IFRA-Nigeria https://books.openedition.org/ifra CC0 info@ifra-nigeria.org A Linguist’s Field Note Around the word “field” come to crystallise contrasting views, debates, sometimes unnecessary disputes about what should be a specific type of linguistics by its methodologies and its objectives. It appears, however, to be more legitimate to associate it with the manner of being a linguist when, at certain moments, the discovery of a language cannot be dissociated from the discovery of the space where this language is inscribed. The discovery then has to do with techniques, certainly, but also with landscapes, meetings, risks, and (why not?) with adventures, to the point where the linguist gets lost.

In 1990 Bernard Caron arrived, in the north of Nigeria on the trail of Zaar, a language that was numerically the most important of the group of Chadic languages about which precious little was known. This is the story of his research.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/4317 2022-02-24 Bernard Caron et Alexander Iwara IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Student on-campus housing at bursting point The major objective of this research is to examine student on-campus housing in Nigeria’s tertiary institutions using the nation’s premier university, the University of Ibadan, as a case study. As the university journeys into the 21st century, there is the urgent need to distil all available information on student housing in order to evolve pragmatic strategies to supply decent and humane accommodation that will make available a suitable environment for academic pursuits.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/2602 2022-01-28 Tunde Agbola, C.O. Olatubara et Moruf Alabi IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Juvenile delinquency and juvenile violence in Jos, Nigeria The central objective of this study is to provide researchers, government, interested individuals and organizations with a contemporary scenario of juvenile violence and general delinquency patterns in Jos. Its objectives are to determine the borderline between normal and delinquent life patterns of juveniles, to establish incidences, patterns and trends in juvenile violence and delinquency, to assess the extent of gender variables in juvenile violence and delinquency, to assess the impact of housing on juvenile delinquency, to establish the role of ‘significant’ others in juvenile violence and delinquency, to assess the consequences, policy implications and options for juvenile violence and delinquency control and management in Nigeria

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/2710 2022-01-28 Sam O. Smah IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
The impact of the better life programme on the economic status of women The Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) was introduced in Nigeria in 1986. One of its principal objectives was to restructure and diversify the production base of the economy in order to reduce national dependence on the oil sector and imports. To achieve this objective, measures to stimulate domestic production and broaden the supply base of the economy were adopted. During the implementation of SAP, it was realized that the programme inflicted varying degrees of hardship on different groups of the population. Consequently, ameliorative measures were designed to lessen the burden on vulnerable groups. Women constitute an important vulnerable group that requires relief during an adjustment process. The Better Life Programme was designed to give relief to women, especially those in the rural areas, during the economic restructuring process in Nigeria.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/2817 2022-01-28 Ifeyori I. Ihimodu IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Yan Daba, Yan Banga and Yan Daukar Amarya From the data collected, the ’Yan Daba, ’Yan Banga and ’Yan Daukar Amarya appear to operate independendy of each other. The ’Yan Daba were originally the strong arm behind various political parties, the ban on party politics and the subsequent loss of income has led them into all types of illegal activities. The ’Yan Banga, while initially assisting law enforcement agencies in apprehending criminals, has turned into a lawless force of bandits. The ’Yan Daukar Amarya do not appear to operate out of economic deprivation; their motivation is rape.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/2915 2022-01-28 Emmanuel M.K. Dawha IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Access to shelter by the poor through community participation Providing adequate shelter in Nigeria has been a fundamental problem for federal and state governments for more than a decade. Although progress has been made in providing housing in some local government areas, in many others housing shortages are likely to become more serious over the next few years as urbanization accelerates and the concentration of poor households in cities increases. The rapid pace of urbanization in Nigeria is generating greater demand for shelter, especially among poor families who lack the income for decent housing.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/3012 2022-01-28 Remi Adeyemo IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Inter-ethnic relations in a Nigerian city This paper discusses the immigration of the Igbo into Kano; the context in which the hostility between them and the Hausa-Fulani host population was built up and the extent to which this could be said to have threatened the safety of the Igbo in Kano.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/3100 2022-01-28 Isaac Olawale Albert IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Modern history of visual art in Southern Nigeria This books takes into consideration the changes that have occurred within the visual art landscape in Nigeria during the 20th century. This historical change is the result of new cultural exchanges between Africa, Europe and America, exchanges that developed different artistic practices and promoted new patrons. In this framework, cities have played a fundamental role in the development of modern art, especially because of the presence of a local or international art market. All the chapters of this book are related to specific Southern Nigerian cities: some are places of ancient royal art patronage (bronze casting in Benin City), some are city market where various popular expression of art could have developed (calendar in Onitsha), a few are strictly university based (Nsukka) but most of them have welcome elements of artistic lineages scattered all over Nigeria (the Fákéye family for instance).

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/3145 2022-01-28 Laurent Fourchard IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
The feasibility of democracy in Africa Is democratization feasible in Africa? That is the question that I wish to address. It should not be confused with the question of the possibility of democracy in Africa which, though often asked, does not really arise, because democracy is in principle possible everywhere. The question is not whether democracy can be or even whether it ought to be, but how it "becomes" in the light of the circumstances of a particular historical situation.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/3255 2022-01-28 Claude Ake IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
The national conference as a model for democratic transition : Benin and Nigeria The aim of this study is to examine critically the possibility of institutionalizing the national conference as a model for transition to democracy in Africa. There are basically two types of national conference: one with limited autonomy and the other with soveragrt powers. The Benin Republic instituted a national conference with sovereign powers which culminated in political democracy for the country; Nigeria opted for a national conference with limited autonomy. This analysis focuses primarily on the experiences of these two countries. Reference is, however, made to other countries where these models have been tried, to enrich our understanding of this method of democratization.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/3307 2022-01-28 Wuyi Omitoogun et Kenneth Onigu-Otite IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Creative writing, writers and publishing in Northern Nigeria Time and time again, scholars and students of Nigerian literature have stressed one issue, which is the underdevelopment of creative writing in northern Nigeria. To support their position, they often refer to the so-called educational ‘backwardness’ of the region vis-a-vis the rest of the country. Their argument is also predicated on the paucity of works of art written in English by Northern writers. The aim of this study is to counter the view that creative writing in northern Nigeria is still in its infancy. Because of the peculiar nature of the development of creative writing in northern Nigeria, books written in English have been regarded as more important, and this trend should be reversed.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/3400 2022-01-28 Abba Aliyu Sani, Jibrin Ibrahim et Emmanuel Babatunde Omobowale IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Trends in social behaviour among secondary school adolescents in Ibadan Results from this study show that adolescents in Nigeria are becoming more involved in undesirable activities such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, drug abuse and pre-marital sex. As a result, teenagers are presenting with many sexually related diseases and problems associated with unhealthy activities. Teenage mothers are a social liability to national development and progress; the education of the young mother has to be stopped even temporarily; she may be forced into an early marriage, which may end her formal education completely; this may affect her earning capacity and her ability to cater for her child. Early pregnancy can also compromise the future reproductive capacity of a young woman.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/3480 2022-01-28 Isaac Ọlaoluwa Akinyẹle et I.O. Onifade IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Because of our future : the imperative for an environmental ethic for Africa The task of the philosophical discipline in environmental discourse is to reconcile scientific innovation with social values; to mediate between the urge to develop technologically and the need to protect the environment for both present and future generations. The philosophical enterprise by its nature must respond to the inherent conflict between the desire to develop technologically and the duty not to endanger the species within the ecosystem. This is basically an ethical question. In this study the argument is that an ethical dimension is necessary for the sustenance of the environment in Africa.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/3572 2022-01-28 Kolawole A. Owolabi IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Archaeological investigation of Itagunmodi potsherd pavement site, Ijesaland, Osun State, Nigeria This book gives an account of an archaeological investigation that took place between 1991 and 1992 at Itagunmodi, Osun State. The site came to light during a cultural resource survey of Ijesaland carried out between August and September 1991, sponsored by the Ijesa Cultural Foundation (Agbaje-Williams and Ogundiran 1992). Itagunmodi, apart from being famous for its gold deposits, was also revealed, during this investigation, to be an ancient settlement. Evidence of this was found in different sites identified in the town. The potsherd pavements, a very exciting find, are the subject of this paper.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/3655 2022-01-28 Babatunde Agbaje-Williams IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Guerre et société au royaume de Fetu La guerre et le royaume de Fetu constituant chacun un sujet suffisamment vaste pour faire l’objet de recherches spécifiques, ce choix pourrait faire de ce sujet un double sujet. Fait social total pour les anthropologues, la guerre est, selon l’expression d’Emmanuel Terray, un lieu où semble converger "la trame des rapports sociaux". Elle sera abordée ici comme un prisme au travers duquel on tentera de saisir des aspects de cette société dépassant largement le cadre de la guerre proprement dit : nature des liens entre les hommes, organisation politique, justice, religion, évolutions sociales et politiques, c’est-à-dire d’une manière que je concevais comme complémentaire de ma recherche concernant le royaume de Fetu, ce qui, je l’espère, donne sa cohésion à cette recherche.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/3710 2022-01-28 Yann Deffontaine IFRA-Nigeria fr IFRA-Nigeria
France and Nigeria : issues in comparative studies THE suggestion to produce this volume was first made in 1987 and actual work on the project started in 1988. At that time, all the authors (except one who had already returned to Nigeria) were registered for doctoral studies with French government scholarships. The idea was that since we were engaged in different fields of study and were thus in a position to generate a pool of information on wide range of topics, it might be useful to bring together our various specialities in order to reflect on issues and problems between our country, Nigeria, and the country of our doctoral studies, France.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/3872 2022-01-28 Haruna J. Jacob et Massoud Omar IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Anti-corruption campaign in Nigeria (1999-2007) After completing the transition from military to civilian rule, Nigeria began a comprehensive anti-corruption campaign in 1999. Some of the reforms included the establishment of new anti-corruption agencies, a comprehensive reform of the public sector, and a global search for (looted) funds stashed away in other countries. Despite being unprecedented in many ways, the implementation of these programmes soon faced numerous challenges. Among the most obvious was the lack of capacity among some of the major institutions charged with the implementation of the reforms due to inadequate financial support, limited human resources, legal lacunas, an ineffective criminal justice system and constitutional immunity granted to key officials. To this can be added a weak civil society and the non-engagement of sub-national authorities (states and local governments), that together suggest the glaring absence of an internal political coalition against corruption.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/1588 2021-07-22 David U. Enweremadu IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Boko Haram: Islamism, politics, security and the state in Nigeria This book is the first attempt to understand Boko Haram in a comprehensive and consistent way. It examines the early history of the sect and its transformation into a radical armed group. It analyses the causes of the uprising against the Nigerian state and evaluates the consequences of the on-going conflict from a religious, social and political point of view. The book gives priority to authors conducting fieldwork in Nigeria and tackles the following issues: the extent to which Boko Haram can be considered the product of deprivation and marginalisation; the relationship of the sect with almajirai, Islamic schools, Sufi brotherhoods, Izala, and Christian churches; the role of security forces and political parties in the radicalisation of the sect; the competing discourses in international and domestic media coverage of the crisis; and the consequences of the militarisation of the conflict for the Nigerian government and the civilian population, Christian and Muslim.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/1703 2021-07-22 Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Violence in Nigeria Most of the academic literature on violence in Nigeria is qualitative. It rarely relies on quantitative data because police crime statistics are not reliable, or not available, or not even published. Moreover, the training of Nigerian social scientists often focuses on qualitative, cultural, and political issues. There is thus a need to bridge the qualitative and quantitative approaches of conflict studies. This book represents an innovation and fills a gap in this regard. It is the first to introduce a discussion on such issues in a coherent manner, relying on a database that fills the lacunae in data from the security forces. The authors underline the necessity of a trend analysis to decipher the patterns and the complexity of violence in very different fields: from oil production to cattle breeding, radical Islam to motor accidents, land conflicts to witchcraft, and so on. In addition, they argue for empirical investigation and a complementary approach using both qualitative and quantitative data. The book is therefore organized into two parts, with a focus first on statistical studies, then on fieldwork.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/1705 2021-07-22 Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Transnational Islam At the crossroads of major trade routes and characterised by intense human circulations, the area that encompasses northern Nigeria and southern Niger is a privileged space to study transnational religious dynamics. Islam is, indeed, an essential feature of this region assuming today new forms in terms of discourses, practices, and modes of dissemination. In order to capture their changing complexity and diversity, regional Islamic dynamics need to be observed from both sides of the Niger-Nigeria border, where religious patterns echo each other but also obey different socio-political injunctions. While studying the processes of religious renewal and mutation, it is necessary to pay attention to the varied forms these processes take, to their direct and indirect effects and to the channels of transmission used.
An interdisciplinary team of seven researchers from Niger, Nigeria, France and the United Kingdom was set up to conduct this transnational study; all authors carried out ethnographic fieldwork in both countries while constantly exchanging, comparing and discussing their respective findings with each other. Thus, this book provides first-hand material collected in the field, that contributes to enrich the reflexion on contemporary transformation dynamics in the Islamic landscapes of Niger and Nigeria, but also reflects the relevance of a transnational and comparative approach of these phenomena. Finally, it showcases the collaborative work of African and European scholars from Francophone and Anglophone countries - a type of scientific partnership unprecedented in this field.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/1713 2021-07-22 Élodie Apard IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Memorialisation Principles, Post-Civil War Reintegration and the Quest for Sustainable Peace in Nigeria Mnemonic devices have remained integral to human learning processes through history, as man continues to grapple with his existential experiences. Such epistemological consideration considers knowledge as a universal experience of recall, whereby events, objects, texts and processes are commited to memory. However, threats to Nigeria’s sociopolitical life has been the reverse of this logic with the erasure of History from the curriculum of secondary schools until the recent attempts at its restoration.

It is such neglect that prompted this study’s examination of the need to revive the consciousness of the importance of historical lessons in the consolidation of the country’s democracy by adopting a memorialisation policy. It conceptualizes memorialisation within the framework of creation of public memorials as important for national integration and peacebuilding through references to extant memory initiatives. It then proceeds to situate the eight principles of memorialisation - as proposed by Impunity Watch - within the global context while drawing from an array of literature within the humanities and social sciences.

In relaying this to the Nigerian context, the paper focuses on relevant historical events and discussions around the Nigerian Civil War with the purpose of demonstrating how memorialisation can be adopted in facilitating peacebuilding efforts in Nigeria, as a means to address different secessionist bids in a sustainable manner.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/1353 2019-05-06 Philip Ademola Olayoku IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Search for Knowledge and Recognition Hannah Hoechner investigates an educational practice that is widespread in Muslim West Africa. “Traditional” Qur’anic schools, whose students live with their teacher and earn their own livelihood (often through begging), have become the subject of much public concern and anxiety. Hannah Hoechner explores the experience of such Qur’anic students (pl. almajirai; sg. almajiri) in Kano State in northern Nigeria.

The almajirai have attracted attention in the context of increased attempts to universalise primary education and of growing concerns about child welfare. They have also been rightly or wrongly associated with Islamic radicalisation, militancy, and the periodic riots that have blighted many northern Nigerian cities. The current spate of Boko Haram violence in northern Nigeria has carried such modes of thinking to the extreme. The Qur’anic schools are described as a “ticking time bomb” and a “threat” to national security.

Despite the concern and controversy sparked by the almajirai, there is a dearth of research engaging directly and in depth with the constituencies of the “traditional” Qur’anic schooling system. That the existing literature does not contribute to a better understanding of the system is a particularly severe shortcoming, given the enthusiasm with which speculative narratives are constructed in some sections of the media. Such narratives craft their own realities, as people act upon their stereotypes.

Hannah Hoechner’s research aims to fill the gap in knowledge about almajirai. She explores the processes through which children become almajirai and what they learn while they are living as almajirai. She also engages with the (overwhelmingly negative) representations of the system and asks how young people living as almajirai position themselves with respect to such representations.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/1425 2019-05-06 Hannah Hoechner IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Postcolonial or Not? What do the labels “Historic period,” “historical archaeology,” and “Colonial” imply about the source materials drawn on, the time periods covered, and the conceptual vantages taken in interpre­ting the West African past? The historiographies presented are equally relevant to the understanding of the past—that is, the impacts of European contact, the Atlantic slave trade, and colo- nization—as they are to the present; the social, economic, and cultural landscapes of modernity, and how our views of the past shape these landscapes. This essay considers the varied episte­mological threads represented and their interpretive implica­tions. Although the hegemonic and transformative nature of Afri­ca's intersection with the Atlantic World is underscored, the need to situate these developments within the wider scope and tem­poral depth of the African past is also emphasized. Archaeology's central role in providing a holistic understanding of the temporal depth and complexity of African history, as well as archaeology's unique contribution to the understanding of the Atlantic world, is underscored.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/1517 2019-05-06 Christopher R. DeCorse IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
The Dilemma of Post-Colonial Universities The papers in this volume were presented at a conference organized by the Institut Français de Recherche en Afrique (IFRA) at the University of Ibadan on the 26th and 27th of October 1998, as part of the 50 anniversary celebrations of the University. This conference brought together scholars from anglophone and francophone countries who have been collaborating on a research programme which is concerned with elite formation and the restructuring of higher education in sub-Saharan Africa. The project was originally conceived in 1996 by IFRA and the Centre d'Etude d'Afrique Noire (Bordeaux, France).

Nigeria, with more than 50 per cent of the continent's university student population and 40 universities, constitutes the major thrust of the study; nevertheless the reports on Kenya, Senegal and Niger are equally informative and demonstrate that survival strategies and student unrest and 'cults' are not exclusive to Nigeria.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/992 2015-01-16 Yann Lebeau et Mobolaji Ogunsanya IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Trans-Border Studies This report is a pilot study - a fuller picture will emerge after more data shall have been collected, analysed and explained. Borders are artificially constructed, geographic or astronomic lines that form the boundary of a nation. Within this delimited boundary, a nation exercises power and jurisdiction and carries out its activities. In accordance with the sovereignty of the State, the central government can curtail, restrict or totally ban the unauthorized movement of goods and people across such lines.

 

Borderlands are defined as extending beyond the delimited border, covering an area that marks a nation's sphere of influence. Hanse (1981) describes it as 'the sub-national areas whose economic and social life is directly and significantly affected by proximity to an international boundary'. Contiguous countries have closely linked borderlands separated by an international boundary.

 

The three operational terms used in the study are border, movement and trading. The last two are essential to our understanding of the processes that make a border - not an imaginary, artificial line that divides, but a link or a bridge spanning border areas of adjoining countries.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/964 2013-06-27 Labo Abdulahi et Afolayan A.A. IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
IFRA Special Research Issue Vol. 2 With an estimated population of about 130 million and over 250 ethnic nationalities, Nigeria ranks the most populous country in black Africa. It is also one of the most resource-endowed countries in the continent, having an enormous stock of natural resources that include petroleum, bitumen, gold, coal, and bauxite. Its soil and climate are suitable for an all-year round farming and there is ample distribution of rivers for commercial fishing. Many observers (Achebe, 1983; Ayida, 1990; Fasanmi, 2002) have therefore argued that, given the vast pool of human and natural resources at its disposai, Nigeria should have emerged one of the richest countries not only in Africa but in entire the world.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/905 2013-04-16 IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
The Comfort of Strangers The Comfort of Strangers gives detailed information on the background to the Rwandan refugee problem and a vivid portrayal of the effects of the mass exodus of Rwandans into Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi and Zaire. The global community has, over the past eighty years, put in place an international refugee regime to regularize the status and provide for the control of stateless people ail over the world. Although host communities may initially open their doors to large numbers of people fleeing from their homelands, the long-term impact on the host countries is usually devastating and not often taken into account. This includes environmental dégradation, diminishing food security, dépréciation of the infrastructural base, pressure on the social and health sectors 3nd security risks. These Iead to sympathy fatigue and resentment. This book embodies an in-depth report made for UNCHS (Habitat) on the Rwandan refugee crisis and makes recommendations for its resolution, including compensation for host communites to enable them restore basic infrastructures and increase administrative capacity. Dr. Adisa also calls for a more efficient and humane treatment of the refugees and for their assisted resettlement.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/554 2013-04-09 Jinmi Adisa IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Transfrontier Regionalism. The Revival of Regional Integration in Africa The views and perspectives adopted by A.I. Asiwaju and D. Bach appear sufficiently distinct, yet they converge on several key issues: i.e., the informal achievement of regionalization in Africa through kinship and other non-state networks; the resistance of Africans to boundaries inherited from the colonial period; and the consequences of the arbitrariness of these boundaries.

 

Anyone who has ever crossed the Seme border between the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Republic of Benin cannot but subscribe to the perceptions shared by the two authors. Whatever the purpose of the trip, travellers crossing the border share the experience of being in a lawless area: the occasional traveller who behaves suspiciously will immediately attract the attention of the immigration officer who begins to search through his papers scrupulously, looking for any error; on the other hand, the market woman, who knows the system, crosses with ease. The popularization of these border scenes by novels and video productions is significant evidence of the intensity of transborder movements in West Africa, and of the constraints as well as the resources offered by the borders.

 

This dual reality of what appears as an obstacle to the implementation of institutionalized regional integration schemes and as the booster of an informal market-driven trade flow, is widely documented and discussed in the two papers.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/578 2013-04-09 A.I. Asiwaju et Daniel C. Bach IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
Ethnic Minority Conflicts and Governance in Nigeria Ethnic Minority Conflicts and Governance in Nigeria explores and analyses the underlying sources and salient features of recent ethnic minority conflicts in Nigeria, the largely controversial policies by which the Nigerian state has sought to contain these conflicts, and the prospects and preconditions for a more stable and equitable system of federal governance in the country. Through an insightful examination of two most recent minority conflicts in the country, the author probes the contemporary problems of ethnic minorities. He appraises the management of the conflicts by the State, and proffers appropriate policy responses for the resolution of the country's ethnic minority problems. The book is recommended to policy makers, students of history and political science, academicians and the general public.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/748 2013-04-09 Rotimi T. Suberu IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria
IFRA Special Research Issue Vol. 1 The ugly phenomenon of terrorism has a long history, it hit the world like a thunderstorm in the 1970s, especially with the 1972 Black Septembist kidnapping of Jewish athletes during the Munich Olympic, and the plane hijacking that led to the Israeli raid on Entebbe airport in 1976 to free Jewish hostages, however, it was the September 11, 2001 attacks by suicide bombers against the United States that transformed terrorism into a new kind of warfare: they hijacked three separate civil aircraft and turned them into instruments of mass destruction by crashing them into the twin towers of the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon, the July 7, 2005 multiple bombing of London confirms to a great extent this new thinking of about terrorism.

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https://books.openedition.org/ifra/794 2013-04-09 IFRA-Nigeria en IFRA-Nigeria