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Nigerian Art Music

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Bode Omojola

Index

Texte intégral

-A-

abaina (music), 25

Abeokuta, 10, 15,

CMS, 11

Abibirimma (Amu), 153

Abiku (Euba), 67, 166

Abomey, 11

Aboyade-Cole, 18

Academy (the), 12

Achinivu, Kanu, 78, 136

adaha, (music) 24

Adanse Kronkron (Nketia), 156, 159

Adawura Bome (Amu), 153

Addison, John, 50

Adeleke, Abel, 136

Adegbite, Ademola, 78

Adetiran, Wole, 78

Adeyeye, Adesanya, 78, 136

Adex, King Kendy, 26

Adigwe, Okonkwo, 24

Adura fun Alafia (Bankole), 58

African Bethel Cathedral (Lagos), 19

African Church Choir, 19

African Fantasy (Boamah), 157

African musical styles [also see Highlife]

abaina, 25

adaha, 24

adamo, 26

agidigbo, 25

apala, 22

asiko, 25

bembe, 26

etike, 26

gumbey, 23,

Ijaw, 25

juju, 22

kiriboto, 26

konkomba, 24, 27

okon bo, 25

palongo, 26

African pianism, 79, 87

Akin Euba’s concept of, 63-64

Scenes from Traditional Life analyzed, 79-88

The Wanderer, 82

African Sonata (Euba), 61

African Suite (Sowande), 43, 44, 47, 89, 99

Afufu Uwa (Ndubuisi), 72, 73

Agbebi, M., 19, 23

agidigbo (music), 25

Agor, 159

Agyemang, Fred, 151

Agyinamoa Wno (Amu), 155

Agwu, Dan, 78

Ahanotu, Adolf, 78, 136

Ajama-Kwara Ngwongwo (Ndubuisi), 72

Ajayi, J.F.A., 11

Ajibola, A.K., 20

Ajilo, Chris, 26

Ajisafe, A.K., 19

Akanlyrics to early Highlife, 27

Akinsanya, A., 25, 27

Akinwumi, Debo, 78, 137

Akpabot, Samuel, 6, 26, 27, 28, 49-54, 129-134, 135, 137, 166, 169

Akpabot Players, 26, 50

early musical training under T.K.E. Phillips, 28

education, 50

career, 50-54

Ibibio influence on work, 51-52

Akwaabadwon (Amu), 153

Akyede Pa Mafo (Amu), 153

Alatangana (Euba), 65, 66

Alegbegbe (Amu), 153

alghaita, 4

Allen, J.G.C. (Major), 60, 74, 75

American Wind Symphony Orchestra of Pittsburgh, 51

Amissah, A., 156, 159, 164

Amu, Ephraim, 150-155, 156

educational background, 150

compositions 150-155

list of compositions, 162

interest in African music, 151, 153, 154

established Government Music School, Achimota, 151

Amu cont’d

analysis of his music, 152-153

honored in 1994, 152

Amusan, Sam, 78, 137

Anikulapo-Kuti, Fela, 20

Anglican Grammar School (Lagos), 60

Anoro Anokwuku (Ndubuisi), 72

Aman Beyi W’aye (Otto-Boateng), 159

Anwu Ti Mini Oze (Ndubuisi), 72

apala, (music), 22

Apostolic Faith Orchestra (Ibadan and Lagos), 89

Arabic influence on Nigerian music, 1

Art Music

Nigerian modern, 9, 90, 135-147

emergence through church music, 9 10, 21, 30

and Saros, 10-12, 14, 15

and the Academy, 12

early examples in Lagos, 10

and CMS, 14

and Victorian England, 12, 14

cost of performance, 15

and Nigerian elite, 9, 15-17

list of compositions [see Chapter 7], 135-147

in Ghana, 149-162

African elements in, 165-166, 168

lack of published scores, 135

problems in performing, 167-169

use of African instruments, 167-168

difficulties in teaching, 167-169

Asem Yi Di Ka (Amu), 160

asiko (music), 25

Asomdwoe (Amu), 154, 155

atenteben (Ghanaian flute), 155

Atenteben Prelude (Amu), 155, 159

At the Crossroads (Nketia), 156

atumpan (Akan drum), 155

Atundaolu, H. (Rev), 21

Auku, Willie, 156

Avery, Cynthia, 51

Ayan, 3

Ayandele, E.A., 17

Ayodele, Christopher list of compositions, 137

Ayeyi (Amissah), 159, 164

-B-

Bach, 130

Baba Se Wa ni Omo Rere (Bankole), 57

Badagry, 10, 11, 15

Baiden, Kwesi, 156, 160, 163

Bankole, Ayo, 54-59, 75, 79, 135, 138-139, 166

trained under T.K.E. Phillips, 28, 55

artistic style, 54-57

early training in Church, 55

contact with Sowande, 55

influence of Yoruba music on, 55

formal training, 55

Clare College, Cambridge, 55

Guildhall Shool of Music and

Drama, 55

UCLA, 57

career at NBC, 57

analysis of Three Part Songs for Female Choir, 110-116

Bankole, T A., 139 Bantu martyrs, 66

Baptist Academy Secondary School, 55

Baptist mission, 11, 17

Bartok, 55

Basel Mission Seminary, 150

Bateye, M., 6, 78

Because of You (Sowande), 46

Belfast (Northern Ireland), 70

Benin Republic, 11

Berkeley, M., 166

Biakoye (Amu), 153

Birbeck College, University of London, 156

Blacking, John, 70

The Blue Nocturne (Ndubuisi), 72

Boamah, E., 156, 157, 164

Bori, 3

Boudreau, Robert Austin, 51

Boult, Sir Adrian, 68

brass bands, spread in W. Africa, 24

Brazilians, 11

Brazilian Dramatic Company, 13

arrival in Ghana, 23

influence on Highlife, 24

Bruce, Lee, 23

Builsa Work Song (Nketia), 156

-C-

Calabar, 10, 24, 26

calypso, 23, 24

Campbell, Robert, 12

Catholic, 11

Africanization of, 17-19

Chaka (Euba), 66

Cherubim and Seraphim Church, 17

Chineke No N’ulo Nso Ya (Ekwueme), 68

Chi Chi Bud (Ekwueme), 68

Chocolate Dandies orchestra, 26

Sam Akpabot, 50

Christian missionaries and music, 5

influence on Nigerian modern Art music, 6, 9-10,

African music in the churches, 17-21

as training ground for musicians, 27- 29

Igbo church music, 34 [see also Harcourt-Whyte]

Christmas Sonata (Bankole), 57

Christ Church Cathedral (Lagos), 49, 50, 55

Chukwu No Rue Ebigh’Ebi (Harcourt-Whyte), 36

Church (the) and music, 17-21, 22

Church Missionary Society (CMS), 11, 30

training Saros, 12

Female Institute, 14

at Abeokuta, 14

at Lagos, 14

Clare College, Cambridge, 55

CMS Grammar School, 60

Coker, Robert, 14, 28

Collage for Orchestra (Euba), 61

Cooke, Arnold, 60

conga (drums), 24

Contemplation (Nketia), 156

Copland, D., 23

Cowell, Henry, 156

Crucifixion (Stainer), 130

Crowther, S.A., 12

Cunningham, G., 42

Cynthia’s Lament (Akpabot), 51

composed for Cynthia Avery, 51

-D-

dance (bands) orchestras in Ghana, 24

in Nigeria, 26

Dance of the Black Witches (Ekwueme), 68

Danso, R.O. list of compositions, 164

Dart, Thurston, 50

Davies, J.L., 12

De Angels Are Watchin’(Sowande), 44

Debussy, 59

De Ol’Arks a-Moverin ‘ (Sowande), 44

Dedeke, Dayo 21, 32, 34, 37

list of compositions, 146

Derby, Tunde, 26, 28

Dialectics-2 (Labi), 157, 158

Dagarti Work Song (Nketia), 156

Dowolae Dua Nu (Agor), 159

Dirges (Euba), 65, 168

Divine Presence (A.A. Mensah), 157

Dr. Feeles (Ndubuisi), 72

Drop of Honey (A), (Nzewi), 70

drums, first used in African church, 19

Dwonto (Amu), 150

dundun (Yoruba drum), 3, 65, 79, 166

Durham University (UK), 67

-E-

Echezona, W.W.C., 20, 146

Egba, (Yoruba), 11

Elliot (Mrs) Grant, 71

Ekiti churches and indigenous music, 19

Eku Ewu (Ekwueme), 68

Ekwueme, Laz, 30, 67-70, 89, 135, 139-140, 153

education, 68

career, 68

nationalism in his music, 70

Emi O Gbe Oju Mi Soke Wonni (T.K.E. Phillips), 29, 31

English Winterbirds (Bankole), 57, 58

Enikeni To Ba Gbe Ara Re Ga (Bankole) 112, 114-116

Enugu Operatic Society, 71

Entsua-Mensah, 156, 160

Ethiopian and Brotherhood Churches, 19

Ethnophony (Bankole), 57

Euba, Akin, 6, 57, 74, 79, 85, 135, 140166, 169

and traditional African music, 59, 64- 67

Euba cont’d

education, 60

career, 60

and African pianism, 63, 79-88

orchestral works, 89

-F-

Fare Thee Well (Amu), 150

Fanti Coast, 23

and origins of Highlife, 23

brass bands, 23, 24

Faseun, Femi, 78

Fergusson, William, 151

Festac Cantata (Bankole), 59, 72, 134, 166

Fiberesima, A., 28, 74, 116, 141

Folk Symphony (Sowande), 43, 44, 48, 89, 165, 169

for Nigerian Independence, 44, 89, 90

analysis of, 89-107

Fon, 11

fontomfrom (Akan drum), 155

Four Igbo Songs (Uzoigwe), 75

Four Nigerian Dances (Uzoigwe), 75

Four Pieces (Euba), 61

Four Pictures from Oyo Calabashes (Euba), 63

Freetown, Sierra Leone, 10, 12, 23, 24

Fun Mi Ni Beji (Bankole), 58

-G-

Gershwin, 42

Ghana, 23, 25

Ghana Art Music, 149-151

emergence through church, 159

Amu, E., 150-155

young composers, 155-156

piano music, 157-159

choral music, 159-162

Ghana National Choir, 152

Ghana National Orchestra, 151-152, 159

Gloria (Sowande), 42, 43, 48

Gold Coast [see Ghana], 23, 24

Good Band, (the) 26

gong (Yoruba instrument), 98, 101

Government Music School, Achimota, Ghana, 151

Guildhall School of Music and DramaLondon, 55, 71

gumbey (dance music), 23, 24

Gurney, Ivor, 72

-H-

Handel, 14

Harcourt-Whyte, Ikoli, 20, 25, 34-37

origins, 34

father of Igbo hymns, 34-37

list of compositions, 146

Hausa, 2

traditional music, 3

alghaita, 4

gangan (drum), 4

goje (2-string fiddle), 4

kakaki (trumpet), 3

rok on fada, 3

Herskovits, Melville, 156

heterophonic procedures, 44

Highlife, 21-28, 90, 98, 103-106,

origins of in Nigeria, 21, 24

roots in Ghana, 23, 160

and E.T. Mensah, 27

pidgin lyrics, 27

church as training ground, 27

and modern Nigerian Art musicians, 28

influence on Fela Sowande, 47

in Akpabot’s works, 49

in Sowande’s Folk Symphony, 103-104, 105, 106

in The Vengeance of the Lizards, 124

Hombe (Ekwueme), 70

Howells, Herbert, 50, 151

Howard University, 49

Hyiawu (Amu), 153

hymnody, Nigerian, 9, 20, 22

-I-

Ibadan, 10, 26, 66

Ibibio, 49

Igbo, 2, 15, 24, 25, 34

traditional music, 4-5

ngedegwu (xylophone), 4

ekwe (wooden slit drum), 4

ogene (metal gong), 4

oja (flute), 4, 77

Ife [see Obafemi Awolowo University], 66

Ife Di Na Oba (Ndubuisi), 72

Igi Nla So (Euba), 61, 62, 63, 64, 165, 166

Ile-Iwe Nikan l’Ori Yungba Yungba (Bankole), 112, 113

Ijaw (music), 25

Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan, 43

Instruments (West African) agidigbo, 25

alghaita, 4

atentenben, 155

atumpan, 155

conga (drums) 24,

dundun, (Yoruba drum) 3, 65, 79, 166

fontomfrom (Akan drum), 155

gong, 98, 101

kakaki (trumpet), 4

mbira, 24

ngedegwu (xylophone), 4, 79

ogene (gong), 4

oja (flute), 4, 77

okele (gong), 77

seprewa, 155

ubaka, 24

International Centre for African Music and Dance, Legon, 156

International Festival of Arts, NancyFrance, 66

Introduction and Allegro (Euba), 60

Islam influence on Nigerian music, 1

Israel Hene (Amu), 153

Iya (Bankole), 56, 57

-J-

Jacob, Gordon, 50, 68, 151

Ja Itanna To’n Tan (Bankole), 57

Jaja of Opobo (Akpabot), 52

Ja Orule (Bankole), 55

Jona (Bankole), 57

Le Journal de Nancy (Euba), 66

Julliard School of Music (New York), 156

juju (music), 22

-K-

Kaduna, 26

Kafui, K., 157, 159, 164

Kamfo Memeye Adwuma Ama Iesu (Amu), 150

Ka Mura (Sowande), 42, 48

King, Anthony, 15

King, Nathaniel, 14

konkomba (music), 24, 27

Kunje (Nzewi), 70

Kuti, T.O., 146

Kwahu Abetifi, Ghana, 150

Kyrie (Sowande), 42, 44, 47, 48, 93, 165

-L-

Labi, Gyimah, 156-159, 164

Lagos, 10

established as British colony, 11

population 1866, 11

Saros, 11-12

first classical music concerts, 12-13

and CMS schools, 14

music in churches, 6, 16-21

regimental bands, 24

dance bands, 26

Sowande’s career, 43

FESTAC, 54

Lagos Espirit de Corps, 13

Lagos Grammar School (1859), 12, 14

Lagos Native Research Society, 21

Lawson, Rex, 27

Laz Ekwueme National Chorale, 68

Let My People Go (Ekwueme), 68

Libation (Nketia), 156

Lijadu, Soji, 26, 50

Liszt, 58

Lost Honey (Meki Nzewi), 116

Lustra Variations (Uzoigwe), 75, 76

-M-

Macaulay, Herbert, 12, 19

Marna G’abara Mu Mba (Ndubuisi), 72

Masquerade (Uzoigwe), 76

Mazu Atimedide (Nayo), 159

Mawo do Iesu (Amu), 150

Mechanics Amateur Dramatic Company, 13

Meditation (Nketia), 156

Melodramatic Society (Lagos), 19

Mensah, Ata Annan, 156, 157, 164

Mensah, ET., 163

father of Ghanaian Highlife, 27

Trumpet Highlife, 27

influence on Nigerian Highlife, 27

Merriam, Alan, 156

Meye Adwuma Ama Iesu (Amu), 150

Meye Den Me Kamfo Nyame (Baiden), 160

Methodist mission, 11

fragmentation of, 17

Missa Africana (Ekwueme), 69

Moloney, Governor of Lagos, 19

Moonsage Hero, The (Nzewi), 70

Morning, Noon and Night (Euba), 65

Mmere (Entsua-Mensah), 160

Monkamfo No (Nketia), 156

Mozart of West Africa, 14

music, African

in Christian churches, 16-21

banned in orthodox churches, 17

United Native African Church, 17

prosecuted in court, 19

in Ekiti churches, 19

in Anglican church, 20

influence on Akin Euba, 66-67

influence on Ekwueme, 70

elements in Art Music, 165

education in the schools, 168-169

Nwa Mgbogho Delu Uli (Ndubuisi), 72

My Way’s Cloudy (Sowande), 44

Mendelssohn, 14 Mussorgsky, 90

-N-

Nnwaa Aramonu (Ndubuisi), 72

Nancy, France, 66

nationalism, African

in the British colony, 16, 21

in the church, 16-17

first ‘African’ Church, 17

Native Baptist Church, 17, 19

Nayo, N.Z., 156, 159, 164

Ndubuisi, Okechukwu, 28, 71-74, 141-142, 153, 166

education, 71-72

career, 72

analysis of The Vengeance of The Lizards, 116-129

Nno (Ekwueme), 70

Nne Neku Nwa (Ekwueme), 70

New York Philharmonic Orchestra at Carnegie Hall, 44

ngedegwu (Igbo xylophone), 79

Nigeriana (Akpabot), 50 ; aka, Overture for Nigerian Ballet, 50, 51

Nigerian Arts Council, 51

Nigerian composers, 78 [see chapter 7]

Nigeria in Conflict (Akpabot), 52, 53, 134

Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation, 43, 4450, 55, 57, 60

Nigerian Rhapsody (Ekwueme), 68, 89

Nigerian Suite (Bankole), 55

Night in Bethlehem, A (Ekwueme) 68

Nketia, J.H.K., 1, 149, 153, 156-157, 159

education, 156

career, 156

and Chanaian choral music, 159

list of compositions, 163

Nkwagye Dwom (Amu), 150

Northwestern University, Illinois, 156

Ntem, T.K., 150

Nwaba, Isreal, 24

Nwuba, Felix, 78, 142

Nyarinya (Ndubuisi), 72

Nyarko, Eric, 156

Nzewi, Meki, 4, 70-71, 78, 116

education, 70

list of compositions, 142

-O-

Obafemi Awolowo University [see University of Ife]

Obangiji (Sowande), 42, 43

Oba Aba Ke Pe (Sowande), 47

Obi Dimkpa (Ekwueme), 70

Ofala (Akpabot), 51, 129, 165, 169

Ogisi, Arugha, 78

Ogun, 2

Ogun Salewa (Ndubuisi), 72

Oh Render Thanks (Sowande), 46

oja (Igbo flute), 77

Oja (Uzoigwe), 77

Ojukwu, Sam, 78

list of compositions, 142

okele (gong, Igbo), 76

okon bo (music), 25

Okongwu, 21

Okosa, Alphonso

list of compositions, 143

Olaiya, Victor, 26, 27

Olaniyan, Yemi, 78

Oldroyd, George, 42

Olele (Ekwueme), 70

Olude, T A.

list of compositions, 143

Olurombi (Euba), 61, 64, 89, 169

Omojola, Bode, 78

list of compositions, 143-144

Omideyi, O., 21, 30, 146

Onwuka, G.T., 24

Ona Ara (Bankole), 58

Onina Manya Ogo (Ndubuisi), 74

Onitsha, 10, 24, 26

Opu Jaja (Fiberesima), 74, 116

Ora Methodist Church (Ora, Edo State), 71

Orchestral Works, Nigerian, 89-107

Ore Ofe Jesu Kristi (Bankole), 58

Oriere, G.B., 21, 147

Orisha Bi Ofun Kosi (Bankole), 110, 111

Orukoko (Fiberesima), 74

Oruko Amutorunwa (Sowande), 43

O Se Va (Ndubuisi), 72

Ota, Yoruba subgroup, 20

Otto-Boateng, 156, 160, 163

Out of Zion (Sowande), 46

Oyekan (Oba of Lagos), 26

Oyigiyigi (Sowande), 42, 43, 44, 46, 4889, 93, 167

Ozuitem Obodomu (Ndubuisi), 72

-P-

Pappoe, Allotey Rev., 150

Passion Sonata (Bankole), 57, 167

Payne, J.O., 12

Pentanata (Kafui), 157

pentatonic scales, 44, 94, 99, 106

Yoruba pentatonic melodies, 47

Phillips, T.K.E. 20, 28-31, 33, 37

organist, Christ Church Cathedral, 28

trained Akpabot, 28, 49

list of compositions, 147

Pisgow, Osborn, 50

Phoenix Hall (Lagos), 13

Philharmonic, the (Lagos), 13

Pierre Lunaire (Schoenberg), 58

Playtime (Nketia), 156

Polytechnic, The (Ibadan), 167

Portuguese and emergence of Highlife, 23

Pratt, Claude, 19 Prayer (Sowande), 42, 46, 48

-Q-

Queen’s University (Belfast), 70

-R-

Ransome-Kuti, J.J. Canon, 20

Rascals, The (Fiberesima), 74

Reger, Max, 58

Responses in “A” (Sowande), 41

Rhapsody in Blue (Gershwin), 42

rhumba, 23, 24, 26

Rifles’ Band, 22

Rimsky-Korsakov, 90

Rio-Lindo Orchestra, 25

Ritual Procession (Uzoigwe), 76, 77

Rockefeller Foundation, 61

Roll de Ol’ Chariot (Sowande), 44

Royal College of Music (London), 50, 67, 151

Royal College of Organists, 42

Rue Ole Mgbe (Harcourt-Whyte), 34, 35

-S-

Sachs, Carl, 156

Sadoh, Godwin, 78, 147

Sam Befa (Amu), 159

Sango, 2

Saros, 10, 11, 12

and Art Music, 12, 15

Dr. N. King, 14

and nationalism, 15

and African culture, 21

Saturday Night at Caban Bamboo (Euba), 63

Scenes from Nigeria (Akpabot), 51, 89, 169

Scenes from Traditional Life (Euba), 60, 63, 167

analyzed 79-88

Schoenberg, 58

School of Oriental and African Studies,

University of London, 156

Searching Nos 2 and 3 (Nzewi), 70

Second Symphony (Witold Lutostawski), 76

Senghor, Leopold, 66

seprewa (Ghanaian flute), 155

Sierra Leone, 10, 11, 12, 23, 24

Silva, P.Z., 13

Six Sketches for Full Orchestra (Sowande), 43

Six Yoruba Songs (Euba), 61

Sketches (Uzoigwe), 75, 76, 77, 167

slavery and anti-slavery laws, 10

returning freed slaves to Africa, 10, 23

bringing music, 23

Slomnimsky, 90

Songs of Contemplation (Sowande), 46

Sopuru Chineke Nima Mma Nke Idi Nso (Ekwueme), 68

Sowande, Emmanuel, 20

Sowande, Fela, 20, 26, 28, 30, 39-49, 54, 58, 59, 89, 99, 101, 135, 144-145, 167, 169

Triumph Club Band, 26

trained under T.K.E. Phillips, 28, 30, 42

composing in 1940, 39

father of Nigerian Art Music, 39

educational background, 42

work in UK, 42-43

nationalism in 43, 45

career in Lagos, 43

Research Fellow, University of Ibadan, 43

American influence on, 44

influence of Yoruba culture on, 46-48

awarded MBE, 48 ; MFN, and honorary Ph.D. Ife, 49

ends teaching career in USA, 49

list of compositions, 143-145

Stainer, 130

St. Jude’s Anglican Church (Lagos), 20

St Jude’s Responses (Sowande), 46

St Paul’s Church (Lagos), 12, 17

St Saviour’s Church (Lagos), 50

St Peter’s Church (Lagos), 55

String Quartet (Euba), 60

Sylvester, Victor, 26

-T-

Taylor, Eric, 60

Te Deum Laudamus (Akpabot), 54

Thiriet, Yoland, 66

Three Part Songs for Female Choir (Bankole), 57, 109 analyzed, 110-116

Three Yoruba Songs (Bankole), 57, 165

Three Yoruba Songs (Euba), 61, 63, 65, 165

Three Yoruba Songs (Sowande), 48

Toccata and Fugue (Bankole), 57, 58

tonal language and melodics, 109

Travis, Roy, 57, 61

Trinity College (London), 60, 76, 156

Triumph Club Band, 28

Two Igbo Songs (Uzoigwe), 75

Two Nigerian Folk Tunes (Akpabot), 52

Two Tortoise Folktales (Euba), 65

Two Yoruba Folk Songs (Euba), 61

-U-

ubaka, 24

United Africa Company, 16

United African Methodist Church, 17, 19

United Native African Church, 17

University of California, UCLA, 51, 57, 61, 64, 156

University of Cincinnati (Ohio), 158

University of Ghana, 158

University of Ibadan, 43, 44, 49

University of Ife, 49, 64, 66, 167

University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), 158

University of Ilorin, 167

University of Lagos, 57, 64, 80

University of Legon, Ghana, 64, 151, 156

University of London, 42

University of Nigeria, 50, 70, 72, 167, 168

University of Pittsburgh, 49

University of Science and Technology Kumasi, 151

Uta Horn Orchestra (Ibibio orchestra), 52

Uzoigwe, J., 57, 79, 89

list of compositions, 145

-V-

Vengeance of the Lizards, The (Ndubuisi), 72, 74, 116-129, 134, 166

Verba Christi (Akpabot), 52, 54, 129-134, 166

Versicles and Responses (T.K.E. Phillips), 31

Victorian tradition, 12, 14

Vidal, Tunji, 78

Volta Fantasy (Nketia), 156, 157

-W-

Wanderer, The (Euba), 61, 82, 167

War Dance (Ndubuisi), 72

Watermaid (Uzoigwe), 76, 77, 89

Webster, J.S., 17, 19

West Indies, 10, 12, 22, 23

West African Psychical Institute, 21

Westernized African elite, 9, 15-17 and nationalism, 16, 17, 21

Western Toppers Band, the, 26

West London Mission, Methodist Church, 42

White, Rev. J., 20

Williams, Vaughan, 72

Wishart, Peter, 71

World Black Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC), 54

Wose Aseda (Nketia), 156

-Y-

Yaa Amponsa (Amu), 151

Yoruba music, 30-31, 89, 90-92, 94, 100, 101

traditional music, 2, 25

in church, 15

influence on classic music, 15

drums, 3, 65, 79, 166

banned in orthodox church, 17, 19

cultural revival in Lagos, 19-22

for festivals, 26-27

book on, by Phillips, 30

pentatonic scale, 31-33

in Sowande’s work, 91, 92, 94, 98, 99, 100

Yoruba dirge, 101

Dirges, written for African instruments, 65, 168 gong, 98

Yale University, 67

Yetu (Amu), 150

Yeye Ahene Baasa (Otto-Boateng), 160

-Z-

Zidata Mo Nso Gi (Ekwueme), 68, 70

© IFRA-Nigeria, 1995

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