Version classiqueVersion mobile

Feminization and Stigmatization of Infertility in Malawi

Boetumelo Julianne Nyasulu


Texte intégral

Agadjanian, V. (2001). Negotiating Through Reproductive Change: Gendered Social Interaction and Fertility Regulation in Mozambique. Journal of Southern African Studies, 27(2), 291–309, DOI: 10.1080/03057070120049985

Avert (2015, July 21). HIV and AIDS in Malawi. Retrieved March 4, 2019,

Barden-O’Fallon, J. (2005). Associates of self-reported fertility status and infertility treatment-seeking in a rural district of Malawi. Human Reproduction, 20(8), 2229–2236. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/dei008

Bharadwaj, A. (2017). Conceptions: Infertility and Procreative Technologies in India (New edition edition). Place of publication not identified: Orient Blackswan.

Bharadwaj, A. (2006). Sacred conceptions: clinical theodicies, uncertain science, and technologies of procreation in India. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 30(4), 451–465. DOI: 10.1007/s11013-006-9032-0

Borisoff, D. and Hahn, D. F. (1993). Thinking with the body: Sexual metaphors. Communication Quarterly, 41(3), 253–260.

Caldwell, J. C. and Caldwell, P. (1987). The Cultural Context of High Fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Population and Development Review, 13(3), 409. DOI: 10.2307/1973133

Chipfakacha, V. G. (1997). STD/HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs and practices of traditional healers in Botswana. AIDS Care, 9(4), 417–425. DOI: 10.1080/713613174

Cook, R. J. and Dickens, B. M. (2014). Reducing stigma in reproductive health. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 125(1), 89–92. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2014.01.002

Costello Daly, C., Francos, L., Chilongozi, D. a. T., and Dallabetta, G. (1998). A Cost Comparison of Approaches to Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment in Malawi. Health Policy and Planning, 13(1), 87–93. DOI: 10.1093/heapol/13.1.87

Curran, D. (1999). Nyau Masks and Ritual. African Arts, 32(3), 68–77. DOI: 10.2307/3337711

Dierickx, S., Rahbari, L., Longman, C., Jaiteh, F., and Coene, G. (2018). ‘I am always crying on the inside’: a qualitative study on the implications of infertility on women’s lives in urban Gambia. Reproductive Health, 15(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12978-018-0596-2

Donkor, E. S. and Sandall, J. (2009). Coping strategies of women seeking infertility treatment in southern Ghana. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 13(4), 81–93.

Donkor, E. S. and Sandall, J. (2007). The impact of perceived stigma and mediating social factors on infertility-related stress among women seeking infertility treatment in Southern Ghana. Social Science and Medicine, 65(8), 1683–1694. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.06.003

Dyer, S. J. (2007). The value of children in African countries – insights from studies on infertility. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 28(2), 69–77. DOI: 10.1080/01674820701409959

Dyer, S. J., Abrahams, N., Mokoena, N. E., Lombard, C. J., and van der Spuy, Z. M. (2005). Psychological distress among women suffering from couple infertility in South Africa: a quantitative assessment. Human Reproduction, 20(7), 1938–1943.

Dyer, S. J., Abrahams, N., Hoffman, M., and van der Spuy, Z. M. (2002). “Men leave me as I cannot have children”: women’s experiences with involuntary childlessness. Human Reproduction (Oxford, England), 17(6), 1663–1668.

Edelmann, R. J. and Connolly, K. J. (2000). Gender differences in response to infertility and infertility investigations: Real or illusory. British Journal of Health Psychology, 5(4), 365–375. DOI: 10.1348/135910700168982

Ericksen, K. and Brunette, T. (1996). Patterns and predictors of infertility among African women: a cross-national survey of twenty-seven nations. Social Science and Medicine (1982), 42(2), 209–220.

Evans-Pritchard, E. E. and Gillies, E. (1976). Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande (Abridged edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Feldman-Savelsberg, P. (1994). Plundered kitchens and empty wombs: fear of infertility in the Cameroonian grassfields. Social Science and Medicine, 39(4), 463–474.

Fernandes, P., Papaikonomou, M., and Nieuwoudt, J. M. (2006). Women suffering through their bodies. South African Journal of Psychology, 36(4), 851–879.

Fledderjohann, J. J. (2012). “Zero is not good for me”: implications of infertility in Ghana. Human Reproduction, 27(5), 1383–1390. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/des035

Gerrits, T. (1997). Social and cultural aspects of infertility in Mozambique. Patient Education and Counseling, 31(1), 39–48.

Girls Not Brides. (2017, April 26). Malawi: Constitution no longer allows child marriage. Girls Not Brides.

Goffman, E. (1986). Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity (Reissue edition). New York: Touchstone.

Government of Malawi, Ministry of Health. (no date). National Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) Policy, 2017-2022.

Greil, A. L., McQuillan, J., Lowry, M. and Shreffler, K. M. (2011). Infertility treatment and fertility-specific distress: A longitudinal analysis of a population-based sample of U.S. women. Social Science and Medicine (1982), 73(1), 87–94. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.04.023

Greil, A. L., McQuillan, J. and SlausonBlevins, K. (2011). The Social Construction of Infertility. Sociology Compass, 5(8), 736–746. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-9020.2011.00397.x

Hollos, M., and Larsen, U. (2008). Motherhood in subSaharan Africa: The social consequences of infertility in an urban population in northern Tanzania. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 10(2), 159–173. DOI: 10.1080/13691050701656789

Hollos, M., Larsen, U., Obono, O., and Whitehouse, B. (2009). The problem of infertility in high fertility populations: Meanings, consequences and coping mechanisms in two Nigerian communities. Social Science and Medicine, 68(11), 2061–2068. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.03.008

Index Mundi. (2018). Malawi Total fertility rate - Demographics. Index Mundi.

Inhorn, M. C. (1994b). Kabsa (a.k.a. mushahara) and threatened fertility in Egypt. Social Science and Medicine (1982), 39(4), 487–505.

Inhorn, M. C., and Bharadwaj, A. (2007). Reproductively Disabled Lives: Infertility, Stigma, and Suffering in Egypt and India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 78–106.

Inhorn, M. C., and Balen, F. van (Eds.). (2002). Introduction: Interpreting Infertility: A View from the Social Sciences. In Infertility around the globe: new thinking on childlessness, gender, and reproductive technologies. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Irvine, D. S. (1998). Epidemiology and aetiology of male infertility. Human Reproduction (Oxford, England), 13 Suppl 1, 33–44. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/13.suppl_1.33

Jensen, R. E. (2015). From Barren to Sterile: The Evolution of a Mixed Metaphor. Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 45(1), 25–46. DOI: 10.1080/02773945.2014.957413

Kachapila, H. (2006). The Revival of “Nyau” and Changing Gender Relations in Early Colonial Central Malawi. Journal of Religion in Africa, 36(3/4), 319–345. Retrieved from JSTOR.

Kaler, A. (1998). A threat to the nation and a threat to the men: the banning of Depo-Provera in Zimbabwe, 1981. Journal of Southern African Studies, 24(2), 347–376.

Kapulula, P. K. (2015). The role of men in promoting women’s reproductive and maternal health in a matrilineal marriage system in Malawi: the case of Ntchisi District.

Kitzinger, J. (1995). Qualitative Research: Introducing focus groups. BMJ, 311(7000), 299–302. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.311.7000.299

Kleinman, A. (1997). Writing at the Margin. Retrieved from

Kleinman, A. (2004). Culture and depression. The New England Journal of Medicine, 351(10), 951–953. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp048078

Kleinman, A., and Hall-Clifford, R. (2009). Stigma: a social, cultural and moral process. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63(6), 418–419. DOI: 10.1136/jech.2008.084277

Kleinman, A., and Kleinman, J. (1994). How Bodies Remember: Social Memory and Bodily Experience of Criticism, Resistance, and Delegitimation following China’s Cultural Revolution. New Literary History, 25(3), 707–723. DOI: 10.2307/469474

Konopinski, N. (Ed.). (2013). Doing Anthropological Research: A Practical Guide (1 edition). Londonand New York: Routledge.

Larsen, U. (2000). Primary and secondary infertility in sub-Saharan Africa. International Journal of Epidemiology, 29(2), 285–291. DOI: 10.1093/ije/29.2.285

Manda, G. K. M. (1987). Funeral Conduct in Nkhata-Bay. The Society of Malawi Journal, 40(1), 30–36.

Mariano, E. C. (2004). Involuntary childlessness among the Shangana (Mozambique). Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 22(4), 261–269. DOI: 10.1080/02646830412331298314

Mayo Clinic. (2017, February 8). Secondary infertility: Why does it happen?. Mayo Clinic.

Meera Guntupalli, A., and Chenchelgudem, P. (2004). Perceptions, causes and consequences of infertility among the Chenchu tribe of India. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 22(4), 249–259. DOI: 10.1080/02646830412331298305

Mtonga, M. (2006). Gule wamkulu as a multi-state enterprise. Museum International, 58(1–2), 59–67.

Naab, F., Brown, R., and Heidrich, S. (2013). Psychosocial health of infertile Ghanaian women and their infertility beliefs. Journal of Nursing Scholarship: An Official Publication of Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, 45(2), 132–140. DOI: 10.1111/jnu.12013

Nahar, P. and Richters, A. (2011). Suffering of childless women in Bangladesh: the intersection of social identities of gender and class. Anthropology and Medicine, 18(3), 327–338. DOI: 10.1080/13648470.2011.615911

Neff, D. L. (1994). The social construction of infertility: The case of the matrilineal Nāyars in South India. Social Science and Medicine, 39(4), 475–485.

O’Brien, S. and Broom, A. (2014). HIV in Harare: The role and relevance of social stigma. African Journal of AIDS Research, 13(4), 339–349. DOI: 10.2989/16085906.2014.961941

Odekon, M. (2006). Malawi: The SAGE Encyclopedia of World Poverty (Second Edition, Vols. 1–5). DOI: 10.4135/9781483345727

Parrott, F. R. (2014). ‘At the hospital I learnt the truth’: diagnosing male infertility in rural Malawi. Anthropology and Medicine, 21(2), 174–188. DOI: 10.1080/13648470.2014.915618

Pearce, T. O. (1999). She will not be listened to in public: Perceptions among the Yoruba of infertility and childlessness in women. Reproductive Health Matters, 7(13), 69–79. DOI: 10.1016/S0968-8080(99)90114-3

Phiri, K. M. (1983). Some Changes in the Matrilineal Family System among the Chewa of Malawi since the Nineteenth Century. The Journal of African History, 24(2), 257–274.

Resolve. (2019). ‘Fast Facts’. RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association,

Richards, S. C. (2002). “Spoiling the Womb”: Definitions, Aetiologies and Responses to Infertility in North West Province, Cameroon. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 6(1), 84. DOI: 10.2307/3583149

Riessman, C. (2002). Chapter 8: Positioning Gender Identity in Narratives of Infertility: South Indian Women’s Lives in Context. In M. C. Inhorn and F. van Balen (Eds.), Infertility around the globe: new thinking on childlessness, gender, and reproductive technologies. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rossetto, K. R. (2014). Qualitative research interviews: Assessing the therapeutic value and challenges. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31(4), 482–489. DOI: 10.1177/0265407514522892

StudyCountry. (2019). Religion in Malawi. StudyCountry.

Sundby, J. (1997). Infertility in the Gambia: traditional and modern health care. Patient Education and Counseling, 31(1), 29–37.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2018). Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update: Malawi.

Upton, R. L. (2001). “Infertility Makes You Invisible”: Gender, Health and the Negotiation of Fertility in Northern Botswana. Journal of Southern African Studies, 27(2), 349–362. DOI: 10.1080/03057070120050019

van Balen, F., and Gerrits, T. (2001). Quality of infertility care in poor-resource areas and the introduction of new reproductive technologies. Human Reproduction, 16(2), 215–219.

van Balen, F., Verdurmen, J., and Ketting, E. (1997). Choices and motivations of infertile couples. Patient Education and Counseling, 31(1), 19–27.

Van Hollen, C. (2010). HIV/AIDS and the Gendering of Stigma in Tamil Nadu, South India. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 34(4), 633–657. DOI: 10.1007/s11013-010-9192-9

WHO (World Health Organization) Scientific Group on the Epidemiology of Infertility, and WHO (1975). The epidemiology of infertility: Report of a WHO scientific group [meeting held in Geneva from 30 June to 4 July 1975].

World Bank. (2018). Rural population (% of total population) | Data.

World Bank. (2013). Malawi - Public expenditure review (No. 79865; pp. 1–170).


Rechercher dans OpenEdition Search

Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search