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Ethnic Minority Conflicts and Governance in Nigeria

Rotimi T. Suberu


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Articles and Books

Akande, Jadesola, (1988), ”The Minorities and the Challenge to Federalism”, Richard A. Olaniyan (ed.), Federalism in a Changing World, Lagos, Office of the Minister of Special Duties, The Presidency.

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______. (1987), ”Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict”, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 25, 1(1987), pp.117-128.

______. (1988), Class, Ethnicity and Democracy in Nigeria: The Failure of The First Republic, London, Macmillan.

Doornbos, Martin, (1991), ”Linking the Future to the past: Ethnicity and Pluralism”, Review of African Political Economy, No. 50, pp. 53-65.

Efeni, Emmanuel, (1992), ”Agony of Ogoni Community”, The Guardian, (28 December).

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______. (1980), Report of the Presidential Commission on Revenue Allocation, Apapa, Federal Government Press.

______. (1986), Report of the Political Bureau, Lagos, Federal Government Printer.

______. (1987), Government’s Views and Comments on the Findings and Recommendations of the Political Bureau, Lagos, Federal Government Printer,

______. (1989), ”Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (Promulgation) Decree 1989”, Supplement to Official Gazette Extraordinary, 76, 29, (3 May).

______. (1992), ”Association of Individuals (Dissolution and Proscription, etc) Decree 1992”, Supplement to Official Gazette, 79, 20, (3 July), A16.

Gleason, Gregory, (1992), ”The Federal Formula and the Collapse of the USSR”, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 22, 3, (Summer), pp. 141-163.

Gurr, Ted Robert, (1993), Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflicts, Washington DC, United States Institute of Peace Press.

Harff, Barbara, (1993), ”Minorities, Rebellion, and Repression in North Africa and the Middle East” in Minorities at Risk by Ted Gurr (1993).

Hettne, Bjorn, (1987), Ethnic Conflict in International Relations, Stockholm, Delegation for Emigrant Research Report, No.6.

Horowitz, Donald, (1985), Ethnic Groups in Conflict, Berkeley, University of California Press.

Human Rights Watch/ Africa (1995) Nigeria: The Ogoni Crisis - A Case-study of Military Repression in Southeastern Nigeria, New York, Human Rights Watch.

Ibrahim, Jibrin, (1989), ”The Politics of Religion in Nigeria: The Parameters of the 1987 Crisis in Kaduna State”, Review of African Political Economy, Nos. 45-46, pp.65-82.

Jibrin, Inuwa, (1993), ”Split Kaduna into Zazzau and Jema’a States”, New Nigerian, (11 March).

Joseph, Richard, (1978), ”Political Parties and Ideology in Nigeria”, Review of African Political Economy, 13, (May-August), pp. 78-90.

Keller, Edmond J., (1983), ”The State, Public Policy and the Mediation of Ethnic Conflict”, Donald Rotchild and Victor Olorunsola (eds), State Versus Ethnic Claims: African Policy Dilemmas, Boulder, Co, Westview Press.

Kukah, Mathew, (1992), ”Zangon-Kataf: Averting Disaster”, The Guardian, (2 July).

______. (1993), Religion, Politics and Power in Northern Nigeria, Ibadan, Spectrum Books.

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Mahmood, Yahaya, (1993), ”Human Rights and Zangon-Kataf Riots”, Citizen, (15 February), pp.36-39.

Mihajlov, Mihajlo, (1991), ”Can Yugoslavia Survive?”, Journal of Democracy, 2, 2, (Spring), pp.79-91.

Naanen, Ben, (1995), ”Oil Producing Minorities and the Restructuring of Nigerian Federalism: The Case of the Ogoni People”, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 33, l,pp.46-78.

Nnoli, Okwudiba, (1978), Ethnic Politics in Nigeria, Enugu, Fourth Dimension Publishers.

Ogoni Bill of Rights (1990) Presented to the Government and People of Nigeria (November), 7pp.

Okilo, Melford, (1980), ”The Derivation Principle and National Unity”, Daily Times, (19 July).

Okpu, Ugbana, (1977), Ethnic Minority Problems in Nigerian Politics: 1960-1965, Uppsala, Acta Universitatis Uppsaliensis.

Olowu, Dele, (1990), ”Centralization, Self-Governance and Development in Nigeria”, The Failure of the Centralized State: Institutions and Self Governance In Nigeria, James Wunsch and Dele Olowu (eds), Boulder, Co., West view Press. (1991) ”The Literature on Nigerian Federalism: A Critical Appraisal”, Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 21, 4 (Fall), pp.155-171.

Osaghae, Eghosa, (1986), ”Do Ethnic Minorities Still Exist in Nigeria?”, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 24, 2, pp.151-168.

______. (1991), ”Ethnic Minorities and Federalism in Nigeria”, African Affairs, 90, 359, pp.237-258.

______. (1995), ”The Ogoni Uprising”, African Affairs, 94, 376, pp.325-344.

______. Oyovbaire, Egite, (1985), Federalism in Nigeria, London, Macmillan.

Plattner, Marc, and Diamond, Larry, (1993), ”The Challenge of Ethnic Conflict”, Journal of Democracy, 4, 4, p. 17.

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Rotchild, Donald, (1963), ”Safeguarding Nigeria’s Minorities”, Duquesne Review, 35-51. (1985), ”State-Ethnic Relations in Middle Africa”, African Independence: The First Twenty-Five Years. M.G. Carter and P.O’Meara (eds), Bloomington, Indiana University Press. (1986), ”Interethnic Conflict and Policy Analysis in Africa”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 9, 1 (January) 66-86. (1991), ”An Interactive Model for State-Ethnic Relations”, Conflict Resolution in Africa, Francis M. Deng and I. William Zartman (eds) Washington, The Brookings Institution.

Rotschild, Joseph, (1981), Ethnopolitics: A Conceptual Framework, New York, Columbia University Press.

Rupesinghe, Kumar, (1987), ”Theories of Conflict Resolution and their Applicability to Protracted Ethnic Conflicts”, Bulletin of Peace Proposals, 18,4, pp.527-539.

Sanda, A.O., (1976), Ethnic Relations in Nigeria, Ibadan, Department of Sociology, University of Ibadan.

Saro-Wiwa, Ken, (1992), ”Federalism and the Minority”, The Guardian, (30 November), 37.

Sartori, Giovanni, (1987), The Theory of Democracy Revisited, Chatham, Chatham House Publishers.

Smith, M.G., (1960), Government in Zazzau, London, Oxford University Press.

Soremekun, Kayode, and Cyril, Obi, (1993), ”Oil and the National ,Question,” in The National Question and Economic

Development in Nigeria, Ibadan, The Nigerian Economic Society.

Suberu, Rotimi, (1992), ”Problems of Federation in the Second Nigerian Republic and Prospects for the Future” Africa, (Roma) 47, 1 (March), pp.29-56.

Thornberry, Patrick, (1980), ”Minority Rights, Human Rights and International Law”, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 3, 3 (July), pp. 249-263.

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Tyoden, Sonni-Gwanle, (1993), The Middle-Belt in Nigerian Politics, Jos, Aha Publishing House.

Varshney, Ashutosh, (1992), ”India: Liberalism Vs Nationalism”, Journal of Democracy, 3, 3 (July), pp. 147-53.

Wali, Obi, (1982), ”Rationale for the Demand for Port- Harcourt State”, Creation of States in Nigeria: A Review of Rationale, Demands and Problems Up to 1980 O. Adejuyigbe, L. Dare and A. Adepoju (eds), Lagos, Federal Government Printer.

Welsh, David, (1993), ”Domestic Politics and Ethnic Conflict”, Survival, 35, 1 (Spring), pp. 63-80.

Whitaker, C.S., (1970), The Politics of Tradition: Continuity and Change in Northern Nigeria, 1946-1966, Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Williams, Donald, (1992), ”Accommodation in the Midst of Crisis? Assessing Governance in Nigeria”, Governance and Politics in Africa, Goran Hyden and Michael Bratton (eds), Boulder, Co, Lynne Rienner.

Willinks, Henry, (1958), Nigeria: Report of the Commission Appointed to Enquire into the Fears of Minorities and the Means of Allaying Them, London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Yahaya, A.D., (1980), The Native Authority System in Northern Nigeria, Zaria, Ahmadu Bello University Press.

Young, Crawford, (1976), The Politics of Cultural Pluralism, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press.

Zartman, William I, (1993), ”Changing Forms of Conflict Mitigation”, Global Transformation and the Third World. Robert O. Slater, Barry M. Schutz and Steven R. Door (eds), Boulder, Co., Lynne Rienner.

Newspapers and Magazines

African Concord (Lagos)

African Guardian (Lagos)

Daily Times (Lagos)

Citizen (Kaduna)

National Concord (Lagos)

Newswatch (Lagos)

New Nigerian (Kaduna)

Sunday New Nigerian (Kaduna)

Sunday Vanguard (Lagos)

Tell (Lagos)

The Guardian (Lagos)

The News (Lagos)

Vanguard (Lagos)

© IFRA-Nigeria, 1996

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