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Exporting Legality

Mariya Tait Slys


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Primary Sources


1Capitulations avec la France. En date du 28 Mai 1740 (4 Rébi-ul-Eicel 1153). L’Empereur Sultan Mahmoud; fils du du Sultan Moustapha toujours victorieux. In: Noradounghian, Gabriel. Recueil d’Actes Internationaux de l’Empire Ottoman: 1300–1789. Vol. 1. Paris: F. Pichon, 1897 : 277, N. 32. Available at:​details/​recueildactesin03turkgoog.

2Capitulations commerciales avec le Danemark. Fait à Constantinople le 14 Octobre 1740. (15 Zilkadè 1170). In: Noradounghian, Gabriel. Recueil d’Actes Internationaux de l’Empire Ottoman: 1300–1789. Vol. 1. Paris : F. Pichon, 1897: 308, N. 34. Available at:​details/​recueildactesin03turkgoog.

3Capitulations ou traité d’amitié et de commerce avec la Prusse. Fait à Constantinople le 23 Mars 1761 (24 Zilhidjê 1174). In: Noradounghian, Gabriel. Recueil d’Actes Internationaux de l’Empire Ottoman: 1300–1789. Vol. 1. Paris : F. Pichon, 1897: 315. N. 35. Available at:​details/​recueildactesin03turkgoog.

4Convention (IV) Respecting Conditions of Residence and Business and Jurisdiction. The British Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Roumania and the Serb-Croat-Slovène State, of the one part, And Turkey, of the other part. Done at Lausanne, the 24th July, 1923. Available at:​chapter-i_-conditions-of-residence-and-business.en.mfa.

5General Regulations, Under Which The British Trade Is To Be Conducted At The Five Ports Of Canton, Amoy, Fuchow, Ningpo, And Shanghai, 1843. In : Inspector General of Customs. Treaties, Conventions, etc., between China and Foreign States. Vol. 1. Shanghai: Statistical Department of the Inspectorate General of Customs, 1917: 338. Available at:​details/​treatiesconvent01chin.

6Premières Capitulations avec la France, entre Soliman 1er et François Ier. Fait à Constantinople en date de Février 1535 (25 Chatan 941). In: Noradounghian, Gabriel. Recueil d’Actes Internationaux de l’Empire Ottoman, Vol. I. Paris : F. Pichon, 1897: 83. Available at:​details/​recueildactesin03turkgoog.

7Sino-British Treaty for the Abolition of Extraterritoriality and Related Rights in China. Signed in Chongqing, January 11, 1943. In Foreign Affairs Ministry, Zhongwai tiaoyue jibian: 589–594.

8Supplementary Treaty Signed By Their Excellences Sir Henry Pottinger And Ki Ying Respectively, On The Part Of The Sovereigns Of Great Britain And China, At The Bogue, 8th October 1843. In : Inspector General of Customs. Treaties, Conventions, etc., between China and Foreign States. Vol. 1. Shanghai: Statistical Department of the Inspectorate General of Customs, 1917: 393. Available at:​details/​treatiesconvent01chin.

9The Mackay Treaty between China and Great Britain, 1902. In: Inspector General of Customs. Treaties, Conventions, etc., between China and Foreign States. Vol. 1. Shanghai: Statistical Department of the Inspectorate General of Customs, 1917: 557. Available at:​details/​treatiesconvent01chin.

10Traité de Paix Signé a Paris le 30 Mars 1856 entre la Sardaigne, l’Autriche, la France, le Royaume Uni de la Grande Bretagne et d’Irlande, la Prusse, la Russie et la Turquie avec les Conventions qui en Font Partie, les Protocoles de la Conference et la Declaration sur les Droits Maritimes en Temps de Guerre.Turin: Imprimerie Royale, 1856.

11Treaty Between The United States And China For The Relinquishment Of Extraterritorial Rights In China And The Regulation Of Related Matters. Signed in Washington, January 11, 1943. In Foreign Affairs Ministry, Zhongwai tiaoyue jibian: 660.

12Treaty of Kiakhta of 1727, between China and the Russian Empire.

13Treaty of Munster and Treaty of Osnabruck (jointly known as Treaty of Westphalia). Concluded at Osnabruck and at Munster the 10 October 1648. Available at:​multilaterals/​texts/​historical/​westphalia.txt.

14Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking), between China and Great Britain. Ratifications exchanged at Hong Kong, 26th June 1843.In: Inspector General of Customs. Treaties, Conventions, etc., between China and Foreign States. Vol. 1. Shanghai: Statistical Department of the Inspectorate General of Customs, 1917: 351. Available at:​details/​treatiesconvent01chin.

15Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689, between China and the Russian Empire.

16Treaty Of Peace With Turkey Signed At Lausanne July 24, 1923; The Convention Respecting The Regime Of The Straits And Other Instruments Signed At Lausanne. The British Empire, France, Italy, Japan, Greece, Roumania And The Serb-Croat-Slovene State, of the one Part, and Turkey, of the other part. Done at Lausanne, the 24th July, 1923. Available at:​government/​un/​20040205e.html.

17Treaty of Tianjin, between China and Great Britain. Concluded on 26 June 1858. In: Inspector General of Customs. Treaties, Conventions, etc., between China and Foreign States. Vol. 1. Shanghai: Statistical Department of the Inspectorate General of Customs, 1917: 404. Available at:​details/​treatiesconvent01chin.

18Treaty of Wang–Hea Between the United States and the The Ta-Tsing Empire, 1844. In: Inspector General of Customs. Treaties, Conventions, etc., between China and Foreign States. Vol. 1. Shanghai: Statistical Department of the Inspectorate General of Customs, 1917: 393. Available at:​details/​treatiesconvent01chin.

19Treaty of Whampoa between France and China, signed on 24 October 1844. In: Inspector General of Customs. Treaties, Conventions, etc., between China and Foreign States. Vol. 1. Shanghai: Statistical Department of the Inspectorate General of Customs, 1917: 785. Available at:​details/​treatiesconvent01chin.

Diplomatic Correspondence

20Brenan’s Minute on British and American Policy towards China. December I942, FO 371/31627.

21Collected diplomatic documents relating to the outbreak of the European War. Great Britain. Foreign Office. London: H.M. Stationery Office, Harrison and Sons Printers, 1915: 1092, No. 43.

22Documents Diplomatiques, Conférence de Lausanne. Vol. 1. (Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1923).

23Lausanne Conference on Near Eastern Affairs, 1922–1923: Records of Proceedings and Draft Terms of Peace. London: H.M.S.O., – Turkey; no. 1 (1923).

24R. J. Forrest’s second memorandum to Consul Charles A. Winchester (November 1868). In: Foreign Office of Great Britain, Correspondence: 169.

25Report from Hornby to Earl of Malmesbury. London: National Archives FO 881/981 (1858: 27).

26The Secretary of the State to the Ambassador in the United Kingdom (Winant). Washington, August 27, 1942. In: Foreign Relations of the United States. Diplomatic Papers. Volume China (1942): 282–285. Available at:​cgi-bin/​FRUS/​FRUS-idx?type=header&id=FRUS.FRUS1942China&q1=1942%20China.

Case law

27Apollodorus v. Callipus, in Demosthenes, Speech n. 56. 370 B.C.

28Rex v. Lawson decided on appeal in His British Majesty’s Supreme Court for the Dominions of the Sublime Ottoman Porte, February 19, 1912.

29The Exchange v. McFaddon - 11 U.S. 116 (1812).

30The Lady Hughes Case, recorded by Select Committee of the British East India Company to Canton, 1784.

Other Relevant Instruments

31Act of the British Parliament to regulate the Trade to China and India, 28 August 1833. In British and Foreign State Papers 1832–1833. H.M. Stationery Office, 1836.

32Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations. Report of the Fifth Annual Conference Held at Antwerp. 30 August to 3 September 1877. London: William Clowes and Sons, 1878.

33Association for the Reform and Codification of the Law of Nations. Report of the Seventh Annual Conference held at the Guildhall, London. 11–16 August 1879. London: William Clowes and Sons, 1880.

34Conclusions of the work of the Study Group on the Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law. Adopted by the International Law Commission at its Fifty-eighth session, finalized by M. Koskenniemi, A/CN.4/L.682, 13 April 2006. At​ilc/​texts/​instruments/​english/​draft%20articles/​1_9_2006.pdf.

35Hansard, Thomas Carson. The parliamentary debates. 3rd ser., Vol. xviii. London: Cornelius Buck & Son, 1834.

36Questions For Readjustment. Submitted by China to the Peace Conference. Paris, 1919. Available at:​details/​questionsforread00paririch.

37Report of the Commission on Extraterritoriality in China, Peking, September 16, 1926: Being the Report to the Governments of the Commission Appointed in Pursuance to Resolution V of the Conference on the Limitation of Armaments. Washington Governmental Print. Office, 1926. Available at:​cgi/​pt?id=mdp.39015001692451;view=2up;seq=8.

38Resolution V and additional resolutions adopted by the Washington Conference on the Limitation of Armament. December 10, 1921. In: Pollard, Robert Thomas Pollard. China’s Foreign Relations: 1917–1931. New York, 193.

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261Abi-Saab, Georges. ‘Fragmentation or Unification: Some Concluding Remarks.’ New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, no 31 (1999): 919–923.

262Abu Jaber, Kamel S. ‘The Millet System In The NineteenthCentury Ottoman Empire.’ The Muslim World 57, no 3 (1967): 212–223.

263Ago, Roberto. ‘The First International Communities in the Mediterranean World.’ British Yearbook of International Law 53, no 1 (1982): 213.

264Ahmad, Feroz. ‘Ottoman perceptions of the capitulations 1800-1914.’ Journal of Islamic Studies 11, no 1 (2000): 1–20.

265Ahmed, Faiz. ‘Shari’a, Custom, and Statutory Law: Comparing State Approaches to Islamic Jurisprudence, Tribal Autonomy, and Legal Development in Afghanistan and Pakistan.’ Global Jurist 7, no 1 (2007).

266Ainsworth, Janet E. ‘Categories and Culture: On the Rectification of Names in Comparative Law.’ Cornell L. Rev. No 82 (1996): 19–42.

267Akehurst, Michael. ‘Jurisdiction in International Law.’ British Year Book of International Law, no 46 (1973): 145.

268Alford, William P. ‘Exporting the Pursuit of Happiness.’ Harvard Law Review, no 113 (2000): 1677–1715.

269Alford, William P. ‘Law, Law, What Law?: Why Western Scholars of Chinese History and Society Have Not Had More to Say about Its Law.’ Modern China 23, no. 4 (1997): 398.

270Allain, Jean. ‘Orientalism and International Law: The Middle East as the Underclass of the International Legal Order.’ Leiden Journal of International Law 17, no 2 (2004): 391-404.

271Almas, Khan. ‘Interaction between Shariah and International Law in Arbitration, The.’ Chi. J. Int’l L., no 6 (2005): 791.

272Angell, James B. ‘The Turkish Capitulations.’ The American Historical Review 6, no 2 (1901): 254–259.

273Anghie, Antony. ‘Finding the peripheries: Sovereignty and colonialism in nineteenth-century international law.’ Harvard International Law Journal, no 40 (1999): 1-80.

274Arnaud, André Jean. ‘Du lien tribal dans le village planétaire.’ In La quête anthropologique du droit. Autour de la démarche d’Etienne Le Roy, ed. C. Eberhard, G. Vernicos. Paris: Karthala, 2003.

275Augusti, Eliana. ‘From Capitulations to Unequal Treaties: The Matter of an Extraterritorial Jurisdiction in the Ottoman Empire.’ Journal of Civil Law Studies 4, no 2 (2011): 285–307.

276Baer, Gabriel. ‘The transition from traditional to western criminal law in Turkey and Egypt.’ Studia Islamica, no 45 (1977): 139–158.

277Barnwell, Paul S. ‘Emperors, jurists and kings: law and custom in the late Roman and early medieval West.’ Past & Present, no 168 (2000): 6–29.

278Batiza, Rodolfo. ‘Origins of Modern Codification of the Civil Law: The French Experience and Its Implications for Louisiana Law.’ Tulane Law Review, no 56 (1981): 477–601.

279Benson, Bruce L. ‘The spontaneous evolution of commercial law.’ Southern Economic Journal, (1989): 644–661.

280Benton, Lauren. ‘Historical Perspectives on Legal Pluralism.’ Hague Journal on the Rule of Law 3, no 1 (2011): 57–69.

281Bianchi, Andrea. ‘Terrorism and Armed Conflict: Insights from a Law & LiteraturePerspective.’ Leiden Journal of International Law, no 24 (2011): 1–21.

282Biersteker, Thomas J. ‘State, sovereignty and territory.’ Handbook of international relations, (2002): 157–176.

283Bourgon, Jerome, ‘Abolishing ‘Cruel Punishments’: A Reappraisal of the Chinese Roots and Long Term Efficiency of the Xinzheng Legal Reforms.’ Modern Asian Studies 27, no 4 (2003): 851–862

284Bowden, Brett. ‘The Colonial Origins of International Law. European Expansion and the Classical Standard of Civilization.’ Journal of the History of International Law 7, no 1 (2005): 1-23.

285Bowett, D. W. ‘Jurisdiction: Changing Patterns of Authority over Active resources.’ BritishYearbook of International Law, no 53 (1982): 1–26.

286Boyle, James. ‘Thomas Hobbes and the Invented Tradition of Positivism: Reflections on Language, Power, and Essentialism.’ University of Pennsylvania Law Review 135, no 2 (1987): 383–426.

287Bozkurt, Gülnihal. ‘The reception of western European law in Turkey (From the Tanzimat to the Turkish Republic, 1839-1939).’ Der Islam 75, no 2 (1998): 283-295.

288Brooks, Peter. ‘Narrativity of the Law.’ Law and Literature, no 14 (2002): 1–10.

289Brooks, Rosa Ehrenreich. ‘The New Imperialism: Violence, Norms, and the Rule of Law.’ Michigan Law Review 101, no 7 (2003): 2275-2340.

290Brown, Philip Marshall. ‘The Capitulations.’ Foreign Affairs 1, no 4 (1923): 71-81.

291Buxbaum, Hannah. ‘Territory, Territoriality, and the Resolution of Jurisdictional Conflict.’ American Journal of Comparative Law 57, no 3 (2009): 631–675.

292Cassel, Pär Kristoffer. ‘Excavating Extraterritoriality: The "Judicial Sub-Prefect" as a Prototype for the Mixed Court in Shanghai.’ Late Imperial China 24, no 2 (2003): 156–182.

293Chan, K. C. ‘The Abrogation of British Extraterritoriality in China 1942–43: A Study of Anglo-American-Chinese Relations.’ Modern Asian Studies 11, no 2 (1977): 266–267.

294Chaudhuri, Kirti N. ‘The English East India Company and its Decision-Making.’ In East India Company Studies: Papers Presented to Professor Sir Cyril Philips. Kenneth Ballhatchet and John Harrison. Hong Kong: Asian Research Service, 1986.

295Chen, Li. ‘Law, Empire, and Historiography of Modern Sino-Western Relations: A Case Study of the Lady Hughes Controversy in 1784.’ Law and History Review 27, no 1 (2009): 1–53.

296Chen, Tsung-Fu. Transplant of Civil Code in Japan, Taiwan, and China: With the Focus of Legal Evolution.’ National Taiwan University Law Review 6 (2011): 389.

297Chimni, Bhupinder S. ‘Third World Approaches to International Law: a Manifesto.’ International Community Law Review 8 (2006): 3-27.

298Clogg, Richard. ‘The Greek Millet in the Ottoman Empire.’ Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, no 1 (1982): 185-208.

299Comaroff, John L. ‘Colonialism, culture, and the law: A foreword.’Law & Social Inquiry 26, no. 2 (2001): 305-314.

300Coutu, Michel, ‘Pluralisme Juridique Chez Gunther Teubner: La Nouvelle Guerre des Dieux, Le.’ Canadian Journal of Law and Society, no 12 (1997): 93–114.

301Cover, Robert M. ‘Foreword: Nomos and Narrative.’ Harvard Law Review, no 97 (1983): 4–68.

302Crabites, Pierre. ‘Islam, Personal Law and the Capitulations.’ The Muslim World 18, no 2 (1928): 173-176.

303Cramton, Roger C. ‘Ordinary Religion of the Law School Classroom, The.J. Legal Educ, no 29 (1977): 274–263.

304Craven, Matthew. ‘What Happened to Unequal Treaties? The Continuation of Informal Empire.’ Nordic Journal of International Law, no 74 (2005): 335–380.

305Dawson, John P. ‘The codification of the French customs.’ Michigan Law Review 38, no 6 (1940): 765–800.

306Delgado, Richard. ‘Storytelling for Oppositionists and Others: A Plea for Narrative.’ Michigan Law Review, no 87 (1989), 2411–2441.

307DeLisle, Jacques. ‘Lex Americana: United States Legal Assistance, American Legal Models, and Legal Change in the Post-Communist World and Beyond.’ University of Pennsylvania Journal of International and Economic Law, no 20 (1999): 179–308.

308Deringil, Selim. ‘Legitimacy Structures in the Ottoman State: The Reign of Abdulhamid II (1876-1909).’ International Journal of Middle East Studies 23, no 3 (1991): 345–359.

309Detter, Ingrid. ‘The Problem of Unequal Treaties. The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, no 15 (1966): 1069-1089.

310Donahue Jr, Charles. ‘Medieval and Early Modern Lex mercatoria: An Attempt at the probatio diabolica.’ Chicago Journal of International Law, no 5 (2004): 21–38.

311Dong, Wang, ‘The Discourse of Unequal Treaties in Modern China.’ Pacific Affairs 76, no 3 (2003): 399–425.

312Duara, Prasenjit. ‘Why is History Antitheoretical?’ Modern China, 24, No. 2. (1998): 105-120.

313Dupuy, Pierre–Marie. ‘The Danger of Frangmentation or Unification of the International Legal System and the International Court of Justice.’ New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, no 31(1999): 791.

314Eldem, Edhem. ‘Capitulations and Western Trade.’ The Cambridge History of Turkey, no 3 (2006): 283–335.

315Elvin, Mark. ‘The mixed court of the international settlement at Shanghai.’ Papers on China, no 17 (1963): 131–159.

316Fairbank, John K. ‘The creation of the treaty system.’ The Cambridge History of China 10, no 1 (1978): 214.

317Fairbank, John King. ‘Chinese Diplomacy and the Treaty of Nanking, 1842.’ The Journal of Modern History 12, no. 1 (1940): 1–30.

318Fidler David P. ‘A Kinder, Gentler System of Capitulations? International Law, Structural Adjustment Policies, and the Standard of Liberal, Globalized Civilization.’ Texas International Law Journal, no 35 (2000), 387–413.

319Fidler, David P. ‘The Return of the Standard of Civilization.’ Chicago Journal of International Law, no 2 (2001): 137–157.

320Fish, Stanley. ‘Don’t Know Much About the Middle Ages: Posner on Law and Literature.’The Yale Law Journal 97, no 5 (1988): 777–793.

321Fish, Stanley. ‘Working on the chain gang: Interpretation in law and literature.’Texas Law Review, no 60 (1981): 551–568.

322Fitzpatrick, Peter. ‘Juris-fiction: Literature and the Law of the Law.’ ARIEL: A Review of International English Literature 35, no 1-2 (2004): 215–229.

323Ford, Richard T. ‘Law’s Territory (A History of Jurisdiction).’ Michigan Law Review 97, no 4 (1999), 843.

324Forst, Rainer. ‘Foundations of a theory of multicultural justice.’ Constellations 4, no. 1 (1997): 69

325Frank, V. S. ‘The Territorial Terms of the Sino-Russian Treaty of Nerchinsk, 1689.’ Pacific Historical Review 16, no. 3 (1947): 265–270.

326Garner, J. W. ‘The Doctrine of Rebus Sic Stantibus and the Termination of Treaties.’ The American Journal of International Law 21, no 3 (1927): 509.

327Gerolymatos, Andre. ‘The Proxenia And The Development Of Diplomacy In Classical Greece.’ Papers in Greek archaeology and history in memory of Colin D. Gordon, no 1 (1987): 65.

328Gilpatrick, Meredith P. ‘ The Status of Law and Law-making Procedure under the Kuomintang, 1925-46. ‘ Far Eastern Quarterly 10, no. 1 (1950): 38–55.

329Gomme, A. W. ‘Two Problems of Athenian Citizenship Law.’ Classical Philology 29, no 2 (1934).

330Goodrich, Peter. ‘Law and language: An historical and critical introduction.’ Journal of Law and Society 11, no 2 (1984): 173–206.

331Goodrich, Peter. ‘Rhetoric as jurisprudence: an introduction to the politics of legal language.’ Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 4, no 1 (1984): 88–122.

332Goodrich, Peter. ‘The Role of Linguistics in Legal Analysis.’ The Modern Law Review 47, no 5 (1984): 523–534.

333Gotanda, Neil. ‘Exclusion and inclusion: immigration and American orientalism.’ Across the Pacific: Asian Americans and Globalization, (1999): 129-51.

334Gottmann, Jean. ‘The evolution of the concept of territory.’ Social Science Information 14, no 3 (1975): 29–47.

335Greenberg, Katherine A. ‘Hong Kong’s Future: Can the People’s Republic of China Invalidate the Treaty of Nanking as an Unequal Treaty.’ Fordham International Law Journal, no 7 (1983): 543.

336Greif, Avner and Paul Milgrom and Barry R. Weingast. ‘Coordination, commitment, and enforcement: The case of the merchant guild.’ Journal of political economy, (1994): 745.

337Grosby, Steven. ‘Territoriality: the transcendental, primordial feature of modern societies.’ Nations and Nationalism 1, no 2 (1995): 145.

338Habermas, Jürgen and Ciaran Cronin. ‘The European nation-state: On the past and future of sovereignty and citizenship.’ Public Culture 10, no 2 (1998): 397–416.

339Harris, Abram L. ‘John Stuart Mill: Servant of the East India Company.’ The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science/Revue canadienne d’Economique et de Science politique 30, no 2 (1964): 185–202.

340Hassan, M. Kabir and Mervyn K. Lewis, ‘Product development and Shariah issues in Islamic finance.’ Thunderbird International Business Review 49, no 3 (2007): 281–284.

341Hejeebu, Santhi. ‘Contract Enforcement in the English East India Company.’ Journal of Economic History 65, no 2 (2005): 496–523.

342Hilmy, Kémal. ‘Les capitulations ottomanes.’ Revue politique internationale, (1915): 252–260.

343Horowitz, Richard S. ‘International Law and State Transformation in China, Siam, and the Ottoman Empire during the Nineteenth Century.’ Journal of World History 15, no 4 (2004): 445–486.

344Horowitz, Richard S. ‘International Law and State Transformation in China, Siam, and the Ottoman Empire during the Nineteenth Century.’ Journal of World History 15, no 4 (2004): 484.

345Huang, Philip. ‘ Whither Chinese law? ‘ Modern China 33, no. 2 (2007): 163–194.

346Hurewitz, Jacob Coleman . ‘Ottoman Diplomacy and the European State System.’ Middle East Journal 15, no 2 (1961): 145.

347Huxley, Andrew. ‘Is Burmese Law Burmese? John Jardine, Em Forchhammer and Legal Orientalism.’ Australian Journal of Asian Law 10, no. 2 (2008): 184–201.

348Huxley, Andrew. ‘Positivists and Buddhists: The Rise and Fall of Anglo - Burmese Ecclesiastical Law.’ Law & Social Inquiry 26, no 1 (2001): 113–141.

349İnalcık, Halil, and Quataert Donald, eds. An economic and social history of the Ottoman Empire: 1300-1914. Cambridge University Press, 1994.

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351Kadens, Emily. ‘Order within law, variety within custom: the character of the medieval merchant law.’ Chicago Journal of International Law , no 5 (2004): 39–65.

352Kadioğlu, Ayşe. ‘The paradox of Turkish nationalism and the construction of official identity.’ Middle Eastern Studies 32, no 2 (1996): 177–193.

353Kapur, Ratna. ‘ Human rights in the 21st century: Take a walk on the dark side. ‘ Sydney Law Review 28 (2006): 665–688.

354Kassan, Shalom. ‘Extraterritorial Jurisdiction in the Ancient World.’ American Journal of International Law 29, no 1 (1935): 239–240.

355Keddie, Nikki R. ‘Pan-Islam as Proto-Nationalism.’ The Journal of Modern History 41, no. 1 (1969): 17–28.

356Keedy, M. ‘Greasing the Wheels of Capitalism with Style and Taste, or, the “Professionalization” of American Graphic Design.’ In Looking Closer: Bk. 4: Critical Writings on Graphic Design. Allworth Press, U.S., (2002): 199-206.

357Kennedy, David. ‘Challenging expert rule: the politics of global governance.’ Sydney Law Review, no 27 (2005): 5–28.

358Kennedy, David. ‘One, two, three, many legal orders: legal pluralism and the cosmopolitan dream.’ 31, New York University Law Review of Law and Social Change, (2007): 641–59.

359Kennedy, David. ‘The Mystery of Global Governance.’ Ohio Northern University Law Review, no 34 (2008): 846–847.

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363Koskenniemi, Martti. ‘Les doctrines du droit international dans le temps.’ In: Société francaise pour le droit international, Colloque de Paris: Le Droit international et le temps. Paris, Pedone, 2001: 35–47.

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365Krisch, Nico. ‘International law in times of hegemony: unequal power and the shaping of the international legal order.’ European Journal of International Law 16, no 3 (2005): 369–408.

366Kuran, Timur. ‘The Beginnings of Economic Modernization in the Middle East: Legal Impact of Unequal Trade Treaties.’ UC Berkeley: Berkeley Program in Law and Economics, (2006).

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