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Ethnic Minority Conflicts and Governance in Nigeria

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Rotimi T. Suberu

Index

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Abacha, General Sani, 80

Abbe, Govemor Godwin, 46

Action Group (AG), 19-20

Acton, Lord, 77

Adegbite, Justice Emmanuel, 59

Adegbite tribunal, 60

Agbaki, Fidelis, 45

Aguiyi-Ironsi, General Johnson, 21

Ajayi, Chief G.O.K., 60

Ake, Professor Claude, 78, 83

Akpamgbo, Clement, 42

American-style presidential model (system), 24, 75

Amnesty International, 34, 46

Andoni community, 43

Armed Forces Ruling Council, 57, 60

Asemota, S.A., 67

Asiodu, P.C, 21

Association of Mineral Producing Areas of River State (AMPARS), 33

Association of Minority States, 2

Association of Minority Oil States (AMOS), 33, 41

Auta, Justice Ibrahim, 82

Ayida, Allison, 21

Ayo Irikefe Panel, 22

Ayok, Juri Babang, 54, 58

Babangida Administration, 30, 36, 40-41, 62, 64

Babangida, President Ibrahim, 25, 59

Badey, Chief Albert, 44

Bayelsa, 32

Benin-Delta Peoples Party (BDPP), 20

Bornu Youth Movement (BYM), 20

British Parlimentary Human Rights Group (BHRG), 34

Buhari, General Mohammadu, 30

Bumham, J., 77

CARIA (Cross River, Akwa Ibom, Rivers, Imo and Anambra), 41-42

Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN), 50

Civil Disturbances (Special Tribunal) Decree No. 2 (Civil Disturbances Act Cap. 53), 59-60

Clark, Edwin, 67

Colonial Commission of Inquiry (1957-58), 18

Committee of Northern Elders, 42

Committee of Oil Producing Areas, 2

Committee of Peace and Unity, 42

Committee of Unity and Understanding, 42

Commonwealth of Oil Producing Areas, 41

Communal contenders, 6, 8

— Advantaged types, 6

— Disadvantaged types, 6

Community

— autonomism, 10

— development programmes, 32

— leaders, 14 Confederalism, 10

Consociational democracy, 10-11

Constitution (1979), 74

— (1989), 28

Constitution Drafting Committee (1975), 74

Constitutional Conference (1958), 18

Cudjoe Commission, 57, 59

— recommendations, 57- 58

Cudjoe, Rahila H., 57

Customary Court of Appeal, 51, 58

Dahl, Robert, 77

Dasuki, Alhaji Ibrahim (Sultan of Sokoto), 55

Democratic

— accountability, 81

— governance, 2-3, 15, 19

— institutions, 66, 78

— pluralism, 10

— process, 76

— transition in Nigeria, 4, 25

Derivation principle, 23

— mineral revenues, 27, 29, 30

Development Board, 18

Devolution, 10

Distributable Pool Account (DPA), 23

Distributive principle, 40

Donli Commission, 57

Donli, Hansine, 56

Douglas, Graham, 67

Eastern I bo, 17

Ebong, Eme, 21

Ecological

— Fund, 37

— rehabilitation, 24

Economic

— decentralization. 69-70

— domination, 40

— reconstruction, 25

— redistribution, 9

Egbe Ilosiwaju Yoruba, 42

Electoral advantage, 18

Environmental

— recklessness, 31

— survey, 80

Ethnic and environmental rights, 80

Ethnic and religious conflagrations, 1

Ethnic

— associations. 2

— autonomy, 11

— boundaries, 71

— challenges, 81

— chauvinist parties, 13

— conflict management, 3

— conflict resolution, 4

— conflicts, 8, 19

— features of, 8-9

— constituencies, 9

— diversity and imbalance, 39

— identities, 68

— majority domination, 13

— majority groups, 82

— minorities leaders, 78

Ethnic minority

— advocacy infrastructure, 78-79

— agitations, 13, 41, 78

— alienation and discontent, 66

— autonomy, 22

— communities, 25, 66-68, 78-79

— constituencies, 18, 24

— demands, 20

— discontent, 16, 25, 36.46-47, 76

— reasons for, 25-26

— elites, 6, 50, 67

— fears, 19

— grievances, 5, 20

— conditions of, 5-6

— groups, 74, 79

— interests, 24, 76, 78

— opposition, 52, 75

— problems. 3-4. 59, 71

— resentments. 29

— rights, 67, 76, 78, 81

Ethnic Minority Rights Organization of Africa (EMIROAF) 2, 33-34, 42, 77

Ethnic Minority Rights Organization of Nigeria (EMIRON), 33, 42

Ethnic minority

— states, 71

— tensions, 1, 48, 81

Ethnic movements and’ agitators, 42 Ethnic

— nationality, 26

— pluralism, 4-5

— rebellion, 10

— stratification systems, 9

— trap, 9 Fedral Character, 13

— Commission. 80

— principle, 24.72-74 80

Federal coalition parties, 20

Federal

— governance and democracy, 2

— polity, 17

— resources, 40

— revenue sharing arrangements, 36

— structure, 19

— system, 3, 17, 19

— territorial structure, 70-71

Federalism, 3, 10, 14, 68, 82

Federation Account, 23-25, 30, 36-37, 39

First Military interregnum (1966-79). 16, 21-23

First Republic, 12-13, 16, 19-20, 73, 76 parliamentary system, 73

Fulani emirate system, 49

Fundamental human rights, 18, 60

Gorbachev, Mikhail, 1

Gowon(Yakubu), 21-22

Green Peace Organization, 34

Gurr, Ted., 6-10

Hausa-Fulani domination, 5

Horowitz, Donald, 9, 78

Horsfall, Chief Albert, 37

Ijaw Community, 29, 32

Ijaw Ethnic National Rights Protection Organization, 2 Ijaw

— federation, 32

— National Co-ordinating Committee, 38

— nationality, 40

— oil producing communities, 38

— states, 32

Ijaws, 32, 40

Ilenre, Alfred, 76-77

Ilorin-Kabba plebiscite, 18

Ilorin Talaka Parapo, 20

Indigenous peoples, 6

— Australian Aborigines, 6

— Masai and San of Africa, 6

Innih, George, 67

Inter-ethnic

— equity, 83

— power-sharing, 80

— representation, 72

Inter-governmental

— advisory boards, 13

— financial relations, 22

— revenue sharing, 23

— system, 66 Inter-regional competition, 10

Internal revenue generation, 69

Internal territorial configuration, 70

Ironsi Administration, 21

Isa, Colonel Ja’afaru, 81

Izalatu Islamic Group, 55

Jema’s Emirate of southem Zaria, 52

Judicial

— administration, 76

— institutions, 76

— reforms, 76

Kafanchan disturbances (1987), 52-53

Kafanchan Teachers College, Kafanchan, 52

Kaje ethnic group, 51

Karibi-Whyte, Justice A.G., 57

Kataf ethnic class, 63

Keller, Edmond, 35, 41, 46

Kiobel, Dr. Barinem, 44

Kobani, Chief Edward, 44

Komo, Lt. Colonel Dauda, 45

Land Use Decree of 1978, 27-28

Lekwot, General Zamani, 59, 81-82

Lere, Alhaji Dabo Mohammed, 57, 62

Leton, Garrick, 44

Lijphart, Arend, 10-11

London Rainforest Action Group, 34

Lowi, Theodore, 35

Mid-West Democratic Front (MDF), 20

Mid-West State Movement (MSM), 20

Middle Belt Forum, 2, 42

Mineral

— land rents, 27-28

— producing areas, 36-37

— producing communities, 80

— producing states, 25

— rents, 69

— and royalties, 28

— revenues, 80

Mining rents and royalties, 30

Minorities Commission, 18

— proposals, 19 Minority areas, 18

— establishment of, 18

Mitee, Ledum Anazor, 44

Mohammed, Murtala, 21, 74

Mohammed-Obasanjo Administration, 22

Movement for Reparation to Oloibiri (MORETO), 2, 34

Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP), 2, 28, 33-34, 44-46, 67, 78-79

Muhammadu, Alhaji isa (Emir of Jema’a), 53

Multi-ethnic societies, 4

Multiparty competition, 77

Muslim Hausa-Fulani elites, 50

Muslim Hausa-Fulani settlers, 52

Muslim judicial and legal system, 50

National Constitutional Conference (1994), 39, 70

National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC), 19, 20

National Defence and Security Council (NDSC), 60

National Emergency Relief Agency, 37

National Party of Nigeria (NPN) 24, 72

National question, 1

National Republican Convention (NRC), 62

National Unity Organization, 73

National Youth Council of Ogoni People, (NYCOP), 44, 45

Native Authority administration, 51

Niger Delta Congress (NDC), 20

Niger Delta Environmental Survey (NDES), 80

Nigerian Bar Association (NBA), 82

Nigerian federalism, 39

Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), 36

Nigerian Society for the Protection of the Environment (NISOPEN) 34

Nigeria’s minority problems, 17

— roots of, 17

Nigeria’s political history, 16, 19

Northern Hausa-Fulani, 17

Northern Peoples Congress (NPC), 19-20

NPC/NCNC coalition. 20

Obasanjo, General Olusegun, 21, 73

Ogan, Chief P.U. (Amayanabo of Okrika), 79

Ogoni activists, 80-82

Ogoni-Andoni bloodbath (clashes), 43

Ogoni autonomy, 42

Ogoni Bill of Rights, 32-33

Ogoni Campaign, 33, 78

Ogoni Civil Disturbances, Tribunal, 82

Ogoni crisis, 75

Ogoni National Day Rally, 45

Ogoni trial, 82

Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development Commission (OMPADEC), 36- 39, 79

Oil mineral revenues, 36

Oil producing areas, 1 -2, 25, 31-32, 35-36, 39, 70

— ecological problems of, 27

Oil producing communities, (Rivers State), 1-2, 27-33, 36, 38, 69-70

— demands of, 27-33

— agitational and political activities, 33-35

Oil producing ethnic minorities, 14, 46

Oil producing minority state (Bendel), 24

Oil-producing Ogba community (Rivers), 78

Oil producing stales, 36, 39

Oil prospecting companies, 28, 31

Oil rents and royalties, 38

Oil revenues, 69

Oil-rich Delta minority communities, 67

Oil-rich states, 24

Ojetunji Aboyade Revenue Sharing scheme, 23

Okadigbo, Justice Benedict, 59-60

Okadigbo tribunal, 60

Okigbo Commission’s recommendation, 25

Okigbo, Dr. Pius. 24

Orage, Chief Samuel, 44

Orage, Chief Theophilus, 44

Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), 25-26, 52

Osaghae, 13

Otobo, Chief J.E., 38

Otu-Edo, 20

Peoples Redemption Party (PRP), 52

Petroleum Decree of 1969.28

Petroleum royalties and profits tax, 32

Pius Okigbo Commission (Revenue Allocation). 24, 28

Political

— appointments. 63

— associations, 20, 83

— autonomy. 62

— Bureau, 13

— (report 1986-87), 64

— crisis, 19

— domination, 17, 49

— turbulence, 12

Pollution of water, land, vegetation, 31 Power-sharing, 10-11

— mechanisms, 71 -72

— Accommodative strategies, 71-75

— principles, 73

— regime, 78 Presidential system, 74-75

— Swiss model, 75

Quasi-judicial institutions, 76

Rahila Cudjoe Commission of Inquiry. 55

Redistributive policies, 35-39

Regional

— administrative decentralization, 10

— arrangement. 17

— autonomism, 10

— elites. 19 Religious

— discrimination, 63

— fundamentalism, 2

— mobilization, 52

Reorganizational policies, 35, 39-41. 46

Revenue Allocation Committee, 39

Revenue

— allocation in Nigeria, 29

— sharing, 22, 76

— arrangement, 36, 69, 71

— principles, 23, 69

— yielding capacity, 23

Right Livelihood Award (1994), 46

Regulatory policies (Repressive), 35, 41-47

Rivers Forum for State Creation, 40

Rotschild, Joseph, 9

Rupesinghe, Kumar, 8-10

Saro-Wiwa, Ken, 34, 38, 42-46, 71, 78, 80, 82

— as prisoner of conscience, 46

Sartori, Giovanni, 77

Second Military Interregnum (1984), 16, 25-26

Second Republic (1979-83), 13, 16, 23-25, 30, 72-73, 76

Second Republic Constitution, 73

Sectarian movements, 26

Senate-initiated Revenue Act, 25

Shagari Administration, 24

Sharia Court of Appeal, 51

Shell Petroleum Development Company, 32

Shika, Alhaji Isa Aliyu, 61

Shika Committee, 61

Smith. M.G. 48

Southem Minorities Forum, 2

Stele creation (1967), 22

— exercise (1967), 71

— strategy, 64

State-ethnic minority relations, 78-79

Statutory allocation, 37 ‘Summary fashion’ trial, 57

Territorial reforms, 71, 76

Third Republic, 2

Thombeny, 11-12

Toru-Ebe, 32

Treason and Treasonable Offences Decree (1993), 42

Tyoden, Sonni Gwanle, 72

Umuechem community, 35

Umuechem massacre, 46

United Middle Belt Congress (UMBC), 20

United National Independence Party (UNIP), 20

United Nations Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD), 34

United Nations Human Rights Commission, 42

United Nations Organization (UNO), 34

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO), 34

Western Yoruba, 17

Whitaker. C.S., 50

Williams. Donald, 73

World Conference of Indigenous Peoples, 34

Yahaya. A.D, 51

Yakubu Gowon Administration. 21

Zangon Katab

— case, 43

— crisis, 75

— district, 51

— disturbances, 52, 53-55, 81-82

— causes of, 55

Zaria emirate, 49-50

Zartman, William, 77

Zoning arrangements. 72

© IFRA-Nigeria, 1996

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