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Urban Research in Nigeria

 | 
Adepoju Onibokun
, 
Adetoye Faniran

Chapter Three

Synthesis of existing literature in the urban sector in Nigeria

Texte intégral

3.1 Introduction

1As explained in chapter 1, a survey of existing literature on the urban sector in Nigeria was carried out. The survey revealed that there is a substantial volume of such literature. In all, about 1,747 entries were assembled (see appendix VI). These are classified under sixteen major sub-themes (see table 3.1). The highest number of entries was recorded under housing. Next, in descending order, were spatial analysis, environment, economy, transportation, administration and management, population, infrastructure, land, social disorder/violence, poverty and quality of life, women in urban development, urban-rural linkages, urban agriculture/food crisis, finance, and the informal sector. The details of these publications are discussed under each of these headings later in this chapter.

2A critical examination of the entries on urban research literature in Nigeria reveals that most (55.3 %) of the entries appeared either as journal articles (28.1 %) or theses (25.2 %) (table 3.1). This research was mainly carried out by students/scholars in institutions of higher learning, and was mostly based on primary data/field research and library reviews of literature. Books/monographs represent 21.4 per cent and papers presented at conferences represent 17.9 per cent of the entries.

3Furthermore, a vast majority of the studies were at the micro level, mostly as case studies of towns/villages in the researcher's locality, especially university towns. The impact of such studies is certain to be limited by the restricted access to them. Even those published in journals may not be available to African researchers.

3.2 Observed Trends in Urban Research in Nigeria

4The bulk of indigenous research in the urban field in Nigeria occurred after post-independence, i.e., post-1960 (table 3.2). Prior to 1960, urban research was limited and dominated by foreigners, who were basically geographers and/or social anthropologists, e.g., Buchanan and Pugh (1955). A brief characterization of achievements during the 3 to 4 decades since 1960, based on the items collected and reviewed in this work and in an earlier exercise is given below (Onibokun 1994).

Table 3.1 Urban Research Literature in Nigeria Broken into Themes and Typologies

Table 3.1 Urban Research Literature in Nigeria Broken into Themes and Typologies

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey, 1994

Table 3.2 Urban Research Literature Classified According to Themes and Period of Publication

Table 3.2 Urban Research Literature Classified According to Themes and Period of Publication

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.2.1 Urban research in the 1960s

  1. Urban research was dominated by social anthropologists with emphasis on socio-cultural aspects and their dynamics. Examples include sociological studies by Bascom (1965), Okediji (1967), Okin (1968) and Olusanya (1969).

  2. The research sought to confirm or otherwise the theories developed in the metropolitan country (Britain), especially in the area of spatial analysis and analysis of land-use patterns and urban morphology (see for instance, Mabogunje, 1968).

  3. The decade also featured exciting discussions of the concept of urban planning as a component of economic development, as represented by the works of Trevallion (1963), Koenigsberger (1964), and Fairlhous (1964).

  4. The five or so universities and research institutes that existed (see appendixes I and II) were already making some impact, but not of a fundamental nature.

  5. Overall, in the 1960s, the urban areas did not really emerge as a problem sector demanding fundamental research.

3.2.2 Urban research in the 1970s

5The 1970s saw a rapid increase in the number and a marked improvement in the capacity of indigenous researchers. The most significant achievements are outlined below.

  1. There was a substantial increase in the number of indigenous researchers with the requisite qualifications, who were able to initiate fundamental research, and question previously held views as well as undertake baseline studies.

  2. The emergence of studies on different components of the urban sector has led to wider diversity and greater depth and/or intensity of research efforts. Thus, in addition to the socio-anthropological studies of the 1960s, the focus of research shifted to the provision of urban services and infrastructure reflecting the influence of geographical, urban and regional planners who had appeared on the scene.

  3. The decade was an era of transition between the old, post-colonial, and the new nationalistic attitude to research. Foreign consultants were still employed, as were expatriate lecturers and research workers. A difference occurred in that many of the foreign researchers began to investigate the African traditional viewpoint.

  4. Feasibility studies, urban master plans, with associated project preparation and appraisal featured prominently as a result of a new emphasis on projects and the development plan approach. However, foreign consultants still dominated the field as most of the contracts for the development plans and urban master plans were awarded to them (see appendixes III and IV).

  5. In the area of research management, the country profited from the oil boom which explains the marked rise in the tempo of research, including the founding of many universities and research institutes (see appendixes I and II). Postgraduate programmes were introduced in universities resulting in intensified research in the urban area (appendix II).

3.2.3 Urban research in the 1980s

  1. The impact of increased postgraduate work in universities became noticeable in the 1980s. In fact, the number of places where urban research was being undertaken more than tripled during the decade (appendix II). Polytechnics and universities started programmes in urban and regional planning. There were more than ten centres that offered these programmes in the 1980s, some of them awarding postgraduate degrees. In addition, many departments of geography were converted into departments of geography and regional studies.

  2. The research themes of the 1970s were pursued further in the 1980s, including urban ecology (particularly solid waste management, flooding, water and air pollution).

  3. A decline in the fortunes of the country during this decade led to dwindling research funding, a brain drain to the more prosperous countries and to non-academic areas of the economy, and a decline in the state of the libraries. Inter-disciplinary, long-range, and in-depth studies became scarce and 'mushroom' research projects, where individual researchers dominated, appeared on the scene.

  4. The 'publish or perish' syndrome in the universities and research institutes led to a marked decline in the quality of research findings. In addition to the in-house publications, many researchers in Nigeria 'hunted' for obscure foreign journals in which to publish their papers.

  5. The 1980s, therefore, witnessed an increase in quantity but a decrease in the quality of output in urban research.

3.2.4 Urban research in the 1990s

6By the end of the 1980-1990 decade, urban research in Nigeria entered a new phase : that of re-thinking and re-awakening. Given the ever-worsening urban environment, the significance of urban research was recognized. In certain quarters, urban centres are increasingly being viewed as equally if not more important than the rural areas in terms of research needs. Government set up a Committee on Urban Policy, established an Urban Development Bank and set up a National Committee on HABITAT II. The Federal Government with the assistance of the World Bank also commissioned a number of studies on urban infrastructure problems in a number of states. A number of research-based NGOs have also emerged (see appendix V), a factor which has promoted an increased interest in urban sector research. Donor agencies have also boosted interest in the urban sector. In 1992, the World Bank introduced the Urban Poverty Programme while the Ford Foundation initiated a major urban research project in Nigeria as a part of a global urban research initiative. In 1993, UNDP and the World Bank created an Urban Management Programme (UMP) and HABITAT/UNCHS introduced the Ibadan Sustainable Project. Mega Cities Inc. of New York introduced the Lagos Mega City Project in 1994 ; and in the same year, INTERURBA of France in collaboration with IFRA sponsored a project to review the state of urban research in Nigeria. The 1990s may witness an increased tempo in urban research in Nigeria, especially if efforts are made to improve the research environment, which has declined in quality in the last ten years.

3.3 Analysis of Urban Research/Publication Themes

7As explained above, the existing literature has been classified into sixteen sub-themes. In this section, each of these sub-themes is analysed with special reference to the quantity, period of publication and the geographical focus.

3.3.1 Urban poverty and quality of life

8Literature on this theme focuses on poverty and the quality of life in the affected cities, with special reference to urban decay, slums and housing. The studies are essentially case studies in the form of direct analysis. Some of the studies involve appraisal and analysis of achievements. The entries examined cover the period 1960 to 1994, the greater number being from the 1981-1990 decade (table 3.2).

9The topics addressed under this theme include :

  • dimensions and characteristics of urban poverty structure

  • urban slum and up-grading strategies, including the development potential of squatter settlements

  • urban poverty and environmental linkages

  • backwash urbanization

  • quality of life, social indicators and city size

  • family and social change

  • socio-cultural basis of degradation

  • urban survey

10Other issues addressed include begging, squatter settlements and homelessness.

11Almost fifty per cent of the publications were national in scope. However, with respect to studies at the state or local government level, research efforts were concentrated mostly on southern cities such as Ibadan, Lagos, Port Harcourt, Ilorin and Aba. Studies were, however, also conducted on Kaduna, Kano and Zaria in the north.

12Most of the entries at the national level are books or monographs (table 3.3), while those at the state level are mainly journal articles. The entries at the local level are in the form of theses (11 items), journal articles (7) and conference papers (3). The bulk of literature on urban poverty and quality of life are theses, written by students and scholars in tertiary institutions. A majority of them are case studies. Another category is technical reports prepared by commissioned consultants.

Table 33 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Poverty and Quality of Life

Table 33 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Poverty and Quality of Life

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.3.2 Urban environment

13The entries which deal with the urban environment focus on issues such as environmental resources and problems, planning and management, remote sensing, drought and desertification, waste management and environmental policy and implementation.

14The highest number of publications were on urban environmental protection and management, followed by urban group and environmental problems. Other research topics under this theme include man, city and the environment ; land use and land cover ; environmental survey, environmental development, policy making and implementation, natural and human environment, and socio-cultural and economic factors affecting environmental perception. The literature is mainly descriptive of the urban environment at the national level. There are 89 entries which focus on the urban environment at the local level while 18 entries were at the state level (table 3.4).

15The entries in this section also concentrate mainly on cities in southern Nigeria including Ibadan, Lagos, Ilorin, Ile-Ife, Abakaliki, Ogoja, Auchi and Benin-City. A few studies on cities in northern Nigeria were conducted in Zaria, Jos, Plateau, Kaduna, Maiduguri, Bauchi, Kano and Sokoto. The entries at the national level are mainly journal articles and theses ; while those at the state and local levels are mainly theses.

Table 3.4 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Environment

Table 3.4 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Environment

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.3.3 Urban spatial analysis

16Urban spatial analysis received great attention from researchers, particularly between 1971 and 1990. The literature on this theme can be classified into 11 sub-themes, viz : urban development strategies and development ; urban and regional planning ; urbanization ; urban growth and environmental problems ; and land use data acquisition/application in urban growth analysis ; functional specialization ; impact of culture on cities ; urban economic structure ; physical appraisal ; spatial differentiation in the level of living in a metropolis and research for the urban future.

17Out of 297 publications on spatial analysis, 104 are theses, 70 are journal articles and 70 are books and monographs. About half of all these publications are local in their focus and are mostly on southern and northern towns. The entries were published or written between 1971 and 1990 : 152 were published between 1981 and 1990 ; 111 between 1971 and 1980 ; and 14 since 1991. Only 20 of the entries appeared between 1960 and 1970 (see table 3.2).

Table 3.5 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Spatial Analysis

Table 3.5 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Spatial Analysis

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.3.4 Urban land

18The sub-topics identified under this theme include : land administration, management and urban development, urban land policy, population growth, land, people and tradition, land ownership and control, town and country planning law, and values and internal structure.

19Most of the studies are national in outlook with a total of 39 entries, 16 entries focus on the local level, while there are none at the state level (table 3.6).

Table 3.6 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Land

Table 3.6 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Land

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.3.5 Urban-rural linkages

20Thirty-eight entries appear under this theme. The highest number of entries are on migration and its effects on economic development. Other issues covered include : rural housing and integrated urban-rural planning, urban growth, urbanization, physical planning and provision of basic needs, rural-urban interaction, migration and the urban-rural dichotomy, absorption of migrants, conflict between urban and rural land uses, urbanization and industrialization, rural-urban comparison of female educational aspirations ; and planned urban expansion.

Table 3.7 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban-Rural Linkages

Table 3.7 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban-Rural Linkages

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

21As with urban land, the greatest focus here is on the national level with 19 entries, followed by 14 entries at the local level while at the state level there are 5 entries (table 3.7). The cities studied include : Lagos, Ibadan, Kano, Benin-City, Calabar and Ilorin.

3.3.6 Urban infrastructure

22Most of the entries on urban infrastructure (51.6 %) were national in coverage (table 3.8). They concentrated on states such as Lagos, Bauchi, Niger, Oyo, Ondo, Kano, Kaduna, Borno and Osun.

Table 3.8 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Infrastructure

Table 3.8 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Infrastructure

Note: a. books/monographs; b. journal articles; c. technical reports; d. theses; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

23Most publications under this theme appeared between 1970 and 1990. The highest number of publications (50) were produced between 1981 and 1990 followed by 8 entries between 1971 and 1980 (see table 3.2).

24The publications can be classified under the following headings : industrial location and distribution models ; city water supply ; public utilities and social services ; location of public facilities ; the relationship between chlorine residuals and bacteriological quality and maintenance and problems of sewer/drainage ; selected industrial effluent and receiving stream and rural infrastructures.

3.3.7 Urban housing

25The most frequently recurring sub-themes under this heading include : housing problems and policies ; need/demand for housing ; housing densities ; life style and travel behaviour ; housing preference/satisfaction ; housing improvement and modernization ; mortgage institutes and housing corporations ; interface of urban residential land use ; institutional housing schemes ; occupational activities ; housing subsidies ; characteristics of residential buildings ; affordable housing ; and the traditional residential environment.

26The period 1981 to 1990 saw the production of the greatest number of publications on urban housing with a total of 149 entries, followed closely by the 1971 to 1980 decade with 138 entries (table 3.2). Most of the studies (table 3.9) are national in coverage with a total number of 216 entries or 66.1 % per cent of total. Next are those covering local level topics (94). The local level entries are evenly distributed between the northern, western and eastern parts of the country, with concentration in cities such as Lagos, Zaria, Ibadan, Enugu, Abeokuta, Kaduna and Makurdi.

Table 3.9 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Housing

Table 3.9 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Housing

Note : a. books/monographs; b. journal articles; c. technical reports; d. theses; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.3.8 Urban social disorder/violence

27The greatest number of publications under this theme were produced during the period 1981 to 1990, followed by the 1971 to 1980 decade. The topics studied include : juvenile delinquency, justice and correction ; urban crimes ; police and conflict regulation ; cultural problems of urban development ; violence against women ; child abuse and civil disobedience.

28The majority of the entries focus on subjects at the national level with 43 research items (78.2 %) (table 3.10). Following this are those which focus at the local level (10 items) and the remaining 2 on the state level. Unlike the other themes, the studies on urban violence tended to be concentrated mostly in the northern and eastern states, notably Imo and Kaduna States. Some studies were conducted in Lagos.

Table 3.10 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Social Disorder/Violence

Table 3.10 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Social Disorder/Violence

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.3.9 Urban economy/socio-economic organization

29Literature on this theme focuses on urban economy at the national, state and the local levels, covering such topics as markets, unemployment and employment patterns, and street trading.

30Research output on this subject is similar to the others, with a concentration of efforts in the periods 1981 to 1990 and 1971 to 1980. The studies can be organized under a number of sub-themes or topics, namely : urban growth ; economic problems/development ; socio-economic profile/development ; multinationals and industrialization in a developing economy ; market systems ; external loans and debt servicing ; inflation, economic policy ; indigenization ; the labour market ; trade unionism and development corporations.

31Most of the research undertaken on urban economy is focused at the national level (60.8 %), followed by the local level (35.6 %) (table 3.11). The towns covered were Lagos, Port Harcourt, Ilorin, Abeokuta, Kaduna, Ile-Ife, Osogbo, Sokoto and Makurdi.

32

Table 3.11 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Economy/Socio-Economic Organization

Table 3.11 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Economy/Socio-Economic Organization

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.3.10 Women in urban development

33The coverage of most of the studies (86.4 %) under this theme is national (table 3.12). The majority of the entries appeared between 1981 and 1994 and focused mainly on towns in the southwest, e.g., Ibadan, Ilesa and Ile-Ife. The issues addressed include : national development ; construction industries/ informal housing ; economic/socio-political development ; population control ; social capital, social change and the changing role of women ; food production ; communication behaviour ; legal and support systems ; educational aspirations and cultural development.

Table 3.12 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Women in Urban Development

Table 3.12 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Women in Urban Development

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.3.11 Urban informal sector

34The sub-themes identified under this category include : women's participation ; activity patterns in and the impact of the informal sector on the urban environment ; street trading ; and problems, prospects, functional appraisal and the spatial organization of the informal sector in the urban centres.

35Most of the entries were produced between 1981 and 1990. Surprisingly only 18 publications have appeared on this topic between 1960 and the present and 11 (61 %) of these occurred between 1981 and 1990. A majority of the entries on this theme cover national and local topics (table 3.13). The studies concentrate on towns in the southwest especially in Oyo, Osun and Ogun States. There are also a number of studies on Kaduna and Benue States.

36

Table 3.13 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on the Urban Informal Sector

Table 3.13 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on the Urban Informal Sector

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey, 1994

3.3.12 Urban transportation

37Literature on this theme concentrates mainly on the national and local level and are mostly journal articles and theses (table 3.14).

38The issues covered under this theme are in the areas of transport, road traffic problems, road traffic accidents, urban mass transit, transportation problems and travel demands. Other topics studied include : transportation development/policy ; urban land use ; transportation mode ; pattern of road/parking development ; urban transportation planning ; transportation investment ; journey to work ; and transport cost and location of industries. They appeared mainly during the period 1971 to 1994 (table 3.2).

39The studies were undertaken mainly in the southwestern and southeastern towns of Ibadan, Lagos, Ilorin, Oyo, Enugu, Owerri and Benin City. Studies were also conducted in the northern cities of Kaduna, Yola, Zaria and Maiduguri.

40

Table 3.14 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Transportation

Table 3.14 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Transportation

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.3.13 Urban agriculture/food crisis

41The bulk of publications on urban agriculture and food crisis appeared within the period 1971 to 1990. The sub-themes identified are agricultural development ; food production programmes ; supply/distribution of commodities ; agricultural pricing strategies ; agricultural economy ; food crisis farm tenancy ; agro-based industries ; food or fuel.

42Although food and agriculture are topics which are generally associated with rural development, the urban areas rely primarily on the rural hinterland for daily food supplies and are therefore relevant in urban research. The states covered include Oyo, Ogun, Ondo, and Bendel. Most of the entries are journal articles (see table 3.15).

43

Table 3.15 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Food Crisis/Agriculture

Table 3.15 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Food Crisis/Agriculture

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.3.14 Urban administration and management

44The sub-themes recognized include : urban growth ; urban management ; institutional framework ; policies and implementation strategies ; urban development ; planning laws and administration ; economic and physical planning ; town and country planning authorities ; development control ; human settlement policies ; statutory corporations ; urban growth ; and urban crisis. Between 1971 and 1980, there were 30 publications on urban administration ; this more than doubled to 64 in the next decade (1981-1990). Most of the entries are theses and concentrate on Lagos, Oyo, Kaduna, Gongola, Ondo, Kwara and Niger States. Towns/cities covered include, Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Maiduguri, Ogbomoso, Abuja and Benin City (table 3.16).

45

Table 3.16 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Administration and Management

Table 3.16 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Administration and Management

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.3.15 Urban finance

46The topics covered under this theme include housing finance ; public finance ; local government financing ; tax administration ; government aid and domestic savings.

47Books/monographs and journal articles dominated the entries on urban finance (table 3.17). The studies covered national, state and local issues.

Table 3.17 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Finance

Table 3.17 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Finance

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. Theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey, 1994

3.3.16 Urban population

48The sub-topics encountered under this theme include : population issues — population census, population enumeration and population statistics ; labour supply ; intra-city population mobility ; rural-urban fertility differentiation ; rural housing and integrated rural development with regard to population distribution ; and the urbanization process. Others are population and planning, migration and urbanization and urbanization generally.

49National issues dominated with 70.8 per cent of the entries (table 3.18). They appear mostly as journal articles and conference papers. The studies were conducted in Oyo, Kano, Akwa-Ibom, Kaduna, Lagos, Kwara, Taraba, Bauchi and Niger States.

50

Table 3.18 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Population

Table 3.18 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Population

Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers

Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)

3.4 Conclusion

51Areas where more research needs to be done are indicated in chapter five under each of the 16 themes highlighted in this chapter (table 3.2).

Bibliographie

References

Bascom, W. 1965. Some aspects of Yoruba urbanism. In : Africa : Social problems of change and conflicts. Pierre L. Van Den Berghe, ed. San Francisco, California : Chandler Publishing Company.

Fairlhous, G.W. 1964. Urban Government Organization in Northern Nigeria (Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Institute of Administration).

Koenigsberger, O.H. 1975. Planning Legislation in Developing Countries. Report of Proceedings of the Town and Country Summer School, pp. 87-88.

Mabogunje, A.L. 1968. Urbanization in Nigeria. London University Press.

Okediji, F.O. 1967. Some social-psychological aspects of fertility among married women in an urban community in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies 5(2) : 67-80.

Okin, T.A. 1968. The Urbanized Nigeria. Exposition Press, New York.

Olatunbosun, D. 1976. Nigeria's Neglected Rural Majority. Oxford University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Olusanya, P.O. 1969. The Education Factor in Human Fertility : A case study of the residents of a sub-urban area in Ibadan. Reprint series. NISER, Ibadan.

Trevallion, B.W. 1963. Metropolitan Kano — Report on the twenty year development plan, 1963-1983. Reame, London.Image 19.png

Table des illustrations

Titre Table 3.1 Urban Research Literature in Nigeria Broken into Themes and Typologies
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-1.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 524k
Titre Table 3.2 Urban Research Literature Classified According to Themes and Period of Publication
Légende Source : CASSAD Survey (1994)
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-2.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 496k
Titre Table 33 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Poverty and Quality of Life
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-3.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 148k
Titre Table 3.4 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Environment
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-4.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 140k
Titre Table 3.5 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Spatial Analysis
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-5.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 156k
Titre Table 3.6 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Land
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-6.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 148k
Titre Table 3.7 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban-Rural Linkages
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-7.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 152k
Titre Table 3.8 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Infrastructure
Légende Note: a. books/monographs; b. journal articles; c. technical reports; d. theses; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-8.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 148k
Titre Table 3.9 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Housing
Légende Note : a. books/monographs; b. journal articles; c. technical reports; d. theses; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-9.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 156k
Titre Table 3.10 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Social Disorder/Violence
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-10.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 144k
Titre Table 3.11 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Economy/Socio-Economic Organization
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-11.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 156k
Titre Table 3.12 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Women in Urban Development
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-12.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 152k
Titre Table 3.13 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on the Urban Informal Sector
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-13.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 132k
Titre Table 3.14 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Transportation
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-14.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 144k
Titre Table 3.15 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Food Crisis/Agriculture
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-15.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 140k
Titre Table 3.16 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Administration and Management
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-16.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 140k
Titre Table 3.17 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Finance
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. Theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-17.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 140k
Titre Table 3.18 Geographical Coverage of Existing Literature on Urban Population
Légende Note : a. books/monographs ; b. journal articles ; c. technical reports ; d. theses ; e. conference papers
URL http://books.openedition.org/ifra/docannexe/image/545/img-18.jpg
Fichier image/jpeg, 138k

© IFRA-Nigeria, 1995

Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540