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Afrobeat!

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Sola Olorunyomi

Index

Texte intégral

A

Aba Women’s Revolt, 15, 19

Abacha, Marvam, 20

Abacha, Sani, 19

Regime, 138, 211

Abalti Barracks, xx, 57, 178, 189-191

Abdullahi, Hamza, 189

Abeokuta, 7, 20, 21, 87

Abidjan, 184

Abiola, Moshood, 17

abrogation, 83

and appropriation, 82-3

Abuja, 18, 73

Accra, 3

acoustics and instrumentation, 89

Ademola II, Sir, Ladapo, 22

Adeniran, Kunle (KunNiraN), 28, 219

Administrative Board of Inquiry, 189

Africa ’70, The, 25

African, -American jazz tradition, 68

authenticity, 10
deity, 94
dictators, 50
divinities, 148
ethnophilosophy, 198

Family, 53
film center, 39
folk, compositional styles, 91

folkoric past, 39
humanism, 39, 72
identity, 12-3.163, 197, 199, 201-2
industry, 40
military, 38, 51
monetary system, 40
personality, 37, 49
pioneers, 57
Religion(s), 8, 35
revolution, 33, 39, 53, 181
rhythm, 4
rhythmic style, 216
Socialism, 13
socialist system, 14, 38
speech pattern, 26
story, 174
traditional rhythms, 8

African cultural,

Energy, 45
Forms, 24

African culture,

individuality of 2000
African dance forms, 164-6

Africanist,

grand narrative, 174
theoretical paradigms, 12

Afrika Shrine, xx, xxv, 2, 41, 58, 68, 75, 86, 128-9, 132, 140-3, 146, 148, 174-7, 184, 189, 213, 215

Afro-American jazz music, 44

Afrobeat,

Community, xxi
fans, 176, 213
forms, xxiii, xxv
genre, 3.

interpretive community, 89
Tradition and, 1
vision, 33-4, 50
workshop, 175

Afrojazz, 24

Agbebi, Mojola, 8

Agbomiregun, 21

Agor, Boniface, 190
agricultural revolution, 39

AIDS, 73

Ajayi, Biodun, 28

aje, 41, 148-9

Ajmele, Nicholas, 144

Akinbosun, Yinusa, 28, 160-1

Akpabot, Sam. 23

album and sleeves, 117-8, 121

Alhaji Buka, 152

alienation, 64

Alien, Tony, 28, 108, 219

Al-Mustapha, Hamza, 19

Alterity, 173, 175

African, 197

alternating, 84

Amala, 28

Amazons, 40

American soul music experience, 89

American 2 Live crew, 192

American White House, 139

Amoo, Lasisi, 23

anarchism, 206-7
anarchy, 181
ancestor(s), 93-4, 117, 138-9, 146, 150, 179, 204, 215

African, 213

Africa’s, 175

historical, 148
intervention of the, 150
old, 202
veneration, 213
ancient alphabetic order, 110
ancient Black Egyptian
Mysteries Order, 35
ancient Greece, 16

ancient narrative tradition, 97
animist interfusion, 213

Aurikulapo-Kuti, Femi, 27, 219

Aurikulapo-Kuti, Seun, 27-8

anti -colonial,
movement, 15
Struggle, 11
anti-imperialist coalition, 14-5

Anyah, Kalu 189

Apala, 6

apartheid question, xix

Area Boys syndrome, 18

artistic idioms, 117

Arusha Declaration, 13

Ashante stool, 135

Ascendant progression, 90

Athleticism, 162

Atmospheric pollution, 85

authoritarian constructions, 26

Avant-gardism, 164

Awolowo, Obafemi, 13, 16,

Ayers, Roy, 27

Azikiwe, Nnamdi, 13, 16, 2 60

Azoro, 215

B

Baba Ani, 131, 212

Baba Bogunde, 140

Baba Ojomo, 187

Babalawo, 21, 97, 99, 134, 140, 143-4

Babangida, Ibrahim, 17, 61, 75, 148

Baker, Ginger, 27

Bamaiyi, Musa, 187

bard, 33, 57
and the law, 191

Bata ensemble(s), 5, 91, 160

Bay of Pigs, 22-3

bell rhythm, 4

Bella, Ahmed Ben, 54

Benett, D. G., 57

Benin prison, 149

Benson, George, 109

Bernard Zaorou Zadi Digiga

Theatre, 15

Biafran secessionists, 202

Bible, 148

Bida, Maikama, 16

biological Femininity, 48

Black,

aesthetics, 44

African plays, 14

culture, 13, 35
Panther era, 22

personality, 11
Pharaos, 34

soldiers, 9
Studies, 24

Blackism, 132

Bohemian Taborite, 218

Boigny, Houphuet, 148

bomb,
explosion, 20
-planting, 19

Bonapartist state, xx

Bowie, Lester, 27

Braithwaite, Tunji, 188

Brazilian Community, 7

British,

crown, 22
government, IS
social security scheme, 39
brutality, 70

Bucknor, Segun, 27

Bucknor, Wole, 23

Buhari-Idiagbon regime, 187, 189

bureaucratic elite, 40

military and, 60

burlesque scenario, 71

C

call and response, 3, 4, 84, 153, 163

technique, 84, 96

calligraphic representation, 66, 111

calligraphy, 3

metaphysics of, 110

Camp bell, Ambrose, 24

Canada, 76

Canon formation, 3, 157

Capital, primitive accumulation of 175

Capitalism, 13

Carnivalesque, 127-8, 141, 147

performance, 67

Caribbean islands, 83

Catholic Mission, 6

Caucasian,

Invasion, 35

values, 151

Censorship, 188

Music, 58

Regime of, 43

Sonic, xxvi, 43, 57

Charly Boy, 28, 219

Chief Priest, 26, 104, 130, 136, 150, 175, 186, 215

Chimezie, Bright, 28

China, 17

Chop money, 179

tax, 184

Christian- Islamic alliance, 120

Christianity, 8, 217

Islam and, 21, 37, 147, 175

Chronotope, concept of, 100

Church Missionary Society

(CMS), 6

Citizenship, 202, 204

Civil resistance, 50

Civil war, 10

Nigerian, 202

Period, 19

Civilization, 34, III

African origin of, 34

black, 38

centers of, 62 class,

differentiation, 176

formation, 218

stratification, 174, 218

struggle, 199

suicide, 185

Clinton, Bill, 110

Coker, Fred, 23

colo-mentality, 182

colonial, district officers 22

government, 6, 22

heritage, 14

narrative, 174

project, 11

rule, 39

colonialism, 14, 36-7, 201, 204

Aftermath of 82-3

fore-runners of, 197

Coltrane, John, 23

Communication,

channels of, 174

Language of, 68

medium of, 70, 74, 83, 117

non-verbal means of, 167

communism, 13

Communist Manifesto, 42

community courts, 38

comprador alliance, 17

Comprehensive Night show, 129, 150-1

conformism, 164

conservatories, 3

constitution, 15

constitutional conference, 42

contemporary African dance, 166

contraction, principle of, 168

corporate power, 91

Corruption, 55-6

official, 61

Cost of Living Allowance (COLA), 15

countercultural, behavior, 132

expressions, 129

counterculture hero, 185

counter- hegemonic activist artist, 44

coup d’etats, 42-3

criminal justice system, 59

Cuba, 9, 96

Cultural,

activism, 85

criticism, xxiii

dependence, 50

heritage, 165

Identity, 147 (crisis), 8

Nationalists, 6

politics, 73

practice (s), xxv, xxvi, 10, 20, 42, 65, 69, 91, 110, 20, 42, 65, 69, 91, 110, 128, 133-4, 146, 165

Production, 73

revolution, 40

self-assertion, 8

self-negation, 86

self-representation, 9

topographies, 61

culture alienation, 49

D

dance, 167

Afrobeat choreographic, 169
analysis, 164
butterfly, 168
contemporary, 164
fan step, 166

forms, 163, 168
history, 163, 165
orientation, 158
walk-step, 166

Dahomey. Kingdom, 40

Davies, Miles, 23

Death(s), 41, 214-5

land of, 150
penalty, 50
second, 211

Decca, 57, 188

deity(ies), 136, 138-9, 148-50
and divinities, 149
appeasement, 136

Delta State, 68

democracy, 50

freedom and, 76

despotic regimes, 181

Diaspora, 41, 165, 181

black, 142, 158, 202

Yoruba, 96

diaporan cultures, 164

Dibango, Mann, 27

Dictators, 64

dictatorship, 132

Divination, 97, 177

basic motions of, 97

Practices, 143

riddle and, 96
rites, 135

Divination Night, 129, 132, 138, 141-2

performance, 184

Dodan Barracks, 178

dominance,
blackmail of, 64
structure of 76
domination,
agents of, 51
ideology of, 82

Dosumu, Nasiru (Apena of Lagos), 215

drug abuse, xxiii

Du Bois, W. E. B., 12, 203, 206

E

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), 97

efe,
gelede, 140-1
performance, 93, 141
tradition, 94

Egba, 4, 20, 87, 89

Boy, 20

Chants, 25

Efe folk artist, 88

efe satirical performance, 93

Parikoko mask, 91

women, 22

Egbado,

efe gelede performance
traditions, 128

Yoruba, 140

Egbaesque, 25

egun (trance possession), 139, 141, 146
egungun, 128
alariwo, 93

Mask, 214

masquerade, 161

Egypt, 34, 36

Egypt’ 80,

Band, 2, 25, 119, 176

dancers, 157-9
group, 177-8

Ekweme, Laz, 23 elite,

colonial and independence, 144
treasury-looping, 50
English language, 83.

epistemological ethnocentricism, 198
epitaph, 56
ere ibeji, 135
eroticism, 48

Ensemble stratification, 90

Esu, 135. 141, 145-6, 217

esusu tradition, 97

Euba, Akin, 23

Euro-American industrial

revolutions, 37

Europe, 6, 7

European music, 8

Europcanization, 8

expatriate colonial civil servants, 7

expression, dynamics of, 159

F

Falana,Femi, 188, 191

Falana, Mike, 23

Family Support Program (FSP), 20

Fanon, Frantz, 13, 219

federalism, 43

Felasophy, 34

Felacsque narrative space, 68

female initiation space, 168

femininity, 159

Anarchic display of, 163

Fibercsima, Adams, 23

Fire Dance, 157, 161-2, 168

First International Congress of Black Writers and Artists, 12-3

Foco theory, xx

folk,
art, 74
artistic production, 74
music, 9
performance, 145
folk aesthetic forms, xxv, 62, 128, 140
foreign capital, 17

Foreign Exchange Market, 219

free verse tradition, 85

Fulani nationality, 68

Fuji music, 75

G

Garvey, Marcus, 12, 206

Gates, Bill, 219

Gelede mask, 21

genocide, 37-8
genre classification, 66

Ghana, 135, 204

Accra, 203

Ghanaian,

folk forms, 69
police, 203
trader, 203, 205
ruling class, 204

Ghariokwu, Lemi, 117

Gowon, Yakubu, 50, 60

Grand Lodge of Luxor (Thebes), 35

Great Nigeria Peoples Party (GNPP), 16

Great Pyramid Age, 34

ancient, 143

Greece, 137
143
Greek,
and Roman languages, 37
civilization, 198
myths, 147
philosophy, 198
griot tradition, 86

Griotique, 83, 112

Guinean Leoudiere dance, 166

gumboot dance, 164

H

Haastrup, Johnny, 27

Haley, Alex, 23

Hancock, Herbie, 109

Harlem Renaissance poetry, 89

Hausa, 68, 122

-Fulani, 202
Gumbe, 83
heathenism, 6
hegemonic, constructs, 71
discourse, 43
herbal,
clinics, 40
medication, 217

heritage project, 165

Highlife, xxiv, 3, 4, 6, 8-10, 23, 26, 47

Afrobeat and, 3
American soul style music
and, 23

Jazz Band, 10

West African, 82

historical representation, 120

Hider, Adolf, 37

Hoick, Gudrun, 28

Hughes, Langston, 12

human rights, 42-3, 107, 185

advocate, 187

humanism, 174

lack of, 193

I

Ibadan, 130, 140

Ibrahim, Waziri, 16

Idan, 127-8, 139, 147

identity validation, 147

ideological,

evolution, xxiv

initiation, 23

polarities, 174

residents, 181

underpinnings, 27

idiosyncrasy credit, 183, 185

Idogu, Okoro, 189

Ifa, 94, 134, 143

divination, 143, 149

Osemeji Shrine, 140

Priests, 215

System of thoughts and

aesthetics, 21

Igbin ensemble, 5

Igbo, 68, 122

(re) classification, 202

Ijala poets, 107

Ijumu Bello, 42

lkin sacred nuts, 21

Ile-Ife, 134

legend of, 7

Ilorin Township Stadium, 20

Imoudu, Michael, 15, 60

immortality, 112

imperialism, 82

colonial and, 13

multiple, 33

imprisonment, 65

improvisation(s), 3, 112, 128, 133, 160

oral, 115

improvisatory techniques, 167

indigenization, 8

indigenous, elites, 44

languages, 39

performance modes, 82

worship forms, 144

indirect rule, 15

industrial revolution, 62

industrialization, 39

Inflation, 55 - 6

information technology, 109

interlocking, 84

Interment, 211

international capital, 40

International Finance

Capital, 27, 82

International Monetary Fund, 40

intertextual mnemonic device, 54

Inter-urban migration, 18

Intra-historical time transaction, 105

Islamic, orthodoxy, 75

and Christian influence, 91

Iva Valley Coal Miners

Massacre, 15

Ivorian Zouglou, 165

Ivorien post-independence

forms, 15

Iya Osoronga, 148

Iyanifa, 21

J

Jara, Victor, 71

jazz, 4, 217-8

African free style, 109

Afro-American, 216

dances, 166

- Highlife hybrid, 9

music, 160

Jejeleko, Dare, 138

Judeo-Christian tradition, 107

Juju, 8, 57, 76, 217-8

Nigerian, 74

K

Kala-kusa, 183

Kalakuta, Republic, xix, xxv, 57, 68 9, 102, 169, 174, 177, 181, 18 3, 187-8, 191

laws of, 213
records, 58
residence, 132
speech act, 70

Supervisor, 183

Kano, 154

Kano, Aminu, 16, 42

Karim, Hakeem

Keita, Salif, 28

Kinetic statement, 157

King, Peter, 24

Kinni Olusanyin, Esi, 158

Ki Yi M’Book Village, 184, 192

Knowledge Production, 83, 166, 201

Kolomashi, 164

Koola Lobitos, band, 8-10

student days, 44

Kora, 9

Koran, 148

Kuboye, Frank, 214

L

Labanotation, 165

Lady Dance, 157

Lagos, 2, 6, 7, 18-9, 46, 58-9, 73, 109, 120, 129, 132, 213

airport, 177
concert in, 7
elite, 6
Ghana and, 8 Underdogs, 218

Latin America, 9

laughter, 130

concept of, 87
theme of, 88
law(s), 188

Afrobeat and the, 173

enforcement agents, 48, 105, 156

Hegemonic,
174 mnemonic, 182

Nigerian, 178

Lawson, Rex, 10

leadership, 41

Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich, 38

Lewinsky, Monica, II 0

Liberia, 52

Libya, 52, 196

Liking, Werewcrc, 184, 204

Lineation, 113-4

linguistic violence, 122

Lisabi, 20

Lord Lugard (Nigerian Governor-General), 15

Lumumba, Patrice, 23, 54, 135, 145, 203, 206

lyrical, advocacy, 63

narratives, 174

M

Mabiaku, Dede, 28, 219

Mackay, Claude, 12

Macaulay, Herbert, 60

Maiduguri Prison, 149, 152

MalcolinX, 12, 23, 135, 145, 203, 206

Mandela, Nelson, 54

Mao Tse Tong, 22, 38

marginality, conditions of, 82
marijuana, 129, 130-2, 137, 175-9, 182, 212
use of, 34

Marley, Bob, 192-3

Marx, Karl, 38

Marxism, 12

Masekela, Hugh, 27

mask, dramaturgy, 217

narrative form, 100

masking forms, 128

masonic principles, 35

McCartney, Paul, 27

medium spirit, 147, 150

Melancholic singer, 54

Mensah, E. T., 10

metaphoric transformation, 115

metaphrasing, 159

military. The, 42-3

African, 51
assault, 60, 102 autocracy, 19
elite (civilian and), 118
governments, 19
institutions, 52

Nigerian, 52, 187

pressure, 43
Regime(s), 118, 187
uniform, 71

Mingus, Charles, 23

minority nationalities, 68
mismanagement, 55-6, 60
missionaries, 21
movement,
origination, 168
progression, 169
vocabulary, 159, 166

Movement Against Second Slavery, 72, 117

Movement of the People (MOP), xxvi, 23, 42, 72

manifesto of the, 33
message, 118
music criticism, 7
musical, compositions 34
evangelist, 56
family, 169
idiom, xxi, 4, 76
parliament, 160
register, 4
visualization, 158

multiple narration, 157

mysteries, 36

mythological space, 97

N

Narrative,

transaction, 67
transmission, 46
national,
class formation, 17
constitution, 43
elite, 50
political authorities, 174

National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons

(NCNC), 22

National Drug Law

Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), 178, 187

National Liberation Council, 47

National Party of Nigeria (NPN), 16

National Peoples Party (NPP), 16

settlers, 202

narurology, 40

N’dour, Youssouf, 28

negritude movement, 11-2, 200
negro enslavement, 203
neo-colonial, agents, 38 elite, 107
neo-colonialism, 82, 199
neo-traditional, creative dance, 164
forms, xxiv, 6

New York, 91

Nigeria’70, 24

Nigerian herbalists’ union, 41

Nigerian independent Baptist, 8

Nigerian military, 18

Nigerian musicology, 8

Nigerian National Currency (Naira), 159

Nigerian Natural Grass (NNG), 174

Nigerian traditional rhythms, 4

Nile valley, 36

Niquc Ta Mere (NTM), 192-5

Nkrumah, Kwame, 13, 22, 54, 135, 145, 148, 184, 1989, 203, 206, 219

Nkrumahism, 38

concept of, 199
ideology of, 14
principle of 39
normative, culture, 91
discursive practices, 174
nudism, xxiii
Nycrere, Julius, 13

O

Obasanjo,

Olusegun, 38, 67

regime, 189

Obatala, 5, 92, 213

obscurantism, xxiii

Ogboni cult, 93, 213

Ogede, 94

Ogun, 5, 88, 95, 135, 140, 144-6, 148, 204, 213, 217

Ogun State, 20

Ogunde, Ajayi, 158

Ogunde, Hubert, 14

Ogundipe, Funso, 28, 219

Ogungbe, Dele, 28

Ogungbe, Juwon, 219

Ogunkoya, Dele, 28, 219

oil, revenue, 17
wealth, 175
oil-boom, 118, 219
opulence, 60

period, 19

Okonkwo, Dele, 23

Okoye, Mokugo, 60

Okpe, 164

Olaiya, Victor, 10

Olodumare, 92

OJogunde, Bisade (Lagbaja), 28, 219

Olomolu ritual, drum rhythm, 89

festival, 87

open, household, 181

parliament, 151

oppositional, narrative, 118

politics, 176, 214

opulence, 121
glitter of, 120
oral,
heroic poetry, 95
Literacy Tension, 109

performance, 114, 117, 145
performance technique, 86
rhetorical devices, 112
tradition, 115, 164

orality, 112

literacy dynamics, 110
nature of, 109
post-literate, 110

Organisation of African Unity, 41, 202

Orisa (deities), 5, 91, 132, 143, 146, 148 - 9

Ibeji, 146

worship, 34, 133, 147, 149, 215
Oro, 92

cult, 25, 91, 213
festival, 91

Orunrnila, 5, 21, 149

Osagyefo, 22

Osanyin, 217

Osobu, Kanmi Isoja, 188

Osun, 149

Osundare, Niyi, 62

Ottabor, Nuhu, 189

Overlapping, 84

P

Padmore, George, 12

Pan-Afucan, Conference, II Movement, 184

Pan-Afucanism, 22 44, 68, 198

Nkrumahist, xxiv
radical, 216

Pan-Afucanist vision, 23

Paradigmatic oppositions, 11

Paraphrasing, 159

Patron-client, relation, 17

relationship, 43

Patronage system, xxiv, 18

P’Bitek, Okot, 62

Pentatonic scale, 5, 25-6, 180

Principles of, 9

People’s militia, 40

Peoples Redemption Party (PRP), 16

Pcpple Street, 2, 129, 130, 132, 213

Peul Gerewol rhythm, 83

Pharaoh Djoser, 34

Pictogram and ideograph, 110

Pictorial,

characterization, 119
cultural criticism, 121
narrative, 120
realism, 119
representation, 117, 122

Pidgin,

English, xxiv, xxv, 68, 70, 82, 155

language, 83

Nigerian (NP), 68-70

Pilgrimages, 37

Planless Society, The, 207

Planless Times Publication,

The, 207

plastic arts, 36, 92

poetic verse, 84

police, xix, 156

Nigerian, 3
raid, xx

Political, authorities, 186

class, 174
economy, 13, 18, 123
patron, 16
processes, 14
protest, 188
opposition, 19

Political elite, 15, 44, 51, 148, 150, 175

evangelical music, 60
indigenous, 44

Political power, 59

domestication of, 14

Polymeters and Polyrhythms, 5, 6

Pop concerts, 6

Popular, aesthetic practices, 128 arts, 3, 74-5, 115

cultural forms, xxiii

Popular music, xxiii, 5, 73, 76, 193

dance and, 23

post-independence,

confrontation, 10

elite, xxiv, 10, 149-175

postmodern feudal republics, 183

poverty and squalor, 120

power,
abuse of, 50
class, 48
relarions, 46, 83, 135

prebendalism, 16

prebendalist elite, 174

pressure groups, 43

private property, ideology of, 174

pro-democracy advocacy media, 75

proletariat, 63

prorest tradition, 59

psychological aggression, 64

punitive expeditions, 37-8

puritanical regimes, 48-9

R

racism, 68

Ransome- Kuti, Beko, 102, 187, 211

Ransome-Kuti, Funmilayo, 135, 145

Ransome-Kuti, J. J. (Revd.), 20, 37

Rastafarian(s), 70, 178, 193

imagination, 120

Rebel sonic soulmate, 191

recreational dances, 164
relay authorities, 185

Religion(s), 36-7

repetition, 114-6
republicanism, 175
resistance,
culture, 178
language of, 65
politics, xxv, 178
responsorial interchange, 155

Rhumba-meregue, 9

Rimmer Kids, xix

ritual,
dialogue, 98
drama, 139, 147
experience, 147
journey, 99
paraphernalia, 213
practice, 86, 140
proceedings, 141
propitiation, 138

rhythm, 135
scapegoat, 138
service, 129
worship, xxv, 139

Rodney, Walter, 13

Rollins, Sonny, 23

Roman Empire, 218

rude registers, 67

S

Sakara, 6

Samba music, 9

Sango, 5, 135, 146, 179, 213-4

Votaries, 163

Sankara, Thomas (radical leader of Burkina Faso), 97, 112

School system, 51

Second World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC), 57, 61, 120, 189

Sexism, 48

Sexist orientation, 48

Sexual narrative, 49

Shagari, Shehu,

regime, 19, 60

Sheet-scored music, 3

Sierra Leone, 83

Signature rhythm, 25, 89

Slavery,

and Western technology, 34

bondage and, 37

Second, 123

Smith, Ian, 38

Smith, Sandra, 23

Social, activism, S 3

Change, xxiii, 179

History, 42, 86

Performance traditions, 94

Redemption, 53

Revolution, 56

Socialism, 13

Soladegbin, 214

Solar calendar, 34

Solarism, 205

Solo performance, 161

Sosimi, Dele, 28, 219

Soviet Union, 22, 76

Soyinka, Wole, 204

Speech, rhythm, S

rhythm of, 109

Surrogate, 6, 26, 181

Spiritual modernization, 76

state hostility, 185

Structural Adjustment,

phase, 19

Program (SAP), 61

Stylistic strategics, 82

Subcultural linguistic modes, 46

Subjectivism, 195

Suleiman, Dan, 19

Supreme God, 36

Symbolism, 212

Fela’s 220

Syncopation, 6

T

Tafawa Balewa Square, 211

talking drum, 89

Tarfa, Paul, 60

technological postmodernism, 45
technology and advancement, 85
time-space schemes, 99, 100

Tiv polvrhythmic beat, 108

tonal, configuration, 5
counterpoints, 116-7
traditional,

African cultures, 4

African values, 119

dance, 166
griot, 145
medicine, 40-1, 98

Mythologies, 5

Nigerian drum rhythm, 10

Patron, 220

Transatlantic Slave Trade, 36-7

tribal communalism, 216

Trinity College, London, 22, 82

Tumbe, 164

Twi, 69

U

underdevelopment, 108

L’doji Bursary Awards, 118

Ujama, the creed of, 13

Unanimism, 203

Underprivileged, Class( es), 27, 180, 217

Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN), 16

Unknown Soldier episode, xx

Urban, chaos, 61, 66

Growth, 59
Planning, 64
Poor, 63
traffic situation, 60
violence, 18-9

Urbanization, 9

V

verbal umbrage, 182

Vernacular idiom, 5

Victor Olaiya’s band, 6

Victorian hymns, 8

violence,

denunciation of, 48
question of, 199
revolutionary, 199
sense of, 102
social, 51
urban, 50

vocalization, 24

Vorster, John, 38

W

Washington Jr., Grover, 109

Werewere Linking’s Village Kiyi, 15

West Afiica, xxv, 143

Anglophone, 9, 14, 68
British, 9
Francophone, 14
Traditional techniques, 26
Urban, 46

West African Frontier Force (WAFF), 19

West African theatrical tradition, 142

West African traditional compositional styles, 107

Western dance, steps, 157

theatre, 166 Western musical tradition, 26, 82

White racists, 22

Wind ensemble, 152

Womanhood, 48

Working class, 18, 59, 63, 204

Industrial, 95

World war II, 9

Post, 82

Wright, Briddy, 23

Wright, Richard, 12

Y

yabbis, 72, 150, 182

banter, 178
music, Audience and, 150
sessions, 71, 91

Yankah, Kwesi, 47

Young African Pioneers (YAP), xx, 23, 33

YAPNEWS, 33

Yemoja, 95

Yoruba, xxiv, 4, 5, 36, 68-9, 73, 89, 91, 93, 101, 107, 122, 143, 147, 160, 198, 204

aesthetic cosmogony, 100
-Africa aesthetic universe, 82
attire, 119
cosmic drama, 144
cosmogony of, 216
culture, 134
dances, 166
divination system, 21
divinities, 149
domination, 18
folk tales, 92
language, 36
masks, 141
mind, 212
music theatre, 110
mythic imagination, 94
mythological divinities, 135
mythology, 5, 92
mythopoesis, 88
orthography, xxiv
oral performance fiction, 100
poetry, 116
poly-nationalities, 68
ritual drama, 146
Rituals, 133
tonality, 72
Traditional poet, 86

Z

Zaire, 52

Zikist movement, 15

Zulu music, 89

© IFRA-Nigeria, 2005

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