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OpenEdition Books

Nigeria during the Abacha Years (1993-1998)

 | 
‘Kunle Amuwo
, 
Daniel C. Bach
, 
Yann Lebeau

Index

Texte intégral

A

Abacha, S., 222, 252, 319, 324, 327, 335-339, 341, 345, 357-8
and Babangida transition, 326
and Constitutional Conference, 7, 8, 18, 52, 107, 114
and ECOWAS, 52
and external debt, 50
and Interim National Government, 96
and origins of NADECO, 163 repression of NADECO members, 166
and pro-democracy movement, 103
and reigns of power, 2-5, 321,
and the independent press, 19- 21, 22
and MNCs, 334
and 5 political parties, 37, 38
anti-Yoruba, 18
as predator, 5
bans government adverts in independent press, 198
bid to become president, 7, 28
bomb scares, 19-20
confrontation with civil society, 26
creation of six administrative regions, 329
crimes against opponents, 14, 18, 22
death, 358
denies opposition, 27
dissolves Nigerian Labour Congress, 134
dismisses ING, 291
drafts some liberals into first cabinet, 191
enemies in the Niger Delta, 19, 23-24, 28
hangs ‘Ogoni Nine’, 24
hosts Nelson Mandela, 349
lucrative oil deals, 35
minister for defence, 342
National Commission for Human Rights, 211
National Electoral Commission of Nigeria (NECON), 97-98
northern traditional rulers support, 114
number of soldiers, 217-218
off-shore banking, 35
phantom coups, 19
profile of, 9-14
regime, 1, 261, 267, 268, 274-275, 280, 281-282, 283, 286, 287, 332
repression tactics against the media, 199-203
repressive nature of regime, 98
role in Babangida’s aborted transition programme, 97-98
ruined the military, 4
sanctions imposed against regime/Nigeria, 43, 335, 338
security network, 14
sentences journalists to life in prison, 203
sovereign national conference, 161, 296-297
takes over power, 325
transition to democracy programme, 8, 18, 32-34, 96-98, 107, 165, 170, 321 decrees under, 21
vendetta against Abiola’s family, 20, 28

Abacha, Maryam
Family Support Programme, 131, 325

Abdulazeez, Yakubu, 198

Abeokuta, 187

Abiola, Doyin, 204

Abiola, Kudirat, 19
assassinated, 21, 329, 352
pushes for husband’s mandate, 20

Abiola, MKO [see also cases)
Abacha junta ethnicizes rdare, 27
and National Democratic Coalition, 165
arrest and imprisonment, 262, 263, 265, 328, 345, 346
attempts to get him to renounce June 12, 44
Concord group of newpapers publisher, 342
set up Concord Press, 188-189,
sets up 3 newspapers in local languages, 189
death, 359-360
declares self president elect, 344, 346
family infiltrated by Abacha junta, 20, 28
independent press supports, 18
opponents of, 266
pillar in Shagari government, 188
presidential flagbearer for SDP, 342
presidential mandate [see June 121, 2, 9, 10, 30, 262, 291, 319,
Social Democratic Party abandons mandate, 19
traditional/religious leaders support, 114-115
wins presidential elections, 321

Aboderin, Olu, 215

Aborisade, Femi, 199

Abubakar, Abdulsalami, 16, 342, 358, 359, 362, 363
Abacha’s bid to retire

Abubakar, 38
as head of state, 44, 358
dissolves NECON, 359
inaugurates INEC, 360
new transition programme, 30, 358
seamy deals under, 34

Abuja, 214, 212, 345, 355, 359

Abuja High Court
restrains NEC from conducting
June 12 election, 343

Abuja Newsday, 200

Abuja Times, 214

Academic Staff Union of Universities
(ASUU), 9, 127-130, 179, 331
and Babangida’s ‘hidden agenda’, 128
and June 12, 128
and military rule, 129
as popular voice against military oppression, 130
banned, 363

Academy Press, 200-201
government disrupts production, 201

Achebe, Chinua, 196

ACP group, 235, 236, 337, 339

Action Group, 59
and Afenifere, 164
and state creation, 63

Adams, Paul, 187

Adebayo, A 163

Adebayo, Cornelius, 164, 348

Adebiyi Commission of Inquiry, 89

Adedibu, Lamidi 319, 355

Adenuga, Mike, 211

Adesina, Lamidi
arrested with other activists, 357

Adisa, Abdul Karim, 38, 359
arrested for coup plot, 355
sentenced to death, 356

Afenifere,
and NADECO, 163, 164
pan-Yoruba association, 164

Afolayan, Funso, 29
on June 12, 30

Africa Today, 210

Africa Confidential Survey, 238

African Concord, 189
closed by government, 202

African Democratic Heritage, 175

African Democratic League, 167, 175

African Guardian, 196

African National Congress (ANC), 332

African Network for Democracy (AFRONET), 183-184

African Redemption Movement, 175

African Development Bank, 228, 229
expected loans by Nigeria, 229

African Pilot, 187

Agamene, Wariebe (leader, NUPENG)
freed, 351

Agbakoba, Olisa, 152, 172, 190, 191

Agbese, Dan, 190

Agip, 229, 231, 237, 238, 242, 243, 247, 277, 335
and liquid natural gas project, 231

AGIP (anygovernment in power) principle, 328
type of press, 48-49

Aguiyi-lronsi, J.T.U., 60-61

Ajaokuta Iron and Steel Complex, 245

Ajasa, Sir Kitoye, 186

Ajasin, M., 164

Ajibade, Kunle arrested, 22, 203

Aka-Basorun, 157, 158, 160, 161

Ake, Claude, 14-15
mediator in Ogoni crisis, 319

Akika,T., 160

Akilu, Halilu, 190

Akinjide, Richard, 233

Akinrinade, Alani, 19
arrested, 348
charged with treason, 354

Akintola, S.L., 60

Akinyele, Alex
head of NARECO, 351
bomb explosion at country home, 355

Akpata, Ephraim, 360

Alao, AbdulAzeez Arisekola, 356

Algeria, 223, 236, 241, 244

Alkali, Ibrahim sacked under Abacha, 16

All Peoples Congress (APC), 361

All Peoples’ Party, 19

Allen, Chris, 43

Alli, Chris, (Chief of Staff) sacked, 16

Alliance for Democracy, 19

Aluko, Akanni, 216

AM News, 197, 216, 217

Amana, (Hausa), 189

Amana, Mfon Okon (Chairman, Akwa Ibom People’s Forum), 294

Amato Law, 253

Amega, Justice Atsu-Koffi, 270fn. 8,

Amnesty International, 174

AMOCO, 280

Amuta, Chidi, 216

Analysis, theories of national development and international relations class, 283-284
group, 283-284
state-centric, 283-284

Anglican Church and early newspapers, 185

Angola, 222

Anderson, Brian (MD, Shell), 244

Ani, Michael, 68,
finance minister, 232

Annan, Kofi, 27-28, 359
asks MKO Abiola to renounce mandate, 28, 44

Ann-Walker, Judith, 25

Anyanwu, Chris
arrested journalist, 22, 203
member, Nigerian Press Council, 204
release from detention, 358
TSM editor, 217

Arewa House (Kaduna)
endorses constitutional conference, 294

Armed Forces Ruling Council, 79, 81, 83, 88, 344

Asiodu, P., 157
pro-Babangida, 161
assassinated pro-democracy leaders, 18

Association for Better Nigeria (ABN), 343
files suit to stop June 12 elections, 343

Association for Democracy and Good Governance, 174

Association of Nigerian Authors, 177

Austria, 233, 236, 239
and Nigeria debt reduction, 233

Awa, Erne, 81

Awolowo, Obafemi, 63, 64fn
sets up printing press, 187
Nigerian Tribune, 216

Awolowo, Hannah, 216

Azikiwe, Nnamdi, 60,
FEDECO, 92
first nationwide newspaper, 187

Azikiwe, Nnamdi v FEDECO, 92

Aziza, Patrick (Major General)
sentences coup plotters, 351

B

Babalakin Commission, 80

Babangida, Ibrahim, 48, 222, 345
against sovereign national conference, 161
and ASUU, 91, 128
and Nigerian Union of Journalists, 125
and Nigerian Labour Congress, 132
and Dele Giwa murder, 190
and hagiography, 196 and NSO, 324
and Ogoni Bill of Rights, 154
and prebendal politics, 3-5
and student unions, 91
annuls presidential election, 86, 94, 114, 291, 321, 359
anti-Abiola/anti Yoruba propaganda, 18

Armed Forces Ruling Council, 79, 81
dissolved, 343
as Abacha’s mentor, 8-9, 10
bans all political associations, 320
bans politicians, 82, 147
bribes senators to stay in power, 191
decrees under transition programme, 78-84
democratic pressure groups under, 103
deregulated radio, 211
destroys military institution, 3
floats Citizen magazine, 209
government, 319, 331, 341
‘hidden agenda’, 148, 157, 158
implements structural adjustment, 147
intelligence organization, 87, 88
judiciary under, 93-95
local government elections, 1987, 81
palace coup, 1985, 73, 74, 146
pervasive corruption, 147
political parties, 84
press freedom under, 189
proclaimed human rights agenda, 148-149
repeals decree 4, 190
repression of opposition, 48, 77
security network, 14, 15
seizes issues of Tell, 200
sets up OMPADEC, 24
spoils of office, 6
state creation, 84
stepping aside, 3, 11, 25, 161, 321
transition programme, 46, 75-78, 292, 326
war against independent press, 199-203

Babangida, Maryam
Better Life for Rural Women, 131, 325

Bafyau, [see Nigerian Labour Congress], 134

Bagu, Chom, 162

Bailey Bridges (service company to oil sector), 244

Bakassi, 195

Balewa, Abubakar T. (Sir), 60

Balogun, Ola, 76fn

Banda, H. (Malawi), 26

Bawa, M. 355

BBC
correspondent’s wife arrested, 203
in the North, 208

Belgium,
and Nigeria’s debt, 228
trade with Nigeria, 236, 237, 239

Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union, 237

Benin City, 215

Bello, Ahmadu, 60, 187, 208

Bello, Sheik Nurudeen Ajani (chief imam), 31-32

Berman, Bruce, J, 31

Better Life for Rural Women, 131, 325

Biafra, 18

Bofors (Swedish Company), 241

Bokassa, (Central African Republic), 11
bomb blasts, 341, 353, 363
at Akinyele’s country home, 355
at FSP launching, Ilorin, 350
Durbar Hotel, Kaduna, 352
during Abacha years, 341, 363
Evans Square, Lagos, 356
Ibadan, 354
Ikeja Military Cantonment, 352
Ikeja Air Force Base, 352
Ile-lfe (Sabo), 356 Lagos, 354
Lagos State Secretariat, 354
Lagos mainland, 354
Main Police Station, Zaria, 352
Malam Aminu Kano Airport, Kano, 352
Murtala Muhammed International Airport, 353

Bouygues (French company)
wins contract for Forcados maritime terminal, 243

Botas (Turkish company), 243

Braithwaite, Tunji, 357

Bratten, M., 26

Brazil, 240, 241

Bretton Woods, 233

British colonial reaction to Nigerian press
anti-press laws, 186
largely ignored, 187

British Petroleum (BP), 243

Broadcasting Commission Decree no. 3 (1992), 21

Brussels Club, 242

Buhari, M., 57fn, 220, 320
coup of, 73
transition programme, 73fn
overthrown by Babangida, 73-74
repression of Nigerians, 146
promulgated decrees 2 and 4, 189

Burger, Kees, (Professor, Amsterdam Free University), 239

Business Times, 215

Bush, G.W., 8

C

Cadbury, 245

Cameroon, 194

Campaign for Democracy (CD), 48, 118, 120, 125, 157-162, 184, 262, 265, 332
advocates sovereign national conference, 126, 160-161
calls for boycott of constitutional conference, 296
calls for nationwide protest, 344
founded by Civil Liberties Organization, 151
origins, 157-158
Jos, 158
agenda, 158-160
early members, 160
pro-June 12, 161
split in 1994, 161-162
and NADECO, 163
under United Democratic Front of Nigeria, 167

Campaign for the Defence of Human Rights, 118

Campaign for Independent Unionism, 179

Campaign for Workers Alternative, 180

Canada, 44, 278

Caobico, 239

Cape Verde, 274

Carrington, William, 44

Carbomine
shares, 245

Central African Republic, 217

censorship, 186, 191
Buhari, Decrees, 2 & 4, 17, 189
government disrupts, 201
NewsWatch proscribed, 77,
editor arrested, 193
Concord closed, 202
Guardian titles banned, 202
NewBreed banned, 217
National Concord banned, 215
Tell offices raided, 217
copies seized, 200 vendors arrested, 210

Chagoury family, long-time associates of Abacha, 238
oil contracts under Abacha, 35

Champion, 200
pro-government, 215

Charles-Obi, Ben
arrested journalist, 22

Chazan, Naomi, 1, 104

Chevillard, N.. 46, 50

Chevron, 44, 229, 242, 247, 277, 280

Cheysson, Claude, 248

China, 251, 280, 336
relationship with Nigeria, 338

Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN), 113, 322
against Abacha, 31

Christian Council of Nigeria, 31

Christian Democratic Party, 153

Christianity
and disempowered masses, 110-113
and early newspapers, 185-186
Catholics, 266
Catholic bishops call on Babangida to uphold June 12 election, 114
compliance with the State, 113
Protestants, 266

Christopher, Warren, 279

Chukwumerije, Uche, 18

Citizen (magazine), 197, 209
floated by Babangida, 209, 217

civic-action groups, 286

Civil Defence Corps, 122

Civil Disturbances Act, 271

Civil Liberties Organization, 118, 149, 174, 175,
and Democratic Alliance, 163
anti Abacha stand, 17, 122, 123
environmental rights Niger Delta, 152
establishment, 331
exposé of Nigerian prisons, 150
human rights violations under Babangida, 150
origins in Nigeria, 172

Ciroma, Adamu, 208

civil rights groups, 174

Civil Rights Forum, 28

Civil War, Nigerian, 63, 188

Clinton, President Bill 43, 279
and Amato Law, 253
visit to Africa (1998), 287

Coalition for Democratic Awareness, 167

Coflexip Stena Offshore, 243

COGEMAT, 245

Coleman, Janet, 4 Community Action for Popular Participation, 175

Committee for the Defence of Human Rights, 151, 175
origins, 151calls for boycott of constitutional conference, 296
campaigns to free Beko and Aborisade, 151
Victims (journal)
campaign against ECOMOG, 152
against Babangida, 152
under Beko Ransome-Kuti, 152

Committee for National Consensus (CNC), 352

Committee for Unity and Understanding, 163-164

Committee of Eight, 75-77 Commonwealth, 337, 339
and Nigerian democratization, 336
outrage over execution of Ogoni Nine, 264
sanctions against Nigeria, 264, 335, 338
summit meetings, 268, 274, 275, 286
support for Nigeria’s intervention in Sierra Leone, 276
suspends Nigeria, 268, 351

Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG), 43, 266-268, 270-271, 273, 284-285, 351
created, 266
dialogues with Nigeria, 270
lifts sanctions on Nigeria, 361
places sanctions on Nigeria, 267

Community Action for Popular Participation, 121-122

Concerned Professionals, 177

Congressional Black Caucus (USA), 43, 279

CONOCO, 280

Constitutional Conference, 291-302
agenda 295, 297-298, 300
corrupted by Abacha, 35, 299
boycott against in southwestern zone, 266, 295
boycott by pro-democracy groups, 296
inaugurated, 295
on June 12 election results, 295, 296
on end of Abacha transition.
under Abacha, 7, 8, 18, 52, 107, 114, 265, 266

Constitutional Debate Co-ordinating Committee (CDCC)
submits draft constitution, 362

Constitutional Drafting Committee, 66-68

Constitutional Review Committee, 78, 83

Constitutional Rights Project, 118, 122-123, 174
affiliated with German Christian

Democratic Party, 153
and Nigerian Press Council, 204-295
democracy and independent press, 205
origins, 152-153
on freedom on the press, 189
publications of, 153
reports fake editions of Tell, 201
survey on proliferation of news magazines, (1993), 206

Constitutional Rights Journal, 215

Coomasie, Ibrahim (Inspector-General of Police) declares NADECO illegal, 346

Corporate-international bourgeoisie, 284

Corruption, 286

Côte d’Ivoire, 222, 238

Council for Public Education, 175

coups in Nigeria, 4, 7, 8, 9
Abacha as coup plotter, 33
Diya coup, 16
history of, 59-64
January 1966, 52, 61
palace coups, 48 1975, 63 1985, 73-74
phantom coups, 1995, 16, 36, 58fn 1997, 16, 38
reporters arrested for, 22
Orkar coup, 15

court cases
Attorney Gen. Anambra State & 13 Others v Attorney Gen of the Federation & 16 Others, 57fn, 95
Bashorun MKO Abiola & Another v.National Electoral Commission & Another, 95
Awolowo v Shagari, 94fn
Azikiwe, Nnamdi v FEDECO, 92
National Electoral Commission v Nzeribe, 79
Resident Electoral Commissioner for Anambra State v Nwocha, 93

Cuba, 287

Czechoslovakia, 241

D

Dada, Idi Amin, compared to Abacha, 11-12

Daewoo Corporation, 280

Daily Mail, 207

Daily Sketch, 200, 214

Daily Star, 215

Daily Times (government press), 214
circulation, 198
cost of production, 198
origins of, 187

dan Fodio, Usman, 208fn

Danjuma, T. 35, 163-164, 293

Dardenne, Laurence (senator), 251

Dare, Olatunji, 191

Dasuki, Ahmed, 211

Dasuki, Ibrahim (Sultan of Sokoto) deposed as Sultan by government, 352
released from detention, 358

Davis, David, responsible for exploitation of British weapons, 241

debt rescheduling 220-222
of bilateral debts, 221
agreements, 221
delegation to Austria, 233

Decalo, Sam, 11-13

Decrees, 267, 272
decree 2 (1984), 17
arrest without trial
arrests under by Abacha, 17
promulagated by M. Buhari, 189

Delta, (news and background on Ogoni and Shell), 182

Democrat, The, 216

Democratic Action Committee, 175

Democratic Advance Party (DAP), 361

Democratic Alliance, 18, 121, 122
exposed illegalities of Babangida and Abacha, 124
funded by, 151
leaders of 151
under United Democratic Front of Nigeria, 167

Democratic Alternative, 162-163, 184

Democratic Forum, (Jos), 175

Democratic Party of Nigeria (DPN), 353

Defence Intelligence Agency, 88

democracy in Nigeria, 40 [see also pro-democracy]
aid fatigue, 45
and traditional rulers, 114-116
and women’s associations, 130-132
Association of Staff Unions of Universities concept of, 127
business class, 109-110
failure of, 104-106
failure of political class, 106-107
Islam, 113
religious groups, 110-112
sanctions 43-45
Western interests in, 42-44
Democrat, the, 208

Democratic Republic of the Congo, 276

Denmark, 236, 239

Derycke, Erik (Belgian foreign affairs minister), 251

Directorate of Social Mobilization, 78

Diya, Oladipo, 359
coup of December 1997, 16, 37-38, 355, 356

Dogonyaro, J., 15, 74

Dokpesi, Raymond, 212
Ray Power (radio station), 212

Dosunmu, Wahab, 164

drug trafficikng, 279

Dumez (French company), 245

Dunlop, 245

Durojaiye, Olabiyi, 19

Duyile, Dayo, 196

E

Eastern and Niger Delta Consensus, 28

Eastern Europe, 117

Eastern Protectorate, 302

Ebony, 205

ECOMOG, 15, 152, 256, 275-276
peace keeping operation in Liberia, 338
sale of weapons for, 337

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 52, 275

Economist, The 205, 278, 281

Edelman, Murray, 35

Edo State riot outbreaks, 346

Egypt, 236, 282

Ekiotenne, Alex (Director, Ijaw Ethnic Rights Protection Organisation), 295
on June 12 election results, 295

Ekpu, Ray
journalist, 190, 217
joins National Commission for Human Rights, 211

Ekwueme, Alex, 299, 306, 308
against Abiola as head of government, 30
leader G-34, 357
sends letter to Abacha, 357

elections, Nigeria 1993 election, 262-263
12 June 1993, 2, 18-20, 26, 28, 29, 30, 43, 44, 86
12 June and the Press, 20, 48, 52
local govenment elections under IBB (1987), 8, 82, 86
local government elections under Abacha, 267
Shehu Shagari, 73
12 June election annulled by Babangida, 86
122/3 debate, 93

Electoral Commission of Nigeria, 252

Eleme Petrochemical Complex, Rivers State, 245

Elf Aquitaine, 229, 237, 238, 242, 243, 247, 277, 335
exploration, 230
and LNG project, 231

Enagas (Spain), 243

ENEL (Italian electricity firm), 243

Emir of Zaira, 115

EMIROAF [see Ethnic Minority Rights Organization of Africa]

Enahoro, Anthony, 156, 278fn. 17, 303
and National Democratic Coalition, 164
anti-Abacha stance, 156
arrested 347-348
charged with treason, 354
released from detention, 350

Ethiopia, 218
European Union ACP beneficiary, 248

Ethnic Minority Rights Organization of Africa, 178

Etiebet, Don
arrested, 354

Eugen Oil, 281

Europe, 338
demand for Nigerian oil and gas, 335

Europe Fifteen, 250, 251, 252, 253, 256
decline in exports to Nigeria, 236
Nigeria’s first trading partner, 235
Nigeria’s second largest oil client (1994), 237

European Commission
revises 73/241 directive on chocolate, 238

European Development Fund (EDP), 250, 255

European Investment Bank (EIB), 248
credit facilities, 249
loans, 248, 249, 250

European investments, 245, 248

European Parliament, 238

European Union, 45, 50, 51, 219, 226m 261m 263m 270, 356
ACP beneficiaries, 248
analysis of, 224, 225
and Africa, 336
and Nigerian democratization, 319, 336, 339
arrears owed foreign oil companies, 229
attitude of Nigeria to, 232-233
background, 219-220
debt conversion programme, 231
debt reduction, (Toronto formula), 221
debt resheduling, 220-222, 234
debt servicing, 227, 228
composition, 228
EU/ACP assembly, 337
external debt, 219-234
Nigeria’s primary trade partner, 239, 240, 242
payment arrears, 223
Paris Club debts, 224-227
rejection of strong sanctions against Nigeria, 280
sale of weapons to Nigeria, 241
sanctions on Nigeria, 250-257, 335, 337, 339
second largest donor to Nigeria, 248, 337
short-term debt, 219
structure of, 223-224
Toronto formula/conditions, 223, 234
trade with Nigeria, 236
viable propositions for EU action, 338

Eurostat, 235, 236, 239

Expansion African Newsletter, 244

Export Credit Guarantee Department (ECGD)
coverage for sale of weapons to Nigeria, 240

external human rights organizations, 182-183

Exxon, 280

Ezeife, C, 164

F

Failed Banks Tribunal, 9, 267-268

Falae, Olu, 19, 362
and NADECO, 164
charged with treason, 354

Falana, Femi 160, 162, 199
leader, Campaign for Democracy (CD), 293
calls for sovereign national conference, 294

Fame, magazine, 200

Family Support Programme (FSP), 131, 325, 350

Farrakan, Minister Louis, 279

Fasheun, F. 162

Fawehinmi, Gani, 9, 156, 157, 357
and Dele Giwa case, 190
arrested and detained, 349
Lagos press supports, 192
on constitutional conference, 292-293
The Masses, 217

Federal Capital Territory (FCT), 361

Federal Electoral Commission, 68-69
and the judiciary, 92-93
Decrees under, 70-72
enquiry into by Buhari, 74
replaced by NEC, 80

Federal Petroleum Monitoring Task Force, 34

Federation of Muslim Women Association of Nigeria (FOMWAN), 324

Federation of Southern Nigeria National State, 29

Ferreira, Dr., 160

Fiat, 245

FIDA [see International Association of Female Lawyers]

Financial Times, 187

Finland, 237, 239

Flight International, 241

Fougerolle (French company), 245

France, 41, 219, 226, 236, 239, 246, 274, 287, 335
debt arrears owed, 228
soft on Abacha, 44
supply of Panhard reconnaissance vehicles to Nigeria, 241
percentage of debt owed by Nigeria, 226

Freedom Charter International, 175

French Bureau of Economic Expansion, 230

G

G-34
and Abacha, 357

Gambia, The, 268, 287

Gani Fawehinmi Solidarity Association, 157, 175

Gaskiya Tafi Kwabo (first newspaper in Hausa language) 207

Gaz de France, 243

Gboyega, Alex, 52, 326fn. 3,

Germany, 153, 219, 226, 233, 237, 239, 241, 246
per cent of debt owed by Nigeria, 226
arrears owed, 228

Ghana, 185, 238, 268, 272

Gimbason, John, 160

Girault, Francis (Director, Elf), 242, 243

Giwa, Dele, 148, 190
founder NewsWatch, 190

Glencore (Swiss-based company), 237
outlet for Shell and Mobil’s output, 238

Gowon, Yakubu, 62
created 12 states, 63
overthrown, 63

Grassroots Democratic Movement (GDM), 37, 353

Great Britain, 219, 263, 268, 272, 274, 280, 287, 335, 338

Greece, 237, 239

gross national product, 220
growth rate, 220
per head indices, 223

Guardian (London), 205

Guardian, The (Lagos), 188, 191, 192, 213, 215
banned by government, 202, 347

guerrilla journalism, 210
and Bola Tinubu, 217

Guinness (UK), 245, 247

Gwadabe, Lawan (Brigadier)
arrested for coup plot, 350
freed from prison, 362

H

Haiti, 254

Hamburg, 233

Hamman, Sule, 272fn. 12,

Harare Declaration of 1991, 268, 269

Haruna, Mohammed, 209-210

Hausa-Fulani, 185, 266

Heritage Press, 209

Holland, 226, 233, 287
arrears owed, 228
Nigerian delegation discusses debt, 233
per cent of Nigeria’s debt owed to, 226

Holm, J.D., 27

Hong-Kong, 240

Hotline,
pro-Abacha, 208

Houphouet-Boigny, 36

human rights abuse, 14, 56, 268, 275
under Abacha, 15

Human Rights, Africa, 174

Human Rights Commission, Nigeria, 251, 272

Human Rights Committee, Justice & Peace Commission, 180

human rights groups, 174-184
and civil society, 169
developed in trade unions and churches, 173
factionalism, 169
major problems, 168
North/South divide, 169
repressed under Abacha, 170
typology of, 172

Human Rights in Retreat, (CLO book), 150

Human Rights Violation and Investigation Commission (HRVIC), 342

Human Rights Watch, Africa, 23, 55

Hundred Group, Nigeria, 174

Hurd, Douglas (British Foreign Secretary) freezes new aid to Nigeria, 344

I

Ibadan (press), 191

Ibrahim, Jibrin, 33

Ibru, Alex, 19, 188, 205-206, 215
attempted assassination of, 199, 352

Idiagbon, Tunde, 145-146

Ige, Bola, 164, 319, 357, 358

Igbo, 266

Ikimi, Tom, 272, 273

Ikoku, Sam, 64fn

Ikpeme, Bassey (Justice)
issues order restraining June 12 election, 343

Independent, 206

independent press, 3
90 journalists arrested, 22
and June 12 election, 18
closed media houses, 22
coping mechanisms, 49
decrees against press freedom, 21
hounded Babangida out of office, 24, 48
in the North underdeveloped, 207
radio more popular, 208
influenced by British and US, 205-206
NewsWatch, Tell, TheNews, 192-193
relationship with Abacha, 19, 21
scandals/sensational/gossip, 206

Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), 360-61
announces election timetable, 361
provisional registration of 9 political associations, 361

India, 240

Inside Nigerian Oil (London-based newspaper), 244

Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, 174

Institute of Journalism (Abuja), 213

Interim National Government (ING), 2, 95, 162, 263, 321, 341, 344
and judicial ruling, 96
dismissed, 291, 345
opposition to, 291, 292

International Association of Female Lawyers, 174

International Cocoa Association, 239

International Financial Corporation, 244

International Monetary Fund, (IMF)220-221; 232-233, 281
and popular opposition to SAP, 147
debt rescheduling, 232
debt agreement with Nigeria, 233

US opposition to, 233
loans to Nigeria, (1970-95), 225

International Herald Tribune, 205

Iran, 253, 280, 287

Ireland, 237, 239

Iron and Steel Senior Staff Association, 180

Isa, Ismaila, 208

Ishaya, D., 160

Islam, 266

Islamic leaders and the State, 112-113

Isokan (newspaper in Yoruba language), 189

Italy, 226, 236, 239, 246, 287
per cent of debt owed by Nigeria, 226

Iwuanyanwu, E., 216

Iyayi, F., 160

J

Jackson, Jesse (Rev.)
leads US officials to talks with Abacha and Abiola, 348

Jackson, John Payne, 186

Jakande, L, 108, 319
joined Abacha’s first cabinet, 191
Lagos News, 216

Jamaica, 268, 269

Jamm’iyyar Matan Arewa (Northern Women’s Association), 131

Jega, Attahiru 15, 47, 330fn. 4,

Japan, 226, 229, 233, 240, 246, 274
arrears owed, 228
debt payments to, 229
Nigerian delegation to discuss debt, 233
per cent of Nigeria’s debt owed to, 226

Japan Gasoline Corporation, 243

Jemibewon, D., 163

Jos, 158, 187

Joseph, Richard,
prebendalism, 3, 101, 107

Journalists
arrested in 1993, 200
arrested under Abacha, 22-23
and decrees 2 and 5, 189
bribe-taking by, 195-197
broadcasting, 211, 212 [see radio stations, Nigeria]
Guardian journalists arrested, 190
guerrilla journalism, 202
set up their own magazines, 210
underpaid, 197

Judiciary
and June 12 election, 94-95
and Interim National Government, 96
declares Shagari winner, 93
independence of, 268
ouster clauses, 93

Julius Berger, 245, 247

June 12 election, 2, 18, 19, 20, 22, 26, 28 29, 30, 43, 44, 48, 52, 86, 192, 343, 345, 359-360,
annulment, 303, 318, 319, 328, 337, 340, 341
and Abdulsalami Abubakar, 30
and Catholic Bishops, 114
and MOSOP, 155
and Ondo State rulers, 115
and Oyo State, 116
and power sharing, 30
and pro-democracy movements, 120, 296
and Radio Democrat, 212
and Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs, 114
Association of Staff Unions of Universities, 128
Campaign for Democracy, 161
constitutional conference on, 295, 297-298
Democratic Alliance, 121, 123
Nigerian Bar Association, 126
Nigerian Union of Journalists, 126
Nigerian Labour Congress, 134
Movement for National Reformation, 156
National Conscience Party, 156
postponed, 343

Justice Denied (CLO book), 151

Justice Nigeria, 182

K

Kabbah, 52

Kaduna, 198, 199
newspapers, 188, 198, 199
The Reporter, 208, 2C9

Kaduna Alliance for Democracy, 176

Kaduna State, 348

Kaita, Lawal, 319

Kanza, Thomas, 42

Kano, 322, 343

Kano, N.. 164, 187

Kanu, Daniel
organizes million man march, 355

Kanuri, 266

Karibi-Whyte, Adolphus, 309

Katafs (Kaduna), 199

Katsina Arid Zone Programme, 249

Kebbi State, 306

Kellog, 243

Kenya, 337

Khadiagala, G., 32

Kilanko, Gloria, 160, 162

Kingibe, Babagana, 191

Kokori, Frank (General Secretary NUPENG), 163
arrested, 348
release ordered, 358

Kontagora, Sani 208
Hotline magazine, 208
pro-Abacha, 208

Korea, 274

Kukah, Matthew Hassan, 218 L

L

Labour and Youth Defence Committee, 176

Labour Militant, 176

Labour Party, 280

Lagos, 220, 343, 345, 346
anti-Abacha stronghold, 15, 18
Babangida flees from, 15
independent press, 191
Lagos Echo, 186
Lagos Times, 186
Lagos Weekly Record, 186
pro-democracy bastion, 151-152

Lagos State, 305
obas, 354

Lar, Solomon, 319

Latin America, 218
Argentina, 218
Chile, 218

Lawan, Gambo, 37

Law Mirror, 215

Leton, Garrick, 155

Lever Brothers, 245, 247

Lewis, Peter,
on Abacha, 3-7

Leyland, 245

Liberia, 185, 186, 256
Nigerian mediation [see ECOMOG], 275

Libya, 41, 236, 253, 287

Lomé
IV National Programme, 248
Convention, 248, 254, 337
founding father, 248
IV Protocol, 249

London, 212, 220, 233

London Club, 219, 222, 224, 225
debt servicing by Nigeria, 227
Nigeria’s debt (1970-95) 225
Nigeria’s debt (1970-95) 225

London’s Newsletter, 238

Lugard, 186

Lukman, S., 160, 162

Luxembourg, 237, 239

M

Maccido, Muhammadu replaces Dasuki, 352

Madaki, Yohanna, 164

Madunagu, E., 76fn

magazines (gossip), 200
condemned by NUJ, 206
repressed by Abacha, 200

Mahmud, Aminu, 160

Mahmud Tukur Memorial Committee, 176

Mainland Progressive Youth Movement, 178

Malawi, 26, 250

Malaysia, 268, 280, 281 Mali, 274

Mallmath, Justice V. S. 270fn. 8,

Malu, Victor tries and sentences coup plotters, 356

Mambilla Plateau, 249

Mamman, Yusuf, 293

MAMSER, 122

Mandela, Nelson, 51, 275
demands Abiola’s release, 349
on Abacha’s candidacy for presidential election, 287
quiet diplomacy & Abacha, 274

Mann, Titus, 160, 162

Maringues, Michele, 49, 325fn. 2,

Mark, David, 193, 345

Marwa, Buba (Lagos State administrator)
escapes bomb explosion, 353

Martins, K., 40

Mazrui, Ali, 6

Mbah, George
arrested journalist, 22, 203

Mbang, Sunday, 31

Media Review, 215

Media Rights Agenda, 178

Medical and Health Workers Union of Nigeria, 182

Mercedes, 245

Michelin, 245

Mid-West Region, 302
creation of, 302

Middle Belt, 266
communal clashes, 153

Misser, François, 50

military rule
and democracy, 138
and the judiciary, 92
bad for business, 109
gross mismanagement of economy, 117
opposition to 116-127
periods under, 57
stability, 110
transition programmes, 64, 73, 57fn, 74, 67-73, 78, 87-88
tribunals, 264

Mkpoko Igbo (Igbo group), 306, 308

Mobil, 44, 229, 230, 238, 242, 243, 277, 280
investment and exploration in Nigeria, 230

Mobutu (Sese Seko), 42

Mohamaed, Yakubu, 190

Mohammed, Murtala R., 63
assassinated, 67
constitution drafting committee under, 66-67
state creation, 67
transition progamme, 64-66, 88

Morocco, 236

Moroko, 152

Moroko Evacuees Committee, 178

Mosely-Braun, Carol, 279

MOSOP [see Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People)

MOSOP-UK, 182, 331

Movement for Democracy and Development in Africa, 176

Movement for Democracy and Justice (MDJ), 361

Movement for National Reformation, 176, 293, 303, 306
support for sovereign national conference, 293

Movement for Popular Democracy, 176

Movement for Social and Economic Justice (MOSEJ), 176, 296

Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP), 24, 331, 336
boycott June 12, 155
leadership of, 155
on distribution of oil revenue, 316
origins of 153-154, 178
-UK, 331

Movement for National Reformation, 156
and NADECO, 163
leadership, 156
origins, 156
objectives, 156
pro-June 12, 156

Movement for Unity and Progress, 164, 178

Muhammed, Murtala, 303, 320, 324

Musa, Balarabe, 348

Muslim Hausa (Kaduna), 198

Mustapha, Abdullahi, 347

Mustapha, Raufu, 15, 48

Myanmar, 285

N

NADECO [see National Democratic Coalition)

NADECO-Abroad, 182, 184, 331

NALICON, [see National Liberation Council of Nigeria), 182
and Radio Democrat International, 212

Namibia, 275

National Alliance for Democracy, 167, 182

National Assembly, 342, 356

National Association of Democratic Citizens, 176

National Association of Democratic Lawyers (NADL), 118, 178, 296

National Association of Nigerian
Students (NANS), 91, 180
and the Democratic Alliance, 163

National Committee of Patriots, 176

National Concord, 188,
banned, 215

National Centre Party of Nigeria (NCPN), 353

National Conscience Party (NCP), 156-157, 177, 192, 349

National Constitutional Conference NCC)(1994-1995), 323, 326, 329, 349-350
approves three vice-presidents for Nigeria, 349
elections boycotted, 346
fixes termination date for Abacha government, 349-350
inaugurated, 348

National Consultative Forum, 157-158, 184, 292

National Council of Women’s Societies (NCWS), 131

National Defence and Security Council, 88
announces formation of ING, 344
replaces AFRC, 343

National Democratic Alliance Committee, 167, 183
plan to put Abiola as head of state, 195

National Democratic Coalition (NADECO), 11, 19, 25, 27, 49, 118, 162, 278fn. 17, 332
and June 12 election, 123, 164, 318
boycotts Abacha transition, 164-165
Democratic Alliance aligns with, 162
leaders, 164
officials arrested, 348
opposes constitutional conference, 296
origins of, 163, 345
pro-Abiola, 164
pro sovereign national conference, 164
target of repression, 165
under United Democratic Front for Nigeria, 167

National Electoral Commission (NEC), 313
party registration, 313

National Electoral Commission of Nigeria (NECON) 20, 30, 97-98, 311, 318, 327, 338-9, 343-344, 351-353, 359
and judiciary, 94
and June 12 elections, 343
dissolved, 359
implementation of rotational power sharing, 311
inaugurated, 351
party registration, 84, 352
under Babangida, 78, 80

National Fertilizer Company of Nigeria (NIFCON), 250

National Freedom Front, 167, 183

National Human Rights Commission, 22

National Indicative Programme (NIP), 249

National Industrial Court, 89

National Intelligence Agency, 88

National Liberation Council of Nigeria, 167, 168, 278fn.l7

National Mass Media Commission, 21

National Orientation Agency, 122

National Post, 216

National Reconciliation Committee (NARECO), 351

National Revenue Mobilisation, Allocation and Fiscal Commission, 315, 316-317

National Republican Convention (NRC), 320, 342, 344

National Security Council, 87-88 National Security Organization, (NSO), 324

National Solidarity Group in Defence of Democracy, 177

National Solidarity Movement (NSM), 361

National Union of Air Transport Services Employees, 182

National Union of Petroleum and Natural Gas Workers (NUPENG), 181, 346, 348, 351, 360
executive council sacked, 347

National Union of Public Corporation Employees, 182

National Unity Organisation (NUO), 349

National Youth Council of the Ogoni People, 155, 179

Nation of Islam, 279

natural gas, 277-78
suppliers to Europe, 243

Netherlands, 239

NewBreed, 200, 217
banned by Obasanjo, 184

New Nigeria Forum, 167, 183

New Nigerian (Kaduna), 188, 209, 214
circulation, 198, 211
crisis in, 198
editor resigns, 198
excessive government interference, 198
origins, 207

New York Times
interviews Babangida, 359

newspapers (Nigeria)
underdeveloped in the North, 297

Newspaper decree 43, 1993, 21

Newspapers Distributors Association of Nigeria, 179

Newswatch (magazine), 345
editor arrested, 193
editor blown up [see Dele Giwa] proscribed by Babangida, 77
origins of, 190
ownership 192, 193, 210, 217

NewsWeek, 205-206

New Zealand, 268

Nguema, 11

Niger, 41, 327

Niger Delta, 151, 264
ethnic clashes, 153
oil production, 277

Nigeria,
Abacha’s foreign policy, 283
amalgamation, 302
analysis of outstanding debt, 224
and debt reduction (Toronto formula), 221, 223, 234
and sporting sanctions, 335
appointment as head of ECOWAS, 254
arrears owed Paris Club, 228
arrears owed to oil companies, 229, 230
ban on sale of weapons to, 335, 337
blacklisted by debt insurance companies, 229
categories of debts, 225
classification of Nigeria’s major clients (1995), 239
creation of states, 302-303, 322-323
crude oil production, 230, 277
debt conversion programme, 231-232
-investments under, 232
debt servicing, 227, 228
diplomatic victory against international sanctions, 283
banking sector, 246
pharmaceutical sector, 246
economic conditions and democracy, 333
embargoes from the EU, 251
European suppliers (1994), 239
EU’s second most important market and supplier in sub-Saharan Africa, 235, 337
evolution of federal structure, 302
exportation of deadly weapons to, 241
exports (1995), 236
external debt, 50, 219-234
external debt stock, 222-223
first ACP beneficiary of European aid, 248, 337
foreign investors, 334
GNP growth rate, 220
impact of European aid, 248-250
importation of European products (1995), 239
independence, 276
international policing, 276
major creditors, 219, 226
major crude oil buyers (1994), 237
major oil companies, 229
major world producer of cocoa, 238
most populous ACP state, 248
most populous country in Africa, 261
national debt, 337
natural gas production, 277-278
oil and gas sectors, 334
pariah government, 261
Paris Club debt figures, 225, 226
Paris Club financed projects, 227
position within ACP group, 235
presidential election of 1993, 262-263
press in, 325
primary companies in, 247
turnover, 247
primary foreign investor, Europe, 242
promoting democracy and human rights in, 330-333
restructuring of federation, 302
revenue allocation in, 336
sanctions, US bills on, 287
suppliers of natural gas to Europe, 243
suspended from Commonwealth, 351
trade clients (1994), 236
trade surplus, 236

Nigerian Labour Congress, 331
1994 strike, 333
activists, continued harassment, 333
calls for nationwide strike, 347
executive council sacked, 347
law banning executives abrogated, 360

Nigeria Philosophy Association, 179

Nigerian Army, 306

Nigerian Bar Association, 126, 127, 181
condemned Abacha takeover, 127
opposed Babangida, 126
supported June 12, 126

Nigerian coal mines
estimated reserves, 245

Nigeria Collective Council, 176

Nigeria Welfare and Monitoring Council, 183

Nigerian Chronicle, 215

Nigerian Citizen, 207

Nigerian crude oil
America, primary market, 237
embargo on, 251
export to Europe, 236
marketing of, 237
production of, 237

Nigerian Daily Times, 187

Nigerian Democratic Movement, 120, 167, 183

Nigerian Labour Congress, 48
Abacha dissolves executive, 134
anti SAP riots, 134
Babangida Must Go campaign, 134
joins Social Democratic Party, 125, 133
under Babangida, 132-133
pro June 12, 134

Nigerian Liberation Group, 168, 183

Nigerian Liquefied Natural Gas, 242

Nigerian military, 335
and transitions, 319

Nigerianity Movement, 177

Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), 229, 230, 231, 237, 243, 247, 277
collaboration with Philip Petroleum, 237
joint ventures with foreign companies, 229
liquified natural gas production, 231
payments to foreign companies, 229, 230
shares in Shell, 229

Nigerian Pioneer, 186

Nigerian Police, 240, 241, 306

Nigerian Press Council Decree no. 85, (1992), 21
Babangida revives, (1992), 204
established under Gowon, 204
membership of, 204-205
opposed by independent press, 204

Nigerian Standard, 200

Nigerian Statesman, 214-215

Nigerian Tenants Association, 179

Nigerian Tribune, 216

Nigerian Union of Journalists, 125, 181
broadcasters, 211
condemns certain gossip magazines, 206
opposed to military rule, 125
pro June 12, 126
training decree, 213

Nigerian Union of Students (NUNS), 91

NITEL
European sanctions affecting, 254
non-energy sectors decline in European investments, 235
Northern Elders Forum, 28 Northern Region, 59fn, 302
and state creation, 63
Igbo mass killings, 62

Norway, 243, 338

Nujoma, Sam, 275

Nwankwo, C, 152
and CLO, 192
founder of Constitutional Rights Project, 152

Nwobodo, Jim, 319

Nwokedi, Paul, (Justice), 7, 22, 24

Nwosu, Humphrey, 81

Nzeribe, Arthur, 38, 343
ABN leader, 343
files suit to prevent June 12 elections, 343

Nzo, Alfred, 274

Nzongola-Ntalaja, G., 33
on Mobutu, 42

О

Obasanjo, Olusegun, 50, 52, 67-69, 265, 303, 324
anti-press, 189
arrested for coup plot, 350
coup of 1995, 16, 36, 350, 358
establishment of NSO, 87,
government, 319, 320
laws used to govern transition, 78
sworn in as president of Nigeria, 362
transition to democracy, 1976-1979, 68-73, 88
wins presidential election, 362

Obe, Ayo
leader, CLO, 151

Obaigbena, Nduka, 215

Obi, Charles,
arrested, 203

Observer (Nigerian), 214, 240

Odigie-Gyegun, John returns from self-exile, 361

Odinkalu, Chidi, 46, 319fn. 1

Odunfa, Shola,
BBC correspondent, 203

Odumegwu-Ojukwu, Chukwuemeka, 266, 300, 303
calls for end of transition, 300
denounces Abiola’s mandate, 18

Ofonogoro, Walter, 27

Ogom, 320

Ogoni, 19, 198, 264, 270, 272, 278
Abacha attempts to crush, 24
anti-Abacha ethnic group, 19
Bill of Rights, 24, 153-155
central union, 153
dissidents, 278
execution of 4 chiefs, 264, 274
grievances, 278
hanging of Ogoni Nine, 24, 270, 279, 337
MOSOP, 24
power sharing demands, 30
Sinne, Jude, 201
Sunray, 216

Ogun State, 305, 359
riots, 346

oil, 264, 269, 282
boom, 276
exports, 277
Niger delta production of, 277
plan for privatization 281
sale of Nigerian assets to international oil companies, 281
sanctions, 274, 283, 339
arguments against international sanctions for Nigeria, 280, 280fn 18
in postimperialist world, 284

Oil Mineral Producing Area Development Commission (OMPADEC), 24, 317

Ojogbade, Dele, 160

Ojukwu, Emeka. [see Odumegwu-Ojukwu)

Okadigbo, Chuba, 294

Okoli, Chris, 217

Okoya, M.M., 156

Olanrewaju, Tajudeen
arrested under Abacha, 38, 355
sentenced to death, 355

Olashore, Oladele, 109

Olowofela, Banji, 299

Olsen, Rye, S., 40

Omasola, Shola (CSO of FAA)
killed in bomb explosion, 353

Omotehinwa, 19

Omotunde, Dele, 156

Omu Committee, 78

Omu, Paul (Major Gen), 77

Onagoruwa, Olu, 19, 156, 191, 201, 348
attorney general and minister for justice, 300-301, 348

Onanuga, Bayo, director, TheNews, 197

Ondo State, 305, 346

Oni, Ola (Comrade)
arrested for May day riots, 357

Onitsha, 187

Ono, C.C., 319

Oputa Human Rights Violation and Investigation Commission (HRVIC), 342

Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC), 51, 275

Organisation of African Unity, 52, 152, 276, 287
tolerance of non-democratic regimes, 283
views on sanctions against Nigria, 287

Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 253, 276-277

Orkar coup, 15, 158

Orizu, Nwafor, 60

Osoba, Segun, 164

Osun State, 305

Ottaway, Marina, 41, 42

Oyo-1 Offshore Wells drilling (1995), 243

Oyo State, 116, 305, 346
riots, 346

P

Pace, John F., 270fn. 8

Pan African Youth Conference pan-Yoruba Conference, 348, 360

Papoutsis, Christos (European Commissioner for Energy), 253

Paris, 220, 233

Paris Club, 50, 219-228, 234
Nigeria’s debts, 224-226, 337
-figures of, 1970-95, 225
-figures of, 1996, 224
member countries, 226, 228
financed projects in Nigeria, 227
debt servicing by Nigeria, 227
arrears owed by Nigeria, 228

Partenavia, 241

PENGASSAN [see Petroleum and Natural Gas Senior Staff Association of Nigeria]

Peoples’ Consultative Forum (PF), 163, 361

People’s Committee for liberty, 177

People’s Democratic Movement (PDM), 361

People’s Redemption Party (PRP), 361

Petrobas (Brazilian Oil Company), 243

Petroleum and Natural Gas Senior Staff Association of Nigeria, 182, 360
executive council sacked, 347

Petroleum Special Trust Fund, 252

Petronas Berhad, 281

Peugeot, 245

PM News, 216, 217

Politburo, 76, 76fn, 114, 320
and ASUU, 127
findings published by NewsWatch, 77
on state creation, 84
on sovereign national conference, 161
women in Nigeria, 130
political parties (Nigeria), 267
Alliance for Democracy, 19
All People’s Congress, 361
All Peoples’ Party, 19
Democratic Advance Party, 361
Democratic Party of Nigeria, 353
Greater Nigerian Peoples’ Party National Conscience Party, 48
Action Group, 59, 63, 164
National Council of Nigerian Citizens, 59fn
National Party of Nigeria, 72fn, 93
National Republican Convention, 84
Nigerian National Alliance, 59fn
Northern Peoples Congress, 59fn, 59, 63
Nigerian Peoples’ Party, 72fn
People’s Consultative Forum, 361
People’s Democratic Movement, 361
People’s Redemption Party, 72 fn, 361
Social Democratic Party, 19, 84, 342
Social Progressive Party, 361
Unity Party of Nigeria, 72fn
United Progressive Grand Alliance, 59, 59fn

Political Parties (Registration & Activities) Decree 28 1996, 30

political prisoners in Nigeria, 264

Portugal, 239

Poste d’Expansion Economique, 242

post imperialism, 284

Powell, Colin opinion of Abacha, 8

Post Express, 216

prebendelism, 101, 107,

presidential elections, 320, 321

press, Nigerian [see also independent press],
earliest newspaper in West Africa, 185
earliest newspaper in Nigeria, 185
linked to Christian mission, 186
secular press, (Lagos), 186
anti-sedition decree (1909), 186
censorship, 186
government-owned newspapers, 188, 214-215
independently owned news media, 215-217
accuracy of news, 194
sensationalism, 194-195
bribe-taking, 195
hagiography, 195-196
number of Nigerian newspapers, (1986/1995), 210
circulation dairy, 214

pro-democracy organizations/groups, (see human rights] 116, 125-135, 296, 339
AD, 19
against military rule, 118
anti Abacha struggle, 26
call on Abacha to handover, 27
Campaign for Democracy, 48
categorization, 331-332
definitions of, 135-140
grassroots opposition to Abacha, 29
journals, 152
list of, 174-184
MOSOP, 48
NADECO, 11, 19, 25-29, 49
National Conscience Party, 48
repressed by military, 124

Progressive Movement for Democracy, 177

Provisional Military Council, 16

Provisional Ruling Council, 270, 301, 349, 359
approves new constitution, 362
confirms Ogoni Nine death sentence, 351

Punch, The
banned, 215
closed down, 347
cordoned off by Abacha, 202

Q

Quality (magazine), 200

R

radio stations, Nigeria
Ray Power, 212
Voice of America, 208
Deutsch Welle, 208
broadcasts in Hausa, 208
Triple Heritage, (Abuja), 211
Radio Democrat, 212
BBC,

Ransome-Kuti, Веко, 152, 160, 265
and NADECO, 164
and split up of CD, released from prison, 358

Rawlings, Jerry, 1

Razor, 206

Reporter, The, (Kaduna) 200, 208, 209, 216

Reporters Sans Frontières, 22

Republic of Benin, 327

Repsol (Spanish Company)
end user of Nigerian oil, 238
religious opposition to Abacha, 31-32

Rewane, Alfred, 19

Rich, March, 237

Rimi, Abubakar, 319

Rissars, 35

Revolutionary Movement for Hausa/Fulani and Ibru assassination, 20, 199

Robinson, Randall, 43

Rome, 233

Rotational power sharing, 265, 267, 268

Royal Dutch/Shell Group, 277
resistance against sanctions, 278

Russia, 243

Rwanda, 249

S

Sandberg, Era, 26

SANDSG, 183

sanctions against Nigeria, 43, 263, 269, 280, 282, 283, 286
NADECO supports full, 167

Saraki, Olusola, 295, 319
pro-Abacha, 38

Saro-Wiwa, Ken, 19
and CD, 160
boycotts June 12, 155
execution of, 264, 286, 351
PRC confirms death sentence, 351
sovereign national conference, 160-161

Satellite, 200

Saudi Arabia, 240, 336

Schatzburg, M, 36

SCOA Trading (France), 245, 247

Second Republic, 320-321

Secretary-General of OAU, 275

Sen, Yima, 160

Shagari, Shehu, 35, 73, 93, 220
Second Republic (1979-1983), 145
1979, courts declare him a winner, 93
and press, 188

Shagaya,
retired by Abacha, 15

Shariah Law
ongoing debate, 322

Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC), 154, 229-230, 231, 237, 238, 242, 243, 335, 338
contract with Distrigaz Company, 251
execution of liquid natural gas project, 231
importation of weapons to Nigeria, 240
investments, exploration and production, 229-230
primary foreign investor to Nigeria, 244
share in liquid natural gas project, 231

Shettima, Kole, 131

Shonekan, Ernest
head, Interim National Government, 291, 321
resigns, 345

Shonekan, R., 109, 162

Siemens, 245

Sierra Leone, 185, 276, 269

Sinne, Jude (Ogoni), 201

Sketch, 200, 214

Sklar, Richard, 2, 37, 51

Snam Progetti (Italian Company), 243

Social Democratic Party (SDP), 19, 20, 291, 320, 342, 344
candidate wins elections, 321
not registered under Abacha, 21
officers boycott ING elections 291
on June 12 elections, 291
threatens to boycott elections, 321

Social Progressive Party (SPP), 361

Sokoto Environmental Programme, 249

Sorabjee, S.J. 20, 21, 56

South Africa, 51, 243, 245, 261, 268, 269, 272, 274-275, 276, 281, 282, 287, 332, 334, 337, 338
exceeds Nigeria in importation, 236
most important client of the EU in sub-Saharan Africa, 235

South Korea, 240, 280
trial of former leaders, 328

Southern African Development Community, 275

Southern Minorities Front of Nigeria (SOMIFON), 28

Southern Protectorate, 302
sovereign national conference, 126, 160-161, 164, 360

Soviet Union,
collapse of, 117

Soyinka, Kayode, 210

Soyinka, Wole
asks court to declare Abacha government illegal, 347
charged with treason, 354
in exile, 19, 278fn. 17, 349
leader of NALICON, 168
opinion of business class, 110
and Radio Democrat International, 212

Spain, 236, 237
Nigeria’s foremost European client (1995), 239

Spie Batignolles (Italian company), 245

Statoil, 243

Standard (Jos), 215

State creation, 282

State Security Service, 88,
and Dele Giwa, 1909

Steyr-Daimler Puch,
sale of armoured carriers to Nigeria, 241

structural adjustment programme, 5, 79, 152

sub-Saharan African, 219, 222,
debt stock, 222, 223

Sudan, 222, 254

Suleiman, Dan, 19
returns from exile, 361

Sultan of Sokoto, 267
Dasuki deposed, 352
Maccido installed, 352

Sunday Magazine, The 193, 202, 217

Sunday Times, 205, 215

Sunray,
pro-Ogoni, 216

Sultan of Sokoto, 115

Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs (SC1A), 113, 322
on June 12, 114

Sweden, 180, 236, 239, 250

Switzerland, 228, 233, 241
arrears owed by Nigeria, 228
Nigerian delegation to discuss debt, 233

T

Tamuno, Tekena, 23

Tate & Lyle (UK), 245

Technip (French Engineering Company), 243, 245

Tecnimont, 245

Tell, 217
government seizes, 200
offices raided, 201-202
ownership, 192, 193, 195
vendors arrested, 201
wage structure, 197

Tempo, 201 217

Texaco, 229-230, 242, 277, 280
operations in Nigeria, 230

The News, 193, 195
and SSS, 201
journalists’ wife arrested, 203
salaries to journalists, 197
vendors arrested, 201

The Sunday Magazine (TSM) [also see Anyanwu], 193, 202, 217

Third Eye (Ibadan)
pro-military, 216

This Day, 213, 215

This Week, 215

Time magazine, 205-206

Tinubu, Bola, 217
returns from self-exile, 341

Tobi, Niki (Justice)
submits draft constitution, 362

Tofa, Bashir
NRC presidential flag-bearer, 342

Tokoya, Yemi, 38

Total Nigeria, 238, 247

Townsend, H., 185
trade unions and affiliations with international trade unions, 91
Association of Staff Unions of Universities, 91
disputes under Murtala/Obasanjo, 89, 90
Nigerian Labour Congress, 48

Transafrica, 278-279

Trans African Forum, 43

transnational business in Nigeria, 284, 286

Transition Implementation Committee, 351, 354
announces new election dates, 354
set up by government, 351

transition programmes, 57-98, 342, 356, 361
and failures of democracy, 101-105
and Nigerian Labour Congress, 132-133
and the judiciary, 92-102
and trade unions, 89-91
features of, 64-
general characteristics of, 58
Nigerian views on, 270-271
phantom coups, 58fn
under Abacha, 164-165, 264-265, 267
under Babangida, 73, 75, 78-86, 88, 108
under Buhari, 57fn, 73fn, 73, 74
under Gowon, 63
under Murtala Mohammed, 64, 70
under Obasanjo, O, 67-73, 78, 87-88

Transitional Council supplants ministers, 343

Transparency International, 339

Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa), 342

Tshisekedi, Etienne, 42

TSM (The Sunday Magazine), 193, 202, 217

Tunisia, 236 Turkey, 280

Twadell, M. (US ambassador to Nigeria), 44

U

Ubani, Chima, 160, 162

Udoka, 189 Uganda, 218, 274, 276

Uhuru Research Centre, 177

Ukiwe, E., 163

Uma, Eleazu, 164

Umar, M.G., 160

Umuechem massacre (1990), 24

United Democratic Front of Nigeria (UDFN), 49, 184, 331-332
rejects Abacha transition programme, 168
umbrella pro-democracy group, 167-168

Unity Forum for Peace and Democracy (Kano), 177

United Action for Democracy (UAD) counters pro-Abacha rally (Ibadan), 355
protests Abacha as consensus candidate, 356

United Kingdom, 226, 236, 237, 239, 278
arrears, 228
per cent of debt owed by Nigeria, 226
sale of weapons to Nigeria, 241

United Nations, 337

United Nations Code on Transnational Corporations, 285

United Nations Commission for Human Rights, 20, 273-274

United Nations Fact-finding Mission on the Nigerian Situation, 270,-271, 283

United Nigeria People’s Convention (UNPC), 352

United People’s Party (UPP), 341

United States, 226, 233, 237, 240, 251, 261, 263, 270, 274, 278, 279, 280, 286, 337, 338, 339
American interests supporting Abacha, 279
per cent of Nigeria’s debt owed to, 226
and Nigerian democratization, 336
capital inflow, 246
demand for Nigerian oil, 335
gas reserves, 242
oil imports from Nigeria, 277
opposition to Nigeria’s debt agreement with IMF, 233
sanctions against Nigeria, 264, 279, 287, 338

Universal Defenders of Democracy, 177

Unongo, Paul, 319

Usari Marine field, 243

Usman, Ahmed (Oyo State military administrator) declares arrested May day rioters prisoners of war, 356

V

Victims, Journal of Committee for the Defence of Human Rights, 152

Vanguard, 188, 215

Vintage People, 200

Vision 2010, 355
inaugurated, 353

Volkswagen, 245

W

Warri, 187

Waziri, I., 160

Weekend Classique, 203

West Africa, 215

Western Protectorate renamed, 302

Western Region, 305
creation, 302

Williams, F.R.A.
on Abacha’s bid for self-succesion, 30

Williams, Sapara, 186

Willnick Commission, 63

Wintershall (German Company), 238

Women
status and role in Nigerian society and transition process, 324

Women in Nigeria (WIN), 130-131, 163, 179, 324, 331

World Bank, 50, 229, 248, 281
aid programmes to Nigeria, 337
World Debt Tables, 220, 227, 228
Algeria’s debts to (1970-95), 275
expected loans to Nigeria, 229

World Development Movement (WDM), 240, 241, 256
London based peace organization, 240

World War I, 186

Women Concerned, 179

Y

Yadudu, Ahmad, 272fn. 12

Yar’Adua, Shehu Musa, 319, 324
and Reporter, (daily), 208, 209, 216
arrested for coup plot (1995), 16, 36, 350

Yoruba, 265
and independent press, 18
early newspaper, 214
Iwe Irohin fun Awon Ara Egba ati Yoruba, 18
NADECO, 163
opposition to military rule, 18
persecuted by Babangida and Abacha, 18

Young, Crawford, 45

Young Democrats, 177

Young, James (cardiac pathologist) reaffirms cause of Abiola’s death, 359

Youths Earnestly Ask for Abacha [see Kanu, Daniel], 28

Yusuff, Bello Maitama, 319

Yusuf, Bilikisu, 197

Yusuf, K., 160

Yusuf, Mohammed Dikko, 337

Z

Zaire, 222

Zaka Zulu, 190

Zaria, 115, 207

Zedwe, Bahru, 42

Zimbabwe, 268, 276

© IFRA-Nigeria, 2001

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