Graduate Institute Publications https://books.openedition.org/iheid CC0 researchoffice@graduateinstitute.ch Violences politiques fondées sur le genre Ce nouveau corpus « Éclairages » est le fruit d’une mise en réseau internationale de chercheuses en sciences sociales, autour du lieu d’échanges et de réflexions VisaGe : Violences fondées sur le genre, données, santé, jeux d’échelles. L'ouvrage donne à voir dans leurs dimensions les plus actuelles et les plus localisées certaines des opérations de reconnaissance des violences vécues par les femmes les filles, par les dissident.es de l’ordre hétéro-normé, par les défenseuses des droits humains. Il rappelle l’importance, dans un contexte où les prises de conscience récentes paraissent saturer l’espace médiatique, de préserver une approche historique et une documentation de première main. Le corpus portant sur l’Amérique latine, nous avons mêlé les langues française et espagnole dans l’économie générale de l’ouvrage.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/9593 2024-01-31 Delphine Lacombe Graduate Institute Publications fr Graduate Institute Publications
Sitting in the Room with Glissant Existing in deep relation with the work of poet, philosopher, and theorist Édouard Glissant, this paper, taking as its grounding the Caribbean archipelago, explores ways of thinking/being/imagining/inhabiting the world as constituted in and through relations of multiplicity. The pages that follow take up this task through a series of philosophies co- constituted in dialogue with Glissant. Reading Glissant generatively (albeit, at times errantly) through the optic of ‘translations’, this paper takes up the ‘big’ questions confronting political philosophy, such as, ‘thinking’, ‘being’, ‘freedom’, ‘difference’, ‘space’, and ‘time’. Suggesting that these questions can be usefully approached from the tortured landscape of the Caribbean, this paper makes the case for orienting critical inquiry and political action around modalities of relationality, multiplicity, and non-systematicity. In doing so, this paper puts forward a poetic mode of critique, which, while thinking through the world- breaking historical violence instituted by coloniality, slavery, and other dispossessions, is immanently able to overcome them through an affirmative, de-territorialised, and inventive ethico-political stance.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/9205 2023-08-22 Devarya Srivastava Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Where Goes the Neighbourhood? This paper explores the intersection of urban restructuring and refugee resettlement. Centring around a case study of Buffalo, New York (NY), USA, it adds to the small but growing number of studies on resettlement in post-industrial contexts. Buffalo is experiencing economic and population growth, termed by some as the city’s renaissance (even the refugee renaissance), while others regard it as gentrification and exclusionary development. At the same time, the city has become one of the largest resettlement sites in the country. In politicians’ statements and the media, refugees are credited with being one of the key drivers for this development in the city. Through interviews with various stakeholders, I explore how these phenomena are understood. I argue that this convening of factors creates a particular conception of the figure of the resettled refugee. In Buffalo, refugees emerge as a particularly valued form of other, capable of driving development in a way that fits ideally within the narrative of ‘rust to reinvention’. As such, they become outside economic development agents, divorced from the challenges faced by struggling residents for decades. Resettlement actors navigate this conversation, recognising the challenges faced by refugees and other residents, while at the same time carrying forward prevailing narratives and frames.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/9138 2023-05-22 Chiara Moslow Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Seeking Asylum in Japan: Oral Tales of a Contemporary Other This ePaper is a historically informed analysis of the experiences of asylum seekers in Japan. It engages in ethnographic research through the first-hand accounts of 37 asylum seekers, adapted from interviews conducted by Sophia University’s Refugee Voices Japan project. The perceptions, policies, and practices related to asylum seekers are products of the systemic invisibilisation of mobility and migrants’ roles throughout Japanese history, despite their highly politicised presence in mainstream discourses. The ePaper addresses the continued absence of knowledge about asylum seekers by centralising their voices and stories, which opens a window into the complex realities of their experiences of displacement and seeking asylum in Japan. Their narratives demonstrate that the immigration regime severely restricts all aspects of their lives. Yet, asylum seekers are not passive victims ‘stuck in limbo’ but are active members of society employing various strategies in search of solutions for a less precarious life.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/9078 2023-04-11 Minami Orikasa Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Back Then It Was Culture, Now It Is Animal Torture Interrogating responses and reactions and the atmosphere of fear that my presence instigated, this paper critically examines human-elephant relations in Kerala amidst the bigger debates on animal rights, the emergence of elephants as a flagship species of conservation, and concerns regarding elephant captivity. The paper delves into how elephant handlers and owners reposition themselves and respond to activistic claims that portray human-elephant relations as torturous. Further, the study calls into question the strict nature-culture/wild-domesticated binaries posed by the activism discourse by probing the fuzzy naturecultures through which elephants and humans navigate their mundane lives. Moving forward, the research proposes that humans and elephants are attuned and entangled through nuanced phenomenological alignments that the normative moral frameworks on elephant captivity seem to overlook.  Deploying various disciplinary and theoretical frameworks, this paper argues that incorporating the ethical turn in anthropology can yield incisive perspectives in interspecies studies.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/9020 2023-03-16 Anu Karippal Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Exploring the overshadowed streams of the Red Cross Movement This ePaper explores the endeavours and motivations of the leading figures of the Japanese Red Cross Society, which forms the streams of the Red Cross Movement that get overshadowed in the Eurocentric narrative of its history. Using various primary sources from archives and studying the historical context of the time, the paper highlights how the main protagonists with similar backgrounds to the founders of the International Committee of the Red Cross proactively sought to establish and develop the movement both at the national and international level from 1867 to 1919. Moreover, a close examination of their backgrounds as well as their thoughts as expressed in their writings suggests that their motivations to engage in Red Cross work were multiple and in part, if not entirely, shaped by various needs to fulfil their own desire and sense of obligation.

 

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8953 2023-02-22 Mayuka Tamura Miyagawa Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
The Straits Chinese Between Empires This ePaper investigates the Straits Chinese community and their positioning relative to the British Empire and the Chinese Empire around 1900. It studies their responses to and interactions with the transition from a world of empires to a world of nation-states. The Straits Chinese are framed as a cosmopolitan community in a cosmopolitan city who played an important role in the reconfiguration of imperial citizenship and the deterritorialisation of China. Through their own and others’ adoption of racial discourses, they found themselves in a double bind, not quite Chinese and not quite British. This shaped their encounter with early Chinese nationalism. Consequently, this paper disrupts the teleology of decolonisation and demonstrates how the transformations taking place in the international system in the early twentieth century relegated certain communities to the margins by virtue of their ‘in-between’ position.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8895 2022-04-05 Christian Jones Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
‘Environmental Childlessness?’ Although voluntary childlessness based on environmental concerns is increasingly in evidence, the relationship between environmental crises and reproductive intentions has not yet significantly entered academic debate. Nonetheless, it articulates concrete ways in which the perception of environmental crises (re)shapes people’s lives in western societies. In an attempt to explore human reproduction as a site of environmental interrogations, this research asks how environmental degradation is (re)shaping reproductive intentions and what the pathway is towards ‘environmental childlessness’. Mobilising different scholarship and ethnographic interviews, I propose that the pathway towards ‘environmental childlessness’ is informed by profound uncertainties about the future, ethical interrogations, and persistent pronatalism. More than an over-simplifying update of neo-Malthusian and apocalyptic thinking, interrogations of parenthood express a broader rejection of current capitalist ways of living. Furthermore, rather than signalling a pessimistic disengagement from the future, ‘environmental childlessness’ appears to be a bid to attain a ‘meaningful’ life.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8842 2022-02-21 Mathilde Krähenbühl Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
States’ Compliance to International Treaties This research analyzes mechanisms fostering states’ compliance to international treaties. It argues that a treaty accountability network surrounds states when they commit to an international covenant and that actors belonging to the network have leverage on states to hold them accountable. This study is particularly interested in the role NGOs and IOs play as actors within this network. It identifies two main ways for holding states accountable: direct and indirect. Indirect accountability is conceptualized as mechanisms where aid recipients are empowered by organizations and will henceforth hold their states accountable. This research provides a small-N case-study on the UNCRC, maps the treaty accountability network surrounding it, identifies accountability mechanisms developed by one OI (UNICEF) and one NGO (Terre des Hommes Suisse) and examines pathways used by one state (Switzerland).

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8773 2022-02-01 Louis Bodmer Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Religious Polarization and Under-Supply of Public Goods Social heterogeneity results in a lower supply of public goods because of the conflict, diverse preferences and political insecurity that predominate in socially heterogeneous contexts. Despite its multiple stratifications along religious, caste and linguistic lines, India has scarce academic research on the impact of social heterogeneityon economic outcomes. I study the impact of religious polarization, measured through religious heterogeneity, on the supply of public goods at the sub-district level in India. I use anovel fixed effects panel and spatial data approach to establish this relationship and find a significant negative impact of religious polarization on public goods provision.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8722 2022-01-14 Pulkit Bajpai Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Climate Technologies as Emergency Solutions This paper discusses large-scale technologies, which are proposed as emergency solutions for avoiding catastrophic climate change. Their use is highly controversial, notably because of risks of large-scale environmental damage and the danger of distracting from other climate policies. Some of these technologies are known as geoengineering or climate engineering. This paper examines stratospheric aerosol injection, ocean fertilisation, and artificial islands as case studies. As the analysis of the rules of international law relevant to these three technologies shows, international law takes on different and partly conflicting roles towards such technologies. Nonetheless, a strong precautionary legal core opposing risky technological endeavours can be identified. However, there is a danger of this precautionary stance of international law being diluted by research and new regulation that make emergency technologies appear as viable policy options. International law does not currently safeguard against the promise of such technologies distracting from mitigation and adaptation.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8557 2022-01-07 Pascal Blickle Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
The Haralds of Hydrogen This paper analyses membership data from 39 hydrogen associations to understand which economic sectors support the hydrogen transition in Europe, and why. It finds support from manufacturers of motor vehicles, chemicals, (electronic and electrical) machinery, electricity and gas companies, companies working in transport and storage (including ports), oil and gas companies, and many professional, scientific, and technical companies. Chemicals manufacturers and natural gas utilities stand out in their interest, as well as SMEs working in the value chain of hydrogen and fuel cell products. Registrations are clustered in the North Sea Region and the Iberian Peninsula, with many fewer registrations in Italy and Eastern Europe (including Russia). Motives for supporting the hydrogen transition include sales and market growth, rising CO2 emissions costs, regulatory and public pressure to decarbonise, avoiding stranded assets, diversification, investor concerns about the long-term profitability of carbon-intensive sectors, and sector-specific concerns.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8612 2022-01-07 Floris Jacobus Adrianus de Klerk Wolters Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
A Rise in Humanity The ePaper presents A Rise in Humanity, the opening lecture of the academic year 2021–2022 delivered by Felwine Sarr at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva. In his lecture, Mr Sarr explains how societies need to take ownership of their present and future, and proposes paths to reengage at a collective level in order to fill them with meaning.

The lecture is preceded by a think piece in which Marie-Laure Salles, Director of the Graduate Institute, urges us to collectively work towards the re-enchanting of our humanity – the categorical imperative of our times. It is followed by an interview in which Felwine Sarr shares his thoughts with two young researchers on how to rethink the economy.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8510 2021-12-13 Felwine Sarr Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Effervescences féministes Dans un contexte de crise de la reproduction sociale, d'appauvrissement et d’inégalités croissantes, des myriades d'initiatives menées par des femmes émergent, se connectent et se transforment en force politique. Souvent en marge des circuits officiels, elles agissent à bas bruit mais elles fourmillent, essaiment, bouillonnent. Elles réorganisent et politisent la reproduction sociale, elles redéfinissent le sens du travail et de la valeur, elles explorent de nouvelles façons de faire de l'économie et de la politique, elles construisent des rapports sociaux solidaires et luttent contre leur subordination et pour leurs droits. Ce faisant, elles expriment des pratiques de résistance et agissent pour un changement social féministeet durable.

Ce livre explore des pratiques menées par des groupes de femmes dans six régionsd’Amérique latine et d’Inde, en éclairant leurs luttes multiples, leurs fragilités mais aussi leurs forces et leurs réalisations. Il innove en proposant une analyse féministe qui renouvelle en profondeur les perspectives sur l’économie solidaire. Il revisite les débats empiriques et théoriques, mais aussi politiques, sur la reproduction sociale.  Repenser la valeur et réorganiser la reproduction sociale dans une perspective solidaire se révèle en effet incontournable pour lutter contre les effets destructeurs et déshumanisants du système capitaliste global patriarcal.

En ces temps de profonds bouleversements et d’incertitudes, ce livre offre une lueur d'espoir face aux crises écologique, économique, sociale et démocratique qui secouent l’ensemble de la planète.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8390 2021-07-20 Christine Verschuur, Isabelle Guérin et Isabelle Hillenkamp Graduate Institute Publications fr Graduate Institute Publications
Feminization and Stigmatization of Infertility in Malawi The World Health Organization defines infertility as the inability to conceive after 12 months of regular and unprotected sex (WHO, 1975). Despite research that has shown that 50 per cent of infertility cases can be attributed to the male partner, in many societies the blame is cast on the woman, her voice silenced, and any action taken by the man deemed justifiable. Infertility affects millions of people across Sub-Saharan Africa, and in a socio-cultural context where children are valued as a source of wealth for the family, perceived infertility can result in neglect, abuse, marital instability, banishment, discrimination and social stigma (Barden-O’Fallon, 2005). The topic of infertility is often considered to be a taboo subject, with women being accused of witchcraft, prior abortions or prostitution. Malawi is a small country in Central-East Africa, bordered by Tanzania and Mozambique, with a population of 18 million, 85 percent of which resides in rural areas. Similarly to other countries in the region, fertility is highly desired and valued. Malawi’s total fertility rate (TFR) has declined over the years, but still sits relatively high, at 5.49 children per woman as of 2017 (Index Mundi, 2018). In demographic discourse, this declining fertility rate is often celebrated as a sign of the country moving towards a more industrialized economic system. However, this rhetoric on demographic transition invisibilizes the social and psychological consequences of infertility, experienced in varying contexts. This thesis will examine the social stigmatization and feminization of infertility in Malawi, and specifically how stigma is understood and managed in the context of socio-cultural perceptions of infertility, within the local ecology of Malawi, as well as its effect on lived experiences and gender identities. Data was collected from four participant groups – infertile women, religious leaders, health workers, and community members through interviews, discussion groups, and informal conversation. The empirical findings demonstrate that infertility does not exist solely as a biological or physiological condition, requiring a biomedical approach, but rather encompasses emotional, social, cultural, religious and economic spheres. As such, the approach to infertility response must also include these spheres, focusing not only on preventive measures but also addressing stigma, patriarchal structures, gender inequality, poverty, and sexual and reproductive health knowledge.

 

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/7597 2021-06-21 Boetumelo Julianne Nyasulu Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Stratified Belonging, Layered Subjectivities Recent studies show that immigration remains a top concern for Germans, with 46% expressing doubts that refugees can successfully integrate into German society. But what determines the successful integration of refugees? And what shapes their willingness to integrate into German society? Through qualitative interviews with both refugees and migrants, I investigate the relationship between their experience with discrimination and integration in Berlin. Importantly, I demonstrate how one’s appearance, ethnicity, religion, and so forth, can influence one’s experience with discrimination and integration trajectory; and through the multiple subjectivities I uncover, I show how complex the project of integration actually is. Additionally, by juxtaposing the experiences of post-2015 refugees with those of earlier Turkish and Arab immigrants, I highlight how the poor integration of earlier immigrants can adversely affect the integration of subsequent immigrants. Taken together, these insights challenge the image of Berlin as a cosmopolitan city.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8207 2021-04-08 Zong Yao Edison Yap Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Climate-Related Financial Risks for Kenyan Banks This study analyses the climate risk exposure of Kenyan banks given the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions represented by their sectoral loan composition and their relative funding of climate risk through their loan portfolios. This is achieved by constructing two climate-relevant indices: Emissions Exposure (EEi), a measure of a bank’s climate risk exposure through its loan portfolio, and Emissions Funding (EFi), a measure of how much of the climate risk a bank funds through its lending relative to other banks and thus a measure of climate risk importance for each bank. Results from the emissions index show that the banks, with the exception of an outlier, have fairly similar exposure to climate risk through their loan portfolio, given the GHG emissions represented by their sectoral lending. On the funding index, banks have differentiated funding of climate risk through their lending that is fairly proportional to their market shares of gross loans. Thus, larger (smaller) banks have higher (lower) funding of climate-related risk. These two complementary indices provide a first set of quantitative climate-related financial disclosures that are comparable across Kenyan banks. Secondly, the results of this analysis provide decision-useful information for the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) and other financial regulators to formulate macroeconomic and financial policies that would seek to promote low-carbon transition via the banking industry as a key financial sub-sector. Lastly, the analysis provides a template for industry-wide assessment of climate-related risk for banks in other emerging economies and the approach used for mapping national GHG emissions to bank lending sectors is also a key contribution to the literature on quantifying climate risks for the financial sector.

The winning thesis of the 2020 Rudi Dornbusch Prize in International Economics. We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8197 2021-04-02 Reuben Muhindi Wambui Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
From WIPO to Vale do Ribeira and Back Vale do Ribeira, the largest reserve of Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil, is home to quilombola and caiçara communities. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), in Geneva, is responsible for regulating intellectual property rights. What can possibly connect these places? In both, narratives around the meaning of indigenous knowledges and their protection are being constructed and negotiated. Aiming to produce an ethnography of global connection, this work looks at (dis)connections between these two spaces. Through in-depth interviews and participant observation, it analyzes the creation of legal categories related to indigenous peoples and local communities in the international arena, as well as at the points of articulation between the international and the local realm. The analysis demonstrates how articulation and dispossession have been key to creating the discussion in both spheres. The conclusion indicates that the narrative of protection of indigenous knowledge through intellectual property rights emerges through friction and is just one narrative among others.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8182 2021-03-23 Gabriela Balvedi Pimentel Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Putting the Ontological Back into Ontological Security This study sets out to do two things. Firstly, it seeks to contribute to the burgeoning literature on ontological security in International Relations (IR)... Secondly, I hope to say something about Indian nationalism by making the case for Bangladesh’s importance in the project of nation-curation. I show how the uncodability of the Bangladeshi migrant and the Indian citizen presents an ontological threat to the Indian nation, portending an implosion of selfhood by undermining claims to an ontic reality for something called the Indian nation...

 

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8172 2021-03-22 Meredydd Rix Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Too Complex or Too Ambitious? This ePaper looks at the recent politics of EU trade, and specifically at the political hurdles characterising the enforcement of free trade agreements (FTAs) negotiated by the European Commission. It argues that civil society advocacy groups have played a key, yet undertheorised, role in accounting for the recent politicisation of a number of EU FTAs, which has often translated into obstacles to ratification. The TTIP, the CETA, and the EU-Mercosur FTA constitute relevant examples. The analysis privileges a Commission standpoint, conceiving ratification hurdles as public-management issues tackled by Brussels in view of rescuing its trade-policy mandate from domestic vetoes. We argue that the Commission is particularly compelled to implement FTA reviews and safeguards when advocacy concerns are endorsed by official-level policy actors like the European Parliament, enjoying ultimate veto powers. In a final step, the research also enquires into the narrower reality of mixed FTAs, focusing on the case study of the CETA. In this regard, it suggests that prolonged national-level ratification poses no extraordinary obstacle to the Commission, as treaty enforcement is aided by lock-in dynamics involving both official-level and civil-society veto players – even in the absence of full de jure ratification. We conclude that, while the above ratification obstacles have been addressed by the Commission on an ad hoc basis, as contingent policy issues, their prolonged occurrence suggests that they will need to be tackled more systematically in the future. This will require operating at the level of treaty-design, by addressing pressing concerns like trade and sustainable development more thoroughly and bindingly ahead of concluding negotiations – in view of preventing otherwise inescapable enforcement hurdles.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8097 2021-02-09 Leopoldo Biffi Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Narrations of Belonging and Unbelonging of Refugee Women in Geneva The present ePaper tries to apprehend how refugee women in Geneva experience their integration journeys, understood as feelings of un/belonging. This study is based on two main beliefs. First, processes of immigrant integration must be understood not solely in terms of economic or social integration but also in terms of the individual’s feeling of well-being and belonging. This means that individual perception is the main gateway into understanding how an individual can feel integrated into a new society. Second, individual identities and characteristics, such as gender, class, religion, etc., are crucial when considering social processes (following the intersectional concept in gender studies). Considering the results of this study, this thesis develops our understanding of the main institutional and social constraints experienced by refugee women in Geneva. It then addresses the experiences of inclusion/exclusion of three clusters of women, considering their various identities and characteristics. Finally, it examines two main identity strategies used by the women to make sense of their new lives.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/8059 2021-01-27 Estelle Gagnebin Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Indonésie : l'envol mouvementé du Garuda Avec plus de 270 millions d’habitants, l’Indonésie est le quatrième pays le plus peuplé de la planète. Sur le plan politique, c’est aussi la troisième plus grande démocratie du monde et la seule et unique à ce jour dans le monde musulman auquel elle appartient et dont elle compte le plus de fidèles sur terre. Enfin, au niveau économique, elle regorge de ressources naturelles et fait  partie du groupe des principaux pays émergents sur la scène internationale. Malgré cela, elle reste largement ignorée et est sûrement le plus méconnu des membres majeurs du concert des nations.

Cet ouvrage a précisément pour objectif premier de contribuer à combler cette lacune dans une littérature française encore assez mince sur ce pays majeur. Après avoir dressé le cadre naturel particulier du plus grand archipel volcanique du monde, évoqué sa diversité humaine et son riche passé précolonial puis évalué le poids décisif de sa longue et dure colonisation, il se concentrera sur l’histoire de son développement. L’analyse proposée couvrira donc surtout les 75 années écoulées depuis la proclamation de l’indépendance de l’Indonésie, en août 1945, jusqu’à aujourd’hui, où le pays est confronté comme tous les autres aux ravages de la pandémie de COVID-19, en examinant les différentes phases du ce parcours de développement mouvementé.

Toutefois, ce livre se fixe un second objectif plus ambitieux : permettre au lecteur, à travers l’étude de cas emblématique indonésien, de mieux comprendre la dynamique du développement, ce processus de changement global qui se solde par la transformation économique, sociale, politique et même culturelle d’un pays. La nature emblématique du cas examiné résulte non seulement du fait que le pays, parti de très bas, a eu un certain succès en matière de développement, mais est aussi lié à la relation complexe et ambiguë entretenue par ce dernier avec la dictature et la démocratie, les deux régimes politiques qu’il a connu depuis son indépendance. L’analyse de ce lien constituera de fait le fil rouge de l’ouvrage, avec pour ambition de clarifier la question classique consistant à savoir lequel des deux régimes en question, de la dictature ou de la démocratie, à été le plus favorable ou nocif pour le développement de l’Indonésie.

Note sur la photo de couverture :

La photo d’une affiche murale de propagande politique représentant l’actuel président de l’Indonésie Joko « Jokowi » Widodo à bicyclette a été prise par l’auteur à l’aéroport Sentani de Jayapura, capitale de la province de Papua, le 18 septembre 2018. Elle essaye bien évidemment de donner l’image d’un homme du peuple simple et modeste conduisant en souriant son pays sur la voie du développement vers un avenir plus prospère.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/7876 2021-01-19 Jean-Luc Maurer Graduate Institute Publications fr Graduate Institute Publications
The Effect of Foreign Aid on Sub-national Development This ePaper investigates the non-linear effects of geo-referenced World Bank aid projects on economic development at the sub-national level, measured as night-time luminosity. The data framework is based on a grid cell structure at a 0.5 x 0.5 decimal degree resolution, covering approximately 10,600 grid cells across 54 African countries, over the period of 1992 to 2014. This approach addresses endogeneity concerns associated with sample selection and reverse causality. Using a fixed effects quantile regression approach, I estimate the impact of foreign aid at distinct levels of development within countries. Overall, the results suggest a positive and statistically significant effect of aid on night-time luminosity, with the largest impact observed within relatively poorer grid cells. In addition, there is evidence of spill-over aid effects from neighbouring grid cells. These findings are however sensitive to different model specifications and variable transformations.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/7797 2020-09-07 Dumebi Ochem Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Who Cares? Gender gaps present themselves in a number of different ways across labour markets, consistently to the detriment of females. Gender gaps are well documented in the returns to capital of microenterprises, which provide substantial employment opportunities for those in low- and middle-income countries. The puzzle for academics and policymakers concerned with issues of gender, labour and development is to understand why these gender gaps exist across microenterprises and what can be done to address them. This ePaper seeks to contribute to these academic and policy debates, using a feminist framework to explore unpaid care and domestic work as one potential explanatory factor. Analyses of primary data collected from women micro-entrepreneurs in Uganda suggest that unpaid care and domestic work is a significant constraint to female microenterprise development. The key implication of this finding is that gender gaps in microenterprise could potentially be narrowed by addressing gender inequality in unpaid work. This requires investing in social and physical infrastructure to reduce the total time spent on unpaid work, and addressing the social norms around its gendered distribution – redistributing unpaid work more equitably between males and females.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/7718 2020-08-28 Aatif Somji Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
The Drama of Humanitarian Intervention This paper looks at the contentious debate surrounding humanitarian intervention through a critical, narratological lens. By questioning the roles cast and identities constituted, in what could be compared to a theatrical drama, focus is given to the unreliable narration of the most powerful characters on the international stage – from the US to the UN – and its impact on the political and legal stances taken in various contexts. On a meta-level, it examines the conditions that enable this unreliable narration, by pointing out a problematic flexibility owing to the paradoxes and conflation entrenched in human rights rhetoric; what some call a budding ‘humanity’s law’. Attention is meant to be drawn to the power of mental imagery conjured up by intervention narratives, based on the story of saving innocents, as embodiments of humanity. The goal is to foster self-reflection among readers working in humanitarian intervention, within the epistemic community of international lawyers, and beyond.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/7767 2020-08-28 Natalie Joy Marrer Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Vulnerable Solidarities: Identity, Spatiality and the Contentious Politics of Migration Although there has been a wide range of political responses to migration in Europe, scholarly analyses have shown that state and humanitarian responses have regardless done little to foster the integration of mobile people into host societies, resulting instead in a politics of exclusion. Resistance to such policies has taken the form of independent camps and solidary spaces. Although most analyses of informal camps agree on their emancipatory potential, the same studies have revealed that these realities can also reproduce existing relations of power. Are solidary spaces conducive to participatory politics? If so, how do activists and migrants construct their own identities in the struggle, and how do they translate them into practice? What power dynamics are re-inscribed in their action? My research will attempt to answer these questions through a case study of Ventimiglia, a town at the Franco-Italian border, and the waves of solidarity activism that have taken place there from 2015 to the present.

We extend our heartfelt thanks to the Vahabzadeh Foundation for financially supporting the publication of best works by young researchers of the Graduate Institute, giving a priority to those who have been awarded academic prizes for their master’s dissertations.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/7658 2020-06-30 Anna Finiguerra Graduate Institute Publications en Graduate Institute Publications
Savoirs féministes au Sud Le regard colonial sur la construction de la « femme du Tiers-monde » a été dénoncé depuis longtemps par des chercheures féministes du Sud et leur contribution au renouvellement de la pensée critique sur la mondialisation est maintenant reconnue. Cependant, l’économie globale de la connaissance, y compris dans les études féministes, continue de privilégier des concepts et des théories développées au Nord, sans reconnaître justement les contributions théoriques des Suds.

Cet ouvrage propose de présenter des regards critiques sur la production et la circulation de connaissances dans le domaine des études féministes et de genre à partir des perspectives du Sud global. Il expose des analyses critiques de l’économie globale de la connaissance, discute de la colonialité du pouvoir et des savoirs, des épistémologies féministes et des méthodologies que la recherche féministe privilégie. Il explore le champ social des expertes en genre à partir d’analyses dans différents contextes. Il aborde enfin des savoirs locaux des femmes et des féministes et comment ceux-ci renouvellent l’analyse critique de programmes de « développement ». Les textes ici réunis témoignent de la richesse des apports du Sud global au champ des savoirs féministes dans son ensemble, tant au niveau des théories qu’au niveau des pratiques. Ils remettent en question l’hégémonie des savoirs occidentaux. Cet effort de reconnaissance des savoirs « des autres » féministes proposée par cette collection, demande à être amplifié, pour transformer les rapports de genre, de classe, de race et géopolitiques inégaux et construire un monde soucieux de justice sociale et de genre.

Les Cahiers genre et développement constituent une collection d’ouvrages portant chacun sur une problématique spécifique. Ils réunissent des articles et textes de référence qui permettent de mieux faire connaître l’outil d’analyse qu’est le genre, de croiser les théories féministes avec les théories du développement, les théories et pratiques dans le domaine du genre qui se déploient à partir du Sud global. Ils proposent un choix de documents, accessibles et en langue française, dans le champ des études genre et développement.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/7378 2020-04-17 Christine Verschuur Graduate Institute Publications fr Graduate Institute Publications
Expertes en genre et connaissances féministes sur le développement Depuis la quatrième Conférence mondiale sur les femmes à Beijing, on observe une forte augmentation du nombre de personnes expertes en genre. Celles-ci circulent, tout comme les pratiques, les idées, les théories et les textes féministes qui voyagent sont interprétés, resignifiés. Des inégalités existent dans les processus d’élaboration, la circulation et la traduction des savoirs. Le champ social constitué par les expertes en genre est ainsi traversé par des rapports de pouvoir.

La notion de colonialité du pouvoir et des savoirs permet d’interroger l’hégémonie et l’autorité universelle des discours et des savoirs occidentaux. Les contributions des études féministes pour revisiter le développement sont soulignées dans cet ouvrage. Ces apports, énoncés depuis diverses perspectives, s’inscrivent dans des espaces de contestation de l’ordre mondial, sont nourris de la prise de conscience des multiples rapports de domination et de l’émergence de nouveaux mouvements sociaux. Ils participent d’un processus de décolonisation de la pensée féministe.

Avec la collection « Genre et développement. Rencontres », nous poursuivons le dialogue de savoirs sur les questions féministes et de genre, la construction d’alliances et de ponts entre chercheur-es, organisations féministes et de recherche, ONG, organisations de coopération, expertes, aux Nords et aux Suds. Les textes, écrits par des chercheur-es ou personnes actives dans ces initiatives sont publiés dans leur langue originale.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/6895 2020-01-24 Christine Verschuur Graduate Institute Publications fr Graduate Institute Publications
Genre et économie solidaire, des croisements nécessaires Cantines populaires, crèches communautaires, jardins de quartier, monnaies locales, groupes de production artisanale, de consommation directe, d'entraide, réseaux d'échange de savoirs, les initiatives fondées sur les solidarités fourmillent dans le monde. Les travailleurs précaires, les populations de classe populaire, noires, indigènes, et parmi elles en particulier les femmes, y sont surreprésentés. Expression des rapports sociaux de sexe et de production, ces collectifs sont aussi des espaces où, sous certaines conditions, le pouvoir peut être renégocié et où des alternatives, parfois ambivalentes, s'amorcent.

Comment saisir le potentiel de ces initiatives sans perdre de vue les rapports sociaux dans lesquels elles se situent ? Quels sont les apports mutuels des études féministes et de l'économie solidaire ? A quelles conditions, finalement, l'économie solidaire peut-elle être transformatrice et féministe ?

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/6900 2020-01-24 Christine Verschuur, Isabelle Guérin et Isabelle Hillenkamp Graduate Institute Publications fr Graduate Institute Publications
Genre, changements agraires et alimentation Trop souvent, la faim est attribuée à la démographie, au manque de pluies, et à l’agriculture « rudimentaire » pratiquée par les petits paysans des pays du Sud. Il est pourtant reconnu depuis longtemps, dans la littérature spécialisée, que le déficit alimentaire est en grande partie imputable aux transformations des systèmes agraires liées au marché des produits agricoles. Le titre d’un ouvrage paru lors de la grande famine de 1972 au Sahel était évocateur : Qui se nourrit de la famine en Afrique ? Quarante ans ont passé, les disettes se répètent.

La petite production paysanne continue d’être ignorée, dévalorisée et peu appuyée par les politiques publiques (Meillassoux et Verschuur 1985, également dans le présent ouvrage) et les femmes insérées dans cette forme de production le sont encore plus. À considérer « le » paysan comme neutre, les femmes de paysans sont ignorées, alors qu’elles travaillent durement sur les champs familiaux mais aussi comme travailleuses agricoles, commercialisent des denrées agricoles et des produits transformés, s’impliquent dans des luttes et contribuent aux changements agraires.

Cet ouvrage propose de donner matière à réfléchir sur les processus d’appauvrissement des paysannes et paysans et sur la persistance de la faim dans le monde.

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https://books.openedition.org/iheid/5221 2018-05-08 Christine Verschuur Graduate Institute Publications fr Graduate Institute Publications