marpent, cont.: Southern facade

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

  • 18 Bertagnol also built the Port Fuad courthouse (ANMT 1995 060 3156).
  • 19 ANMT 1995 060 3228.

8However, the choice of a major company did not guarantee good workmanship. Thus the Suez waterworks, built in 1930 by Bertagnol & Cie (later Travaux du Midi),18 based in Cairo since 1927, began to crumble within two years, and had to be consolidated. The Company granted the second contract to the local Greek company managed by Terzis and Stavropoulos, whose bid on the first job had been rejected.19 The market for industrial structures and infrastructure differed, being more open to international companies and, at times, to innovation.

  • 20 Two of the 17 other competing bids were from Société des Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée and (...)
  • 21 Site Bibalex.org (accessed on 1 Decembre 2011). Letter dated 12 October 1860, Compagnie de Suez to (...)
  • 22 N. Montel, op. cit., p. 309-310.
  • 23 François-Léonce Reynaud (1803-1880), French architect and engineer, head of the Lighthouse Service (...)
  • 24 ANMT 1995 060 4472.

9In 1869, the Company built a new lighthouse at Port-Said, to replace a wooden one dating from 1857. The contract was granted to François Coignet, who was experimenting with a new pre-cast concrete construction process that had been perfected in Saint-Denis in the Parisian suburbs.20 The Company had established ties to Coignet in 1860,21 attracted by his patents for pre-cast concrete blocks. Moreover, Coignet’s father owned the Lyon chemical company that supplied the Company’s matches! The first precast block construction was commissioned in 1864 by Lavelley, one of the subcontractors on the canal, for his own home in Port Said.22 The novelty of the technique did not inspire new architectural forms. The lighthouse erected by Coignet was a copy of one designed twenty years earlier by Léonce Reynaud23 when the Phare des Baleines at the tip of the Ile de Ré (off La Rochelle) was renovated: “We felt obliged to adopt the Phare des Baleines as a model which combines elegance with solidity; we only made minor changes: reduction in the thickness of the interior masonry by 0,20m and removal of the consoles supporting the cornices. The reduction in thickness was justified by the nature of the masonry which, comprised of seamless superimposed monolithic rings, creates a uniformity in the mass never equaled by ordinary masonry, even of cut stone.”24

10Between 1891 and 1894, the company, at the time managed by Edmond Coignet and with a new patent (masonry and iron combined), completed the harbormaster’s compound at Port Said (Charles Marette arch.). Next, Coignet was hired to build the administrative residence in Port Tewfik (Suez), as well as the employee housing on the waterfront there. But by then, pre-cast concrete already seemed old-fashioned, compared with the new patents for reinforced concrete being developed in Europe.

Figure 11: Canal buoy, Port Said (1905-1909), Baume & Marpent, cont.

Figure 11: Canal buoy, Port Said (1905-1909), Baume & Marpent, cont.

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

  • 25 Port Said, sale n° 53, ANMT 1995 060 3576.
  • 26 Charles & Auguste Bazin & Cie supplied and shipped Company worksite equipment from Marseille.
  • 27 See supra, Karima Haoudy’s contribution.

11In 1876,25 the Company commissioned its first steel constructions from European mills, such as the Bazin company’s footbridge,26 shipped from the Gustave Eiffel company in Levallois-Perret, outside Paris. The lock gates of the freshwater canal at Ismailia were supplied in 1877 by Ernest Goüin & Cie (parent of the Société de construction des Batignolles). In 1893, the Company contacted the Belgian company Baume & Marpent, which had just created a base in Egypt, to supply the steel structures for its large constructions. It commissioned reservoirs for the Port Said waterworks between 1905 and 1909, buoys for the canal entrance, and steel frames for the Sherif Basin dock hangars in Port Said. From 1913 until 1930, Baume & Marpent’s Cairo workshops forged all the steel frames for Company hangars, workshops, garages, and warehouses at Port Fuad and Port Tewfik.27

Figure 12: Port Said lighthouse (1869-1870), François Coignet, cont.: Plan, section, elevation

Figure 12: Port Said lighthouse (1869-1870), François Coignet, cont.: Plan, section, elevation

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

  • 28 ANMT 1995 060 3172.
  • 29 ANMT 1995 060 3228.

12In 1934, Company architect Paul Albert, drawing inspiration from the Port Fuad and Port Tewfik schemes, designed the workshops at Ismailia. The company Fils, Barthe-Dejean was granted the contract as the local representative of the French company Fives-Lille, which supplied the steel parts. The Company’s chief engineer, Paul Solente, justified the refusal of the more advantageous offer of the Ateliers Atmeda in Cairo because “the difference (in price) was insignificant, I considered that it was preferable not to try out local steel construction on a building this important.”28 Similarly, for the construction of its waterworks for Suez in 1910, the Company teamed the Cairo reinforced concrete builder Léon Rolin & Cie with Henri Chabal, a Parisian entrepreneur specializing in water treatment, because the chief engineer Perrier considered that they were “the only entrepreneurs capable of carrying out the works quickly while offering the best prices.”29

Figure 13: Port Said lighthouse (1869-1870), François Coignet, cont.: calculation notebook

Figure 13: Port Said lighthouse (1869-1870), François Coignet, cont.: calculation notebook

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

Suez Company constructions: Technical innovation meets architectural conformity

  • 30 ANMT 1995 060 3138 and the Archives of the Canal Authority at Ismailia: plans and photographs of th (...)
  • 31 Cairo, Archives of the Heliopolis Oases Company: plan of the Arab quarter.
  • 32 In particular, the Perret Frères church in Le Raincy (1923); Paul Tournon’s, in Aubergenville (1928 (...)
  • 33 Olivier Cinqualbre, “Le pavillon de chirurgie d’Ismaïlia. Chronique d’une modernité refusée”, in Cl (...)

13For the digging of the canal (1859-1869), the Company engaged firms that pioneered outstanding technical innovations. But relative conformity characterizes nearly a century of its urban and architectural constructions. Traditional stone housing built for European workers in the 1920s was generally inspired by pre-World War I French industrial models.30 Towns built for the indigenous population copied the community organization model tried out by the Empain company at Heliopolis, in the suburbs of Cairo.31 Large structures, like the churches erected between the two wars (Louis-Jean Hulot, arch.) adopted a highly conventional NeoRomanesque style, far from the modernist experiments being carried out in Europe.32 Coignet’s 1869 Port Said lighthouse was thus the sole construction that showed true technical progress, experimenting with a new concrete technique on a large scale. However, as noted above, its shape was inherited from older models. The audacious architectural scheme for a surgery pavilion at Ismailia Hospital, designed by the American architect Paul Nelson in association with Vladimir Bodiansky in 1934, was not built, due to cost considerations.33 By relying on local companies whose capabilities and limits it knew, the Company sought, above all, to master the profitability of its construction projects. It may have failed to support avant-garde architectural schemes, but it satisfied its shareholders. Its choices in the field of town planning were guided by the same pragmatic approach.

Figure 14: Suez Company workshops, Port Fuad, Port Said (1919), Paul Albert, arch.; Baume & Marpent, cont.: Interior metal framework and machines

Figure 14: Suez Company workshops, Port Fuad, Port Said (1919), Paul Albert, arch.; Baume & Marpent, cont.: Interior metal framework and machines

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

Figure 15: Bridge and lock upstream of Ismailia (c. 1877). Lock: Félix Paponot, cont.; Bridge: Ernest Goüin, cont. (photo by H. Arnoux)

Figure 15: Bridge and lock upstream of Ismailia (c. 1877). Lock: Félix Paponot, cont.; Bridge: Ernest Goüin, cont. (photo by H. Arnoux)

Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez

Notes

1 Juliette Gallois, “Le patrimoine archivistique de Suez”, Cahier de l’association du souvenir de Ferdinand de Lesseps et du canal de Suez, n° 1, 2009, La Compagnie de Suez et l’Égypte, p. 6-19.

2 See for example: Nathalie Montel, Le chantier du canal de Suez (1859-1869), Paris: Presses de l’ENPC/In Forma, 1998; Caroline Piquet, La Compagnie du canal de Suez. Une concession française en Égypte, Paris: PUPS, 2008; Hubert Bonin, History of the Suez Canal Company (1858-2008), Geneva: Droz, 2010.

3 Term used by the Company to designate any outside firm.

4 There were also many Egyptian companies active there, especially in the field of earthworks, but because our study focuses on European companies, we shall not present them.

5 See for example the mine towns of the western United States, or South America. John S. Garner, The Company Town. Architecture and society in the early industrial age, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

6 The freshwater canal planned at the same time as the maritime canal connected the Nile to Ismailia and served both to supply freshwater to the town and to allow navigation of small vessels.

7 Nathalie Montel, “Ismaïlia (Égypte): une ville d’ingénieurs”, Revue du monde musulman et de la Méditerranée, n° 73-74, 1994, p. 245-260. The plan was apparently the work of three engineers: Voisin, Viller, and de Montaut. As for the initial plan for Port Said, it was signed Voisin (Roubaix, Archives nationales du monde du travail (ANMT) 1995 060 4152).

8 Plan of Port Said: sketch in the July 1, 1859 report by the chief of works to the management committee.

9 Camps 1861-1869, ANMT 1995 060 4390.

10 Report by the chief of works, 15 November 1859, ANMT 1995 060 4390.

11 Constructions at Port Said (1904-1951), ANMT 1995 060 3153.

12 Constructions at Ismailia (1885-1955). Contracts for the Company circle and office additions for Marino and Bevilacqua; contracts for the circle and housing for Williamson, ANMT 1995 060 3174.

13 Letter from the chief agent to the director, 7 February 1914, ANMT 1995 060 3230.

14 Archimede Petraia created the workers’ cooperative of Port Said and the chief engineer’s mansion at Ismailia for the Company. In partnership with A. Impellizzieri, he erected 25 workers’ lodgings at Port Fuad with materials salvaged from the demolition of old workshops (1920-21). In 1914, Alberti received the contract for the Company doctor’s villa at Port Said (ANMT 1995 060 3152) and in 1948, the nursery school and beach facilities in Port Fuad (Archives of the Canal Authoritiy, Ismailia) and the renovation and extension of the school at Port Fuad (Archives of the Ploërmel Brotherhood, 404/3). He also erected the church of Port Said in 1934. The works were carried out under Company supervision but not under its responsibility (ANMT 1995 060 3152). Spiro Scarpa erected the Port Said dispensary in 1936 and then its extension in 1951 (ANMT 1995 060 3151).

15 ANMT 1995 060 3139 and 1995 060 3230.

16 Management committee meeting of 1 August 1907, ANMT 1995 060 3139.

17 ANMT 1995 060 3153.

18 Bertagnol also built the Port Fuad courthouse (ANMT 1995 060 3156).

19 ANMT 1995 060 3228.

20 Two of the 17 other competing bids were from Société des Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée and Sautter and Eiffel for iron lighthouses. Sautter retained the right to supply the electrical equipment (ANMT 1995 060 4472).

21 Site Bibalex.org (accessed on 1 Decembre 2011). Letter dated 12 October 1860, Compagnie de Suez to M. Coignet.

22 N. Montel, op. cit., p. 309-310.

23 François-Léonce Reynaud (1803-1880), French architect and engineer, head of the Lighthouse Service from 1846 to 1878.

24 ANMT 1995 060 4472.

25 Port Said, sale n° 53, ANMT 1995 060 3576.

26 Charles & Auguste Bazin & Cie supplied and shipped Company worksite equipment from Marseille.

27 See supra, Karima Haoudy’s contribution.

28 ANMT 1995 060 3172.

29 ANMT 1995 060 3228.

30 ANMT 1995 060 3138 and the Archives of the Canal Authority at Ismailia: plans and photographs of the workers’ town for the mines at Dourges, in France, were on file in the Company’s architectural office.

31 Cairo, Archives of the Heliopolis Oases Company: plan of the Arab quarter.

32 In particular, the Perret Frères church in Le Raincy (1923); Paul Tournon’s, in Aubergenville (1928); H. Petrus Berlage’s in The Hague (1927); and D. Otto Bartning’s in Cologne (1928). Published in J. G. Wattjes, Moderne Kerken in Europa, Amsterdam: Kosmos, 1931.

33 Olivier Cinqualbre, “Le pavillon de chirurgie d’Ismaïlia. Chronique d’une modernité refusée”, in Claudine Piaton (ed), L’Isthme et l’Égypte au temps de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez, 1859-1956, Cairo: IFAO, 2016.

Table des illustrations

Titre Figure 1: A 1903 map of Ismailia
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 84k
Titre Figure 2: Voisin’s preliminary draft plan for Port Said, 1860
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 108k
Titre Figure 3: Suez Company European workers’ housing, Port Tewfik, Suez (1922), Paul Albert, arch.; Almagià, cont. (photo by A. du Boistesselin)
Crédits Source: Arnaud du Boistesselin (http://apb.free.fr/​)
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 88k
Titre Figure 4: Suez Company warehouses, Port Tewfik, Suez (1930), Paul Albert, arch.; Baume & Marpent, cont. (photo by A. du Boistesselin)
Crédits Source: Arnaud du Boistesselin (http://apb.free.fr/​)
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 60k
Titre Figure 5: Suez Company headquarters in Ismailia (1863), Fréret & Cie, cont.: The wooden veranda
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 144k
Titre Figure 6: Duplex housing for Suez Company employees, Port Tewfik, Suez (1906), Agence Fabricius Pacha, arch.: Facade
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 152k
Titre Figure 7: 16-unit Arab workers’ compound, Port Fuad, Port Said (1919), A. Bos, cont.: Overall plan and view of the facilities near completion
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 140k
Titre Figure 8: 16-unit apartment building for Suez Company employees, Port Said (c. 1919), Paul Albert, arch.; U. Griffoni, cont.: Under construction
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 76k
Titre Figure 9 : Garden city of the Suez Company, Port-Fuad, Port-Saïd (1919-1924)
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 100k
Titre Figure 10: Suez Company workshops, Port Tewfik, Suez (1930), Paul Albert, arch.; Baume & Marpent, cont.: Southern facade
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 40k
Titre Figure 11: Canal buoy, Port Said (1905-1909), Baume & Marpent, cont.
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 84k
Titre Figure 12: Port Said lighthouse (1869-1870), François Coignet, cont.: Plan, section, elevation
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 216k
Titre Figure 13: Port Said lighthouse (1869-1870), François Coignet, cont.: calculation notebook
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 128k
Titre Figure 14: Suez Company workshops, Port Fuad, Port Said (1919), Paul Albert, arch.; Baume & Marpent, cont.: Interior metal framework and machines
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 152k
Titre Figure 15: Bridge and lock upstream of Ismailia (c. 1877). Lock: Félix Paponot, cont.; Bridge: Ernest Goüin, cont. (photo by H. Arnoux)
Crédits Source: Archives nationales du monde du Travail, Roubaix, Fonds de la Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez
URL http://books.openedition.org/inha/docannexe/image/12729/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 145k

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