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IFRA Special Research Issue Vol. 2

Short Takes on New Nigerian Poetry from the Niger Delta

Ismail Bala Garba

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  • * Department of English and French Bayero University, Kano

1Note portant sur l’auteur*

2Joe Ushie, A Reign of Locust. Ibadan: Kraft Books, 2004, ISBN 978-039-107-X

3Barine Saana Ngaage, Rhythms of Crisis. Ibadan: Kraft Books, 2004, ISBN 978-039-123-1

4Ebi Yeibo, Maiden Lines, second edition. Ibadan: Kraft Books, 2004 [1997], ISBN 978-039-120-7

5G ‘Ebinyo Ogbowei, Let the Honey Run and Other Poems, second edition Ibadan: Kraft Books, 2005 [2001], ISBN 978-039-132-0.

Introduction

6The present essay offers an omnibus review of four poetry collections, written by poets from the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Since the advent of Modem Nigerian Poetry in English expression, such disparate poets as J. P. Clark-Bekederemo, Gabriel Okara, the late Ken Saro-Wiwa, Tanure Ojaide, Onookome Okome, and a host of others, have ably represented this unique part of the country in Nigerian poetry. Like the rest of poets in other parts of the country, poets from this region have imbued and enriched Nigerian poetry with their respective communities’ oral traditions and lore. Apart from that, perhaps the single most important contribution of poets from Niger Delta is both their political and literary attempts to put Niger Delta on the literary map, and show the world what was and is happening there in terms of disastrous oil exploration by ruthless multinational companies, which, invariably, results in the region’s environmental degradation, economic stagnation, and wanton suffering of the populace. So sustained and remarkable is this poetic protest by the Niger Delta poets that now within the annals of Nigerian poetry, (at least in its expansive English expression), there is the recognition of the unique feature of this indubitably Niger-Delta poetry of protest, and of raising awareness about the larger question of environmentalism and the place of Federalism, which seems to be the bane of the region within the Nigerian polity.

7Indeed, it is imperative (if not critically expedient) to consider these four new books of poetry in the light of the “overarching horizon” of other Niger-Delta poets, both established and new. This is not to suggest that all poets from the region seek to write with the same critical idiom, with the same displaced voice or with the same terrible tenor, necessitated by the terrible mess that the Niger Delta finds itself in. Rather, it is to establish the existence of a kind of “stylistic, even linguistic, meta-thematic tradition” that finds acceptance in a corpus of work emanating from the same region. The aim of an omnibus review of this kind is not to identify the same poetic inclination and sensibility within these disparate poets but to appraise, albeit briefly, each of the poets in the light of his or her own poetic terms.

Joe Ushie

8A Reign of Locusts by Joe Ushie is divided into four uneven parts containing fifty-two poems as a whole. Unlike his previous books, which stridently make their name and boldly confirmed Ushie’s growing reputation based on his eco poetry and nature-dominated concerns, the present collection seeks to explore and explain the recent happenings in Nigerian polity through ceaseless allusions and references to such happenings using the overriding metaphor of the locust. But this is not to suggest that the usual obsessive metaphor of a place of origin, of attachment to geography, of the sytnbolism of the earth, or of the imagery of the homeland is absent in A Reign of Locusts. Most of the time these metaphors and references to Nigerian political scene are powerfully substituted with that of vulture, hyena, hawk, tiger, lion, fox, or dragon in order to capture the precise, pervasive image (and indeed the reality) of injustice, extra judicial murder, corruption and all other vices associated with the long reign of military dictatorship in Nigeria, and to some extent with the present crop of “civilian dictators”. In the light of this, then, the first part of the collection, “Toward Canaan” is the most successful. And the first poem in that section, the political “beauty” titled “The African Bermuda” represents all these concerns in a miniature way. For it does seek to compare, even contrast, the real Bermuda Triangle with an imaginary, yet real Nigerian/African Bermuda. The similarity between the two Bermudas is that whatever crosses them banishes without a trace. Yet while the real Bermuda (in the Caribbean) is a geographic/natural phenomenon, that of Nigeria is man made because it came into existence through the evil conspiracies, (what Ushie calls “triangle”) of the soldier, the politician and the technocrat.

9The next poem, “Night, still” uses the quasi-surreal imagery of night and time (with capital N) to sustain the exploration of Nigeria’s recent political happenings. Here, Ushie’s fresh neologisms corne through with such words as “Hewman” (human), “Softstitutes” (substitutes), and “Compagriots” (Compatriots). Despite the gloom occasioned by the unnatural night of “eight-long tyrants”, the poet sees hope only when his fellow poets, whom he regards as embodying the conscience of the society, squarely face their task of “growing a flower of phrases” with their “swords of words” in order to confront the screaming “metaphors of pain”.

10The next poem, the historical/allusive “Musa’s Legacy” traces the root causes of the phenomenon of “African dictatorship” precisely in the supposedly dictatorial reign of Mansa Musa, the king of the former Empire of Mali (in the present Republic of Mali in West Africa). While the title poem’s inclination is to foreground the plethora of troubles and turmoil, there is still no respite even when we turn to the proverbial prayer as the last resort, for, as the poet says:

Our spade filled with curses
We laid to rest last dusk
Those ogres of our night of horror.
But the locust-choked sky
Darkens the infant rays
Of our rising sun.

Now is a rain of locusts
In a chewing race,
An endless eclipse for the wingless
Blister your knees
At your Faith’s prayer ground
Or they munch down our fences
These locusts (18).

11The same tenor and terse words mark another of the short poems, which takes its title from a cannibal called Clifford Orji (who was arrested for cannibalism in Lagos in 1999). The poem is not a celebration of what Orji did or indeed of cannibalism. It is, rather, an indictment of all those who are at the forefront of condemning vices like that of Orji while being guilty of even more heinous crimes. Another poem in this section, which is similar in tone and style with the previous one, is the aptly titled “The Uniform”. It captures the tragedy of Nigeria with brevity as it is with absolute certainty about who the real culprits are: they are the devils in whatever kind of uniform, whether bluish or darkish; and they seem to be united by one aim, despite the different colours of their unitorm. For all have “The cowed pregnant palms/ Delivering into wolfish trays/Cobwebbing the land’s path” (28).

12The poems in Section Two, “Back to the Hill and Vales, are no more than a transmutations -linguistic and lyrical adaptation/adoption -of popular songs by singers from the Obudu region of Cross River State, such as the late Umali Alikpong, (popularly known as Angbeb-ishang, of Bebuagbong, Obudu), Atsu Akpegah of Okambi, Obudu, and other poems (at least going by their titles) are derived from oral literature of the region. Section Three, “Voices and Moods of the Silent Wild and Other Deep Matters... ” contains the inevitable rain song, “Rain Season”, the nature-dominated “Particle” which highlights the human domestication of nature. There is also the semi-concrete/graphological poem, “Tongues”, and the beautifully wrought “Sleep” which lyrically foregrounds not only the inevitability of sleep, but its varied, disparate manifestations in our lives; a superb, but brief treatise on the Congo music of the same name; and the romantic “Season of Flower”. Section Three, “Returns” contains mostly tributes poems.

13In the end, A Reign of Locusts establishes further the place of Joe Ushie in the new Nigerian poetry. With varied voices and style the book shows that even when there is a central theme with which a poet like Ushie is usually identified, that theme could be realised without an explicit recourse to it. Like in his previous collections, Joe Ushie has demonstrated that a concern for the degradation of the environment is closely linked with the assumption that poets, like all other creative artists, are physically, culturally and metaphorically rooted in specifie geographies, and that they strive towards the well-being of those physical and cultural geographies. In this remarkable collection, Ushie has shown that when it cornes to what Charles Bodunde (2002:195) calls “the appropriation of the physical environment” -as both subject and object, Ushie is a master in portraying the decay in the people’s lives.

Barine Saana Ngaage

14Barine Ngaage’s Rhythms of Crisis is his second published collection. And in it the poet carves a world, which is entirely his: it is a world, which has a close affinity with the larger Nigerian/African world that is invariably etched and marked by varied crisis of one form or another. There is, for instance, the crisis of conscience and of crisis of much more tangible things, such as politics, the economy, and morality. The poet sees it as his ultimate duty to confront these crippling crises; for, he sees himself as not just the embodiment of his society’s debased conscience, but also as the society’s “soft spot”: its sensitive part that both laments and celebrates its wealth and its woes. The poet’s voice is urgent and calls for both the renewal of hope amidst squalor, and the reign of justice in the midst of suffering.

15Though Rhythms of Crisis is not divided into any discernible parts, the poems could be read as part of an overarching theme on the issues outlined above. Nevertheless, each of the fifty-eight poems could also be read independently of the other, and with each having its own subject matter, as it were.

16In the first poem, “Letter to a Surgeon” there is a tacit reference to the annulled June 12th elections of 1993, which almost led to the collapse of the country as an independent state. As the title suggests, the poem is written as a lamentatory-missive to a mythical surgeon (a higher being: part an accomplice, and part a sympathiser) who would “cure” the ills of the country, the most obvious of which being the debacles occasioned by the annulled elections. For the callous annulment of the elections amounts to a calculated murder, a crisis of conscience, for which the poet asks ruefully:

Did you hear my conscience beat
On the bed of your theatre?
There I lay like a crossroad,
My eyes were lifted into the face of the nation,
Where I read crises.
My heart ached when June became pregnant
Surgeons were called into the theatre;
The child was ripped out of her womb
[...]
My nation lamented the inauspicious mystery.
It was then my ailment began
In the commotion of tongues,
In the fear of futuristic ill-omen (9, emphasis added).

17The poem concludes with a note of hope, and highlights the nascent democracy now taking root in the country; it equally calls on established democratic nations to assist in the development and strengthening of our own democratic institutions and principles when the poets enthuses:

My regards to great democracies:
Tell Switzerland my people love its bed of roses
Where thorns are almost extinct;
Tell Norway my people search for light.
Tell Sweden democracy peeps through the mirror of greed here
And Denmark should know my nation is like a tender child (p. 11).

18Another poem that merits mentioning here is the short, epigraphic “Earth Falls Over the Cleft of Time” which is a nature poem of sorts. It celebrates the earth and its resilience, (even in the face of increasing degradation). As for the poem, “Blindness”, it rather juxtaposes the state of blindness in three different situations: in bats, in canoës and in humans. Blindness is seen as liberating, something that empowers whosoever it afflicts to fly like the jet, or to dance with elegance and grace. What the poet calls the “inconvenience of blindness” shields the blind man “from the gun that shoots through the eyes”, even though “he walk[s] and hear[s] its echoes in the earth” (28). The next poem, “My Brothers Travelled Faster than Light”, is a tribute to departed people dear to the poet. It laments their death without mentioning it: it is a subtle dirge that asks some unsettling rhetorical questions regarding death when it says:

When a kite steals a chicken
We blâme the mother for negligence
When a lion devours a sheep,
We blame the shepherd for carelessness
But when our brothers travel
Lord, whom do we blame? (30).

19“I am the Canoe” is about the duality inherent in things particularly in the eponymous canoe, which, like the poet, has to negotiate its precarious position between two or more contending places at once:

I am the canoe
Torn between warm and cold currents,
I am the canoe
That does not worship any of the currents (36).

20And the satiric “Radical Choice”, offers, as the title claims, a choice supposedly informed by tact and taste apt by the situation at hand:

Poised between two sacrificial items,
Greed and Service,
I chose greed
As an expert I laid it on an altar,
Killed greed on the eve of initiation
And killed the Greedy in the bosom of plenty (43).

21In the last analysis, Rhythms of Crisis is a powerful testimony to the (textually displaced, but linguistically-and-orally realised) utilitarian value of poetry in forging a sense of self-worth not only in the poet but also in the readers. With a clutch of fresh metaphors, memorable lines, inventive cadences, and rich rhythms Barine Ngaage ensures his places in recent Nigerian poetry in English.

Ebi Yeibo

22Ebi Yeibo’s first collection, Maiden Lines, is a book of thirty-four poems of varying lengths and style, ranging from short takes like “Friends”, “When a Loved One Dies”, “Religious Hypocrisy”, and “The Clown”, to long lyrics like “Reunion”, “Transition”, “Kernel in the Shell” and “The Golden Bird”. Like Ngaage’s Rhythms of Crisis, Yeibo’s Maiden Lines is also not delineated into any explicit divisions, whether thematic or organizational, but it can still be read as a whole, as poems possessing the same vision and objective. As a title, Maiden Lines hints at both the incision usually patterned on Izon maidens and also subtly foregrounds the collection as to what it undoubtedly is: a debut collection. The poems -both metaphorically and aesthetically -have the same inerasability and permanence as the maiden’s lines which adorn the cover of the book.

23There is indeed a strong stylisticand thematic affinity between Ebi Yeibo and the other poet of the Niger Delta, Tanure Ojaide, in that they both share an abiding interest in the environment and the people of the Niger Delta. As such, Maiden Lines is (as the blurb claims) a sustained sequence of “canoe songs” known and sung by the various riverine people of the Delta. Yeibo metonymically evokes the physical environment of the Delta not just as the objective in his lyrical portraiture of the Niger Delta, but also as his own poetic interventions on life generally. Therefore, the Niger Delta provides both the setting (the immediate backdrop), and the inspiration behind the collection.

24The fïrst poem is significant in line with the collection’s thematic concern. “Mermaid” partakes in the same mythical invocation such as that memorably achieved by Christopher Okigbo’s celebrated “Mother Idoto”. And it is no coincidence that the poem is dedicated to Okigbo. Here, the poet-persona sees himself, (and all other educated people from the region), as a prodigal returning home -physically and metaphorically -after a sojourn (or after imbibing an alien culture, such as Christianity, for instance), outside his immediate environment. It is, simultaneously, an invocation of the mermaid -like that of the Aridon of Tanure Ojaide, especially in the Fate of Vultures and Other Poems (1990); the Ajon of Olu Obafemi’s Songs of Hope (1999); the sacred Udala Tree of Chimalum Nwako’s The Womb in the Heart and Other Poems (2000); or the fabled Mammiwata/water mermaid of Onookome Okome’s The Mammiwata Poems ( 1999), or even the Kilago of Garba Mani Yangora’s Dizerykinks ( 1991 ), for example. It is also a kind of an offering of a quasi-religious cum spiritual-cultural ritual, or some form of mythical cleansing even, in the name of the water mermaid. This is also a form of placation, giving the mermaid some form of omnipotence. “Mortality” adopts powerfully, albeit briefly, the riddle nature of the Izon (the poet’s area in Niger Delta) proverbial lore:

And do we beat our chests
In the midnight?
Beating drums of glory
Shrouded in the dark?
[...]
Two kernels that live
In the same shell
Must taste breath the same day
And as one melts in the teeth
The other waits for its fatal turn (pp. 18-19, original emphasis).

25Ebi Yeibo is also a romantic poet, though not in the usual sense of the word. There are a host of poems that could be labelled romantic poems with “I Can’t Leave Her” as representative of such enigmatic poems. It is a “love” poem for the poet’s alma mater; hence his place of poetic inspiration and crafït, the Delta State University, Abraka. Here, the setting provided by the university is akin to that afforded to the poet by the entire Niger Delta: it is a miniature Niger Delta as it represents all the features that combine to make the Delta the object of admiration and the subject of the poet’s verse:

We talked and talked and talked
Far into the charcoal-dark night
Till cockroaches ceased to scurry
And cruising car lights
Find no more hugging spirits
Singing mating songs unheard,
Breast against breath, to desecrate.
[...]
And I, on my part,
Simply whispered in her right ear
In a faint, almost inaudible voice:
“Why is it that
I can’t ever leave you? ”
And she, on her part,
Gazed straight into my eyes
As one instantly possessed,
And said in a cool, piercing voice
That gripped me mad:
“You will soon know
And will continue to know ” (20-21, original emphasis).

26“The Weeds” is about the eponymous weed and about the fate that awaits all weeds, which is captured and portrayed as nothing more than parasitic thorn; while “Carcass” is also about the title’s carcass, and also about human waste catalysed by “Black men in white apparel”, who are vultures, earnestly looking for putrefying carcasses. Both “River Forcados” and “River Ethiope” are concerned with rivers named in the titles; they are, as it were, love poems since they personify the rivers as if they were women with whom the poet is in amorous relationship:

Pregnancy of parallels!
She echoes the tune of life;
Timed splashes punctuate
The undercurrents
In the sweet rhythms
Of her solemn flow (“River Forcados”, 46).

Your mild feminine face
Breeds multiple adoration
Courting suitors from far and wide
That come [sic] to behold your natural majesty
And bask in this splashing kiss and smile
That lie [sic] forever glued to men’s heart

See her clear ornamental face
Exuding an enchanting aura
Beyond man-made territories,
Eyes winking in the exchange
Of ecstatic pleasantries
With the yellow shatts of the crescent sun
Made golden in her convulsive embrace (“River Ethiope”, 61).

27In the end, Maiden Lines emerges as a collection that forges both private and public issues. It has lived up to the expectation of recent Nigerian poetry of artistically linking topicality with artistic accomplishment; of privileging the satiric mode, and of highlighting the multifarious disappointments of the realities of post-independence Nigerian state.

G ‘Ebinyo Ogbowei

28‘Ebinyo Ogbowei’s let the honey run and other poems [sic] is, like some of the books reviewed above, a debut collection fïrst published in 2001 and now reproduced and repackaged in an exciting second edition. The book represents a bold attempt in the daring fusion of fresh metaphors, deep level imagination, profound poetic sensibility, and some topical considerations. The fifty-one poems are divided into two thematic and organizational sections whose overall foci are a vindication of the poet’s ceaseless, committed wanderings between issues that are decidedly private, communal and national. The three disparate phases are intermingled in such a way that even a personal tragedy (like, say, the end of a relationship), is transformed into a communal concern, while a “national need” -like that of a viable democratic culture, for instance -is made visible in the profoundest of manner.

29As such, the nationalism and the sense of loss associated with the ruthless rape and relentless ravaging of the poet’s native Niger Delta are among the most moving within the tradition of lament poetry of the Niger Delta. For this. The second section of let the honey run is the most successful; while the first section is notable for a number of love poems, inspired by real relationships, and also couched in images of the country as both the object of love and of revulsion. For, between the expression of outrage and the desire for change, there is, squeezed in-between, a strong sense of survival against all odds. Therefore, the image of honey running is that of a powerful vision, even a sweet dream awaiting fulfilment to the poet. as it is to the Niger Delta.

30All the poems were written between 1986 and 1999, and each of them is dated, thereby conferring on the book a unique identity within the avalanche of books of poetry published recently in the country. (Apart from this poet, the only other contemporary Nigerian poet who dots and adoms his poems with dates, place of publication, and even time of composition is Chike Ofili whose Our Unspoken Ties [2001] bears close resemblance to let the honey run in this regard). Dating one’s poems may, at first, appear to be a way of asserting one’s idiosyncratic, stylistic inclination; but it also fireezes the poems within a particular time frame and stupefies them within a specifie politico-historical and social context.

31Also, there is the complete absence of punctuation and initial capitalization of lines and of proper name, not even the title of the book! This deviant style -either of absent or sparing use of punctuation -is mostly associated with African-American poets who are perpetuating its use in order to steer clear of the dominant tradition of capitalization, hence formality, associated with white American poets; and is also used to vigorously deploy a brisk stylistic feature with a view to make visible a radicalisation of orally dependant poetic tradition. But here none of this is apparent or felt in Ogbowei’s poetry.

32Even though let the honey run, unlike some of the books discussed above, does not overtly rely on the oral tradition of the poet’s Izon region in terms of transmutation of oral songs into poems, (like in Joe Ushie’s A Reign of Locusts, for instance), it, nonetheless, attains a level of orality albeit in a displaced way. This is achieved by the deft and skilful use of untranslated Izon words and expressions, which are later, colleted and annotated in an informative glossary.

33The book opens with the rhythmic “christmas”, which, even though dealing with the mundane and the usual, achieves a height of lyricism avalled by the refrain:

mummy mummy
you’ll buy us new shoes of fine leather
a pair for me
a pair for heather (12, original emphasis).

34In “grandmother’s face”, however, there is a nostalgie lamentation about the withering and the subsequent passing away of the poet’s grandmother. There are other good love poems in the first section: poems such as “gloria glorifies the groin”, “so ‘ba daughter of the sea”, “for the love of mary” and “sarah”. The title poem, “let the honey run”, while being openly inclined towards the rest of the poems in the section as a love lyric, doubles up as a poem where the poet employs a host of military metaphors, (“howitzer”, “machine gun”, “trenches”, and “bunkers”), to showease the militarisation and the corresponding militant attitudes of the people of the Niger Delta, as they have been brutalised by the repressive soldiers of the Nigerian military. In the second section of the collection, “lament”, there is the inevitable Ken Saro-Wiwa poem, one on the Bosnian civil war, another on the annulled June 12, 1993 elections in Nigeria, and on the late music maestro, Fela Kuti, as well as a clutch of tributes and dirges on the poet’s friends and relatives.

35In the last analysis, then, let the honey run is a kind of book, hard to find, difficult to dismiss and one to praise for its spectacular poetic depth, creative subtlety, and aesthetic profundity. Such a book is only realised by poets at the height of their poetic pace and power; indeed, it a collection that could only be written by poets who are free from any kind of creative block, whose inspiration is not imprisoned within any imaginative confine, whose creative muse has not departed them.

Conclusion

36What emerges from the foregoing is that Nigerian poetry, as shown by the four poets from the Niger Delta discussed above, has never been more exciting, more robust and engaging as it is now. What these poets have demonstrated is that apart from the usual fusion of topicality and artistic achievement, raising awareness about the disappointing realities of post-independence Nigeria, what Tanure Ojaide ( 1996:77) calls the “consequences of socio-economic hardships”; the ensuing search for political alternatives; raising hope in the face of ceaseless suffering; striving towards the evolvement of distinctively national literature; and the debate about appropriate language and form, Nigerian poets, (particularly those from the Niger Delta), are increasingly turning towards their various, rich oral traditions as a veritable source for both inspiration and meta-thematic sensibilises. And orality is seen by Ezenwa Ohaeto, himself a pre-eminent Nigerian poet, as, principally:

The desires of the poets to eliminate textual impediments, unclog poetic syntax and infuse the poems with the oral flavour of the rich and variegated Nigerian culture, hinged on this conscious reaction to make more people enjoy poetry, despite their occupations, in spite of their preconceived ideas of the poetic craft, and notwith-standing their levels of intellectual sophistication (1998: 11).

37Orality is now as much the subject, (some would say the subjectivity), as the cliched “clash of cultures” once was. For these poets have vindicated that orality (whether in a conventional way, or in a displaced mode) is the vital link between the ethical and moral on the one hand, and the didactic nature of (some) Nigerian poetry with its utilitarian fonction on the other. And the subject of environmentalism—eco poetry—is slowly but significantly interspersing Nigerian poetry: poets from the Niger Delta are the masters, the proponents of this form of poetry where a rich, textually and linguistically diverse world, or homeland/ locality, is weaved into a larger cultural map, while being acutely conscious of its beauty, and of the continued survival of its eco system and its culture in a milieu of both political, economic and social independence, and development.

Works Cited

38BODUNDE, CHARLES. “Tanure Ojaide’s Poetry and the Delta Landscape: A Study of Delta Blues and Home Songs. In Writing the Homelands: The Poetry and Politics of Tanure Ojaide, Bayreuth African Studres Series, 60. Ed. Onookome Okome. Bayreuth: Eckhard Breitinger/Bayreuth University, 2002, pp. 195-208.

39NWANKO, CHIMALUM. The Womb in the Heart and Other Poems. San Francisco: African Heritage Press, 2002.

40OBAFEMI, OLU. Songs of Hope: Poems. florin: Joe-Noye, 1999.

41OFILI, CHIKE. Our Unspoken Ties. Lagos: Reputation Consulting, 2001.

42OHAETO, EZENWA. “Introduction: Towards a Poetics of Orality”. In Contemporary Nigerian Poetry and the Poetics of Orality, Bayreuth African Studies, 45. Bayreuth: Eckhard Breitinger/Bayreuth University, 1998, pp. 11-19.

43OJAIDE, TANURE. “New Trends in Modem African Poetry”. In Poetic Imagination in Black Africa: Essays on African Poetry. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 1996, pp. 72-94.

44OJAIDE, TANURE. The Fate of Vultures and Other Poems. Lagos: Malthouse, 1990.

45OKIGBO, CHRISTOPHER. Labyrinths with Path of Thunder. London: Heinemann, 1971.

46OKOME, ONOOKOME. The Mammiwata Poems. Calabar: University of Calabar Poetry Press, 1999.

47Y ANGORA, GARBA. MANI. Dizerykinks. Kano: Tayab General Enterprises, 1991.

Endnotes

* Department of English and French Bayero University, Kano

© IFRA-Nigeria, 2006

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