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Decentralisation Hybridized

Annina Aeberli

6. Annex I: Chronology

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11820 – Turco-Egyptian invasion of what is now Sudan and South Sudan

21881 – Al-Mahdi’s revolt leads to the withdrawal of the Turco-Egyptians

31898 – Anglo-Egyptians recapture Sudan

41930 – “Southern Policy”, intended to culturally separate North and South, implemented

51949 – Marshall Report presents a vision of local governments, with aim of democratizing Sudan

61951 – Local Government Ordinance establishes local councils

71953 – First national elections

81955 – Violent conflict breaks out between North and South

91956 – Independence of Sudan

101962 – Full-scale civil war breaks out; South is led by the Anyanya guerilla

111969 – Nimeiri comes into power via military coup

121971 – People’s Local Government Act introduces three tiers of government

131972 – Addis Ababa Peace Agreement gives the South autonomous status

141980 – Regional Government Act creates five regions in the North, starting
discussion of redivisioning the South into three regions

151981 – People’s Local Government Act devolves power to lower levels

161983 – Southern Government is dissolved into three regions; Sharia is imposed on South, resulting in renewed violence by SPLM/A, which soon controls large parts of the Southern territory

171985 – Nimeiri overthrown by protests in Khartoum

181989 – Bashir comes to power via military coup

191991 – Nasir Faction splits off from SPLM/A

201991 – Torit Resolution stresses need for civil administration in South

211994 – National convention at Chukudum specified structures of civil administration under SPLM/A

221994 – 11th Constitutional Decree establishes the states in Sudan

231996 – At Conference on Civil Society and Civil Authority, structure of Civil Authority of New Sudan (CANS) is further developed

242005 – Government of Sudan and SPLM/A sign the CPA

252006 – Juba Declaration incorporates Southern militias into SPLA

262009 – Local Government Act is signed by the president of Southern Sudan

272010 – National elections

282011 – Referendum on independence is held in January, leads to birth of the Republic of South Sudan on 9 July


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