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Gated Neighbourhoods and privatisation of urban security in Ibadan Metropolis

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Oluseyi Fabiyi

Chapter 3. Methodology

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3.0 Introduction

1This chapter discusses the methods used in extracting information from the neighbourhoods selected for the study. The procedure was arrived at through a joint consultation with other researchers in the two counterpart African cities : Johannesburg in South Africa and Nairobi in Kenya. The methods were adopted in order to allow comparisons between neighbourhoods in different regions of Africa. The emphasis is gated communities/ neighbourhoods in the selected cities. Three principal instruments were initially agreed upon to be used in the study of the three cities.

2GIS database of security points and enclosure status of streets ;

3Questionnaire on the characteristics of gates in relation to the neighbourhood quality ; and Questionnaire designed to examine the activities and characteristics of neighbourhood associations in the selected neighbourhoods.

3.1. Data collection

4Three sets of data were used in this study, which are as follows

(a) Street map

5Aerial photographs of the city captured in 1992 were obtained. The photographs were used to extract the streets maps of the city. The pre-processed photographs were obtained from the land and Survey Department of Oyo State in Nigeria. The streets were extracted from the photographs and ground checks were used in areas where tree canopies obscure streets. The extracted maps were merged and geographically referenced to produce a geographic street map and consequently the GIS database. The street map thus produced was updated through extensive fieldwork and other relevant data. This approach was adopted due to lack of geographically referenced street maps in the study area as at the time of conducting this survey.

(b) Security points enumeration

6Using the street map produced in (a) above, a detailed census of all the gates and their geographic locations was carried out with the assistance of field enumerators who are trained in map reading and GIS. Questionnaire was developed to capture the characteristics of gates and the level of control of accessibility at every enumerated security point. The questionnaire contains questions of the environmental types. They are type of barrier, type of cross bars, the types and characteristics of protection on gates such as spikes or barbed wires, the gate-wall types and characteristics, the presence of protection on walls, the presence or absence of guard houses and security personnel at gates, the types of accessibility allowed at the gates to non residents and the level of control at the security points. Four teams of field enumerators were formally trained on the gate enumeration and the filling of attached questionnaire. They were formally trained on how to insert the location of the street gates on the roads and the identification of streets that are enclosed through the erected gates. The measurement of gate height and the classification of gates into different types were also formally clarified to avoid ambiguity. Each team of two enumerators has an attached vehicle to move around while most of the time, the enumerators have to walk long distances to establish the enclosed streets by an erected gate. Ambiguities were usually resolved with the assistance of a field supervisor. The entire metropolis was divided into study cordons for easy management. Each team of enumerators were assigned some specific areas to cover and contiguous team areas were clearly marked out to avoid boundary-crossing between two teams. Each team was expected to enter the filed data in a prepared coding sheet at the end of each working day and make return visit in case of doubts about locations or characteristics of the gates. The field work for gate enumeration was carried out between April 22nd and June 19th 2004. The data sheet coding guide is shown in appendix i.

7All the streets in Ibadan metropolis were examined and the locations of gates and crossbars were examined. In all a total of 862 residential streets were examined during the survey.

(c) Neighbourhood association survey

8On a separate fieldwork which started in August 23rd to October 4th 2004, four teams of enumerators were trained for focus group discussions (FGD). The Land lord / residents’ association officials were targeted for discussion and interview. The emphases of the topic/ questions for discussion are the activities of the association and the maintenance of security in the neighbourhoods. Though it was the initial target of this research to achieve total enumeration of the landlord / resident association in Ibadan metropolis, some neighbourhood associations were not forthcoming in releasing information about their activities while some gave inconsistent information, therefore such responses were jettisoned in the course of the analysis. Some resident associations encountered in the course of the field survey mis-interpreted the objectives of the field survey, therefore giving obvious false information. This group of information was equally dropped during the analysis. The interview guide is shown in appendix ii.

9The result of the security point enumeration was developed into a GIS database and the relationship between the types of security points and the land use patterns was examined. On the other hand, the neighbourhood association data were statistically analysed to reveal patterns and relationships.

© IFRA-Nigeria, 2004

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