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A Dangerous Awakening

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Iheanyi M. Enwerem

Index

Texto completo

Abiola, M.K.O. 144

Achebe, Chinua, Things Fall Apart, 213 n. 1

Achimugu, Peter, 36

Action Group (AG), 2, 60

Adegbite, Lateef, 89

Adegbola, Adeolu, 161

Advisory Council for Religious Affairs (ACRA) 141, 145

African religious belief, 13,15-21

Agbebi, Mojola, 28

Aguiyi-Ironsi, 59, 61

Ahmadiyya Movement, 41 n. 80

Ajanlekoko, Samuel, 161

Akagha, K., 187

Alao, R.F. 86

Aleyideino, Habila, 80, 81

Alkali, Zaynab, The Stillborn, 191

Anglican Church, 160-161

Asika, Ukpabi, Governor of East Central State, 194-195

Audu, Ishaya, 33

Awolowo, Obafemi
advocate for creation of states, 63
and the presidential election campaign (1978), 1
established Pilgrims Welfare Board for Muslims (1958) 138;
failure in presidential election, 6 n. 1
in jail, 59
member of the Rosicrucian
Order (Amorc), 70 n. 14

Azikiwe, Nnamdi, 59, 60, 63
traditional religious oathtaking with K.O.
Mbadiwe, 39 n. 29

Babangida, I.B.
as agent for Islamization of Nigeria, 145, 146
crisis over membership of OIC, 149, 180-181
dictational tendencies of, 143
maradonna of Nigerian politics, 136
reshuffle of cabinet by, 122, 124, 194

Bada, Alexander, 161

Bajju (Zaria), 153

Balewa, Sir Abubakar Tafawa, 43 n. 107,
death of in an abortive coup, 60

Bello, Sir Ahmadu, Sardauna of Sokoto, 34, 62, 63, 64-65
death of, 57, 143
elected Vice-President of the World Islamic League, 54
grand patron and religious leader of Nigerian Muslims, 35
letter to World Islamic Congress, 71 n. 28
patron of the NPC, 35 political leader and spokesman of the Hausa-Fulani Islamic ruling class, 50-52
politics of, 47, 50, 53-57
Premier of Northern Region, 49
reactions to the death of, 57-58
speech at the 1964 World Islamic League, 53-54

Benin (Kingdom), 15

Biafra, declaration of (30 May, 1967), 61
discrimination against former, 137
expulsion of missionaries, 151
propaganda machine of, 72 n. 73, 155-156

Bida, Makaman, 63

Buba, Michael Audu, 36

Buhari, M. regime of, 144, 193

Burke, Rev. Fr. L., 57

Catherine, Sister, 154

Catholic Bishops' Episcopal Conference, 75

Catholic Charismatic Renewal Movement, 89

Catholic Church, 180
conflict with Catholic Charismatic Renewal Movement, l60
founder member of CAN, 102
in the north of Nigeria 153-155
representation in CAN, 110-111

Catholic Institute of West Africa, 181

Catholic Life, 115

Catholic Secretariat of Nigeria (CSN), 78, 113-114

Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN)
authority and leadership in the, 105-113
financial resources of the, 84-85, 113-114
formation of, 78-88
foundation members of the, 79,87
functions of the, 82-83
inaugural meeting of the, 78-81, 98 n. 20
insignia of the, 86-87
membership in the 83, 101-105
naming of, 81-82
organizational structure of, 114-118
origins of the, 75-97
pioneer national officers of the, 83-84
political strategies of, 114-124
problems of the, 184-195
provisional constitution for, 82, 98 n. 37, 110-112
rival groups in the, 102
Women's Wing of the, 102, 108, 109, 117, 188-191
Youth Wing of the (YOWICAN), 102, 108, 117, 129 n. 10

Christian Council of Nigeria (CCN), 75, 78, 113, 114
established T.I.M.E. with Catholics, 76
formation of, 31
foundation members of, 83, 101, 102
representation in CAN, 110, 111

Christian Health Association of Nigeria (CHAN) 76
Pharmacy Project (CHAN-Pharm) , 183

Christian Youth Group, ECWA, 179

Church of God Mission, 103

Citizen (magazine), 148

civil religion, 93-94, 96, 97

Civil War (1967-1970), 75-76 causes of, 61
expulsion of missionaries after the, 137
religious and political propaganda of the, 63-65, 66

Conferences of Missions in Northern Nigeria, 1910 and 1913 (Lokoja), 31

Constitution(s), 145, 146, 147, 188
Drafting Committee (1975), 94
independence, Bill of Rights in, 47

Constitution (Suspension and Modification) Decree 34 (24th May 1966), 72 n. 62

coup d'état, January 1966 (see also military coup), 51
reactions and consequences of the, 57-61
31 December, 1983, 144
April 22, 1990, 124, 175, 177, 182
Cullen, Michael, 154

Daily Times, 58

Daku, A.M. 145

Dan Fodio, Uthman
fall of Hausa-Fulani Islamic
State of, 51
founder of Islamic empire, 53
leader of the Islamic jihad of 1804, 35
reform movement of, 21-22, 39 n. 41

Danbazzau, Lawan, 34

Dasuki, Ibrahim, leader of JNI and SCIA, 62, 69
Sultan of Sokoto, Babangida support for, 165 n. 39
opposition to, 145

Deeper Life Ministry, 103, 162

Destination Biafra (Emecheta), 191

Dikko, R.A.B., 31, 35
founder of Jamiyar Mutanen Arewa (JMA), 34

Dodo, D.D., 77

Double Yoke, (Emecheta), 191, 211

Drum, 58

Ekandem, Rt. Rev. Dominic,
Cardinal, first National President of CAN, 83, 87, 119

Ekwensi, Cyprian, Jagua Nana, 190

Emecheta, Buchi
Destination Biafra, 191
Double Yoke, 191-211

Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim, 188-189

Evangelical Churches of West Africa (ECWA) 129 n. 8, 151-153, 154, 186
Christian Youth Study Group of, 178-179

Fasugba, 161

Fox, Colin, 92

Ganaka, Rt. Rev. G.G. Catholic
Bishop of Jos, 85, 187-188
designed the coat-of-arms of CAN, 87
opposed to CAN's militancy, 179

Goldie, Sir George, 22, 39 n. 51

Gomwalk, Joseph, started the University of Jos and Nigerian Standard, 67-68

Gowon, Yakubu as a compromise candidate, 65-66
dissatisfaction with regime of, 91-92, 93
leader of Northern-based counter coup (July 1966), 61
overthrow of, 67,95,73 n. 77
post-war policy of, 66-67, 139, 140

Gumi, Abubakar Mahmoud, 117, 149-150, 207
attack on Gowon's regime by, 93
member of Izala, 89
reaction to Ahmadu Bello's death, 57

Hassana, Alice, 124

Hausa-Fulani Islamic ruling class, 50, 51, 146
consolidation of power at federal level, 88
fight for theocratic legal system in Nigeria by, 68, 69
party politics of, 143
struggle for dominance by, 64-65, 67, 202-203

Hotline, 176, 178, 196 n. 20

Ibadan, 116

Idahosa, Benson, 103
founder of the Church of God Mission, 89-90

Idiagbon, Tunde, regime of, 144, 193

Idowu, B. 161

Idris, Isma'ila, 89
founder of the Izala Movement, 164 n. 1

Ife (kingdom), 15

Igbo
covert punishment for, 151, 156, 168 n. 81
massacre of the, 61
membership of Catholic
Church in the North, 153
outlook, 15
religiosity, 15-19
riots against, 60
society, 12-13, 15, 16-17

Ilorin, 143

Independent, The, 115

Indirect Rule Policy, 25, 29, 31-33

Iran, 141

Isawa, 23

Islam, 90, 91,
arrival in Nigeria, 21-23
colonial support for, 31-33
Lord Lugard support for, 26
theocratic order for, 141 -150

Islamic Missionaries' Association of Nigeria (IMAN), 182-183

Islamic organisations, Council of Mallams, 52
Jamaatu Nasril Islam (INI) (Society for the Victory of Islam) 52, 55, 59, 62, 68, 69, 138, 145, 172, 174-176, 210, 211-212

Islamic Quadiriya sect, 177-178

Israel, 138
break off of diplomatic relations with (1973), 139
restoration of diplomatic ties with (1991), 139

Iwo, Baptist College in, 157-158

Izala Movement (see People for the Removal of Innovation and the Erection of the Sunna (Izala), 89

Jagoe, Bede, 154

Jagua Nana (Ekwensi), 190

Jakande, Lateef K., civilian governor of Lagos State court action against take-over of private schools in Lagos, 127
‘action governor’, 194

Jamiyar Mutanen Arewa (JMA) (Association of Northern People), 34

Jatau, Rt. Rev. Peter, the Catholic Archbishop of Kaduna, account of birth of CAN by, 85
chairman of CAN for the northern states, 77
President, NORTH-CAN, 125

Jehovah's Witnesses, 104

Jihad, 21, 22, 23, 37 n. 10
arrival of Islam in Nigeria through, 51, 209

Johnson, James, 28

Jos
Institute of Pastoral Affairs (1977), 154
University of, 67

Jos, Adamu Dan Maraya, 61

Kabara, Nasiru Sheik leader of the Islamic Quadiriya sect in Africa, 177-178

Kaita, Isa, 144
pilgrimage to Mecca (1954), 138

Kaduna, CAN Secretariat in (NORTH-CAN), 120
Secretariat in, 122, 124
Northern Region's self-rule inaugurated in, 51
second plenary assembly of CAN in, 84
polytechnic, 125, 128
State, 58, 85
religious riots in, 149

Kanem-Borno Empire, 14, 20, 22

Kano, Catholic Church evangelism in, 155
Reformed Tijaniyya group of Muslims in, 49
religious riots in, 41 n.78, 60, 145

Kano, Aminu, 34
leader of NEPU, 63
response to Ahmadu Bello's death, 60

Katsina, Hassan, a prince from the Katsina royal family, 59

Kumuyi, William Folorunso, founder of Deeper Life Ministry, 89, 103, 162

Kuti, Fela Anikulapo, Zombie (a song), 135

Kuwait, 54

Kwoi (Zaria) 151

Leader, The, 115

Lot, Rev. David, 36

Lugard, Lady (Flora Shaw), 22, 23
gave Nigeria its current name, 39 n. 51

Lugard, Lord, 22,
agent of British colonial imperialism, 9
established amalgamation of Nigeria (1914), indirect rule and secularized education policy, 27
preference of Islam to Christianity by, 24-25, 26, 29-30

Maitatsine uprisings, 148

Majella, Sister, 86

Malumfashi (Sokoto Diocese), 154

Mamman, Rev. Fr. Joseph, 57

Manipulation of Religion in Nigeria (Usman), 204

Mbadiwe, K.O., traditional religious oath-taking ritual with Nnamdi Azikiwe, 38 n. 29

Mbang, Sunday, 161, 163

McGrath, Michael, 154

Mecca, 138

Message, The, 115

Methodist Church, rift in, 161

Middle Zone League (MZL) Party, 43 n. 106

military, (see also coup d'état) 135-136
coup, 57-61, 65, 90, 95

Muhammed, Murtala
address to the Constitutional Drafting Committee (October 18, 1975), 94-95
assassination of (February 13, 1976), 92, 96
pilgrimage to Mecca, 93
regime of, 88, 89, 90-93, 94
replaced Gowon in a bloodless coup, 67, 95

Momoh, Campbell Shittu, founder of National Association for Religious Tolerance (NARETO), 179

Musa, Balarabe
first civilian Governor of Kaduna State, 58, 194
reaction to death of Ahmadu Bello, 59-60

Muslims
Qadiriyya (Sokoto based) group of, 49
Reformed Tijaniyya group of, 49

Muslim Students' Society (MSS), 89, 149

National Association for Religious Tolerance (NARETO), 179-180

National Council of Muslim Youth Organizations (NACOMYO), 181

National Council of Nigerian
Citizens (NCNC), 2, 60
alliance with NEPU, 42 n. 102

National Council of Ulama, 176, 182

National Institute for Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS), Kuru, 136

National Institute of Moral and Religious Education (Project T.I.M.E.), 76

National Party of Nigeria (NPN), 1, 143, 144
religious symbol of, 69

National Pledge, 79, 96

National Union of Nigerian Students (NUNS), 136

National Youth Movement (NYU)
anti-colonial nationalism of, 28, 33

New Life for All (Sabon Rai Don Kowa), 155

New Nigerian, 67
pro-Islamic newspaper, 121, 122, 176-177

Niass, Ibrahim, 65

Nigeria
amalgamation of the Northern and Southern
Protectorate (1914), 9, 29
arrival of Christianity in, 23-24
beginnings of politicization of religion in, 27-36, 46-47
British colonial administration in, 24-27
colonial attitudes to religions in, 24-26
creation of states in, 6l, 63, 67, 68
entry into OIC as an observer, 66
federal elections (1964), 56
full membership in OIC (1986), 121, 140-141, 149, 196 n. 17
growth of churches in, 150-159
consequences of, 159-163
Islam in, 21-23
Islamic theocratic order for, 141-150, 168 n. 88
Israeli companies in, 139 Middle East Policy of, 139-140
military in politics, 135-136 politicization of Christianity
in government policies, 137-141
politicization of religion in, 27-36
post-war religious movements in, 89-91
religious outlook in Nigeria, 13-19
religious riots in, 2, 121, 147-150
socio-political systems in, 11-13, 37 n. 9

Nigeria Association of Christian Churches (NACC), 102

Nigeria, Eastern Region
take over of mission schools and hospitals in, 151, 167 n. 65

Nigeria, Northern Region
inauguration of self-rule (15 March, 1958), 51

Nigerian Association of Aladura Churches, 103

Nigerian Bar Association (NBA), 136

Nigerian Defence Academy, raised to status of a university, 136

Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC), 136

Nigerian Standard, 67

Nigerian Union of Journalists (NUJ), 136

Nigerianization Policy, 31

Nigeria's Christian Digest, 115

Non-Muslim League (NML) Party, 43 n. 106

NORTH-CAN, 118, 119
founding of, 112-113, 186-187
military of, 121
organized protest demonstration against Babangida government (January 11,1990), 122-124

Northern Christian Association (NCA), 101, 103

Northern Christian Movement, beginnings of, 29, 77

Northern Elements Progressive Union (NEPU), agreement with NPC to work for a United North, 63
alliance with NCNC, 42 n.102
founding of, 34
official opposition to Ahmadu Bello, 52
problems of, 35

Northern People's Congress (NPC), 2, 62
agreement with NEPU to work for a united North, 63
captured power at the centre, 46
in full control of Islamic ruling class, 35-36

Northern Region
self rule (15 March, 1958) in, 51

Nwapa, Flora, One is Enough, 191

Nzeogwu, Kaduna, 62
coup by, 58

Obasanjo, Olusegun
regime of, 67,88, 89, 90,93, 94
enforced the adoption of the National Pledge in primary and secondary schools, 96

Obu, Olumba Olumba, 104
founder of Brotherhood of the Cross and Star, 90

Ogbonyomi, Rt. Rev. T., Anglican Bishop of Kaduna, 85

Ogwu, Joy, 191

Ohikere, George, 36

Ojukwu, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu, analysis of the war by, 64

Okadigbo, C. 143

Okogie, Rt. Rev. Anthony Olubumi, Catholic Archbishop of Lagos, 86, 124, 180
appointment as bishop, 127, 134 n. 122
biography of, 126-128, 146
chaplain in the army during civil war, 126
comment on growth of churches, 162-163
court action against government take-over of private schools in Lagos, 127
President of CAN, 78, 119-120, 174

Olupona, J.K., 204-205

Oluwole, Sophie, 180

Onaiyekan, John, 191

One is Enough, (Nwapa), 191

Opera Wonyosi, (Soyinka), 190

Organization of African Instituted Churches (OAIC) one of the groups to form CAN, 102, 103

Organization of African Unity, (OAU), 139
Middle East Policy of, 139

Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC), 66, 89
Babangida donation to, 180
membership in the (1986), 121, 149, 149, 175, 177, 181-2, 184

Orire, Abdulkadir, Grand Khadi of Kwara State, 173

Orizu, Nwafor, acting President of Nigeria (1966), 59

Oschoffa, 16
founder of Celestial Church of Christ, 90

Owerri, 102, 151

Oye, Abdur-Rashid F. 147

Oyo (Kingdom), 15

Pam, James, 59
pentecostal churches, 102, 163
crisis in, 161-162

Pentecostal Fellowship of Nigeria, 102

People for the Removal of Innovation and the Erection of the Sunna (Izala), 89, 164 n. l

Pilgrimage, politicization of, 138-139

Pilgrims' Board (Muslims), 66, 138

Pope (Catholic Pontiff), visit to Nigeria (1982), 159

Prazan, Ceslaus, 154
religious tolerance, 179-180, 182-183

Reporter, the, 174

Reuters, 92

Rome, 138

Royal Niger Company, 9

Salifu, S., 189
and Okojie compared, 127-128
biography of, 124-126
member of TEKAN Church, 125
secretary of NORTH-CAN, (Kaduna), 124

Sambo, Yusuf,
secretary of mullahs in Kaduna, 145

Saudi, Arabia, 53, 54, 93, 139

Second Vatical Council (VAT II), 75, 76, 78
secularism
Christian reactions to, 171-178
government reaction to, 180-182
Muslim reactions to, 171-178
public reactions to, 178-179

Shagari, Shehu, 50
presidential election campaign (1978), 1
first civilian Executive President of Nigeria, 56
regime of, 140, 143, 144
walk out protest in support of Shari'a, 147

Shari'a (Islamic law), 68,145,148
debates on, 146-147, 149

Sierra Leone, 21

Smith, Sharwood, 35

Sokoto, 1, 22, 62, 143
Caliphate, 29, 31, 35, 50, 51, 60
Qadiriyya Muslims in, 49
Usman Dan Fodio University, cancellation of Christian Fund-raising in, 137-138

Soyinka, Wole, Opera Wonyosi, 190

Stillborn (Alkali), 191

Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), 165
demonstration against, 165 n. 39

Student Christian Movement (SCM) of Nigeria,
Senior Friends Group of the, 108, 116, 130 n. 29

Sudan Interior Mission (SIM), 103, 152

Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs (SCIA), 89
established in 1973, 68-69

Taiwo, Ibrahim, 93

Tarka, Joseph, 63

Tarraya, Ekkelesiyoyin Krista a Nijeriya, (TEKAN) Church, 125, 129 n. 8, 186
and ECWA Fellowship, 102, 103

Things Fall Apart (Achebe), 213 n. 1

Today's Challenge, 115

Triumph, The, 174

Tukur, MM., 40 n. 66

Ukiwe, Ebitu, 140

United Middle Belt Congress (UMBC, 43 n. 106

United Nations, Universal Declaration on Human Rights, 90

United Party of Nigeria (UPN), 1 Universal Free Primary Education, 157

Usman, Bala, 192

Usman, Y.B. The Manipulation of Religion in Nigeria, 204

Verdict, The, 115

Whelan, J.B. 151

Williams, CO., National Secretary-General of CAN, 78, 79-81, 86

World Assembly of Muslim Youth (1972), 89

World Council of Churches (WCCs), founded in 1948, 75

World Islamic League, 53, 54 Wusasa, Walter Miller, 153

Yar'Adua, Shehu, Chief of Staff of the Supreme Military Headquarters (Obasanjo regime), 78-79, 80, 93, 94, 96

Yoruba, 13, 157, 186

Yusuf, Jolly, Tanko, 36, 189
detained by government, 124
national Vice-President of CAN, 85

Zaria, Ahmadu Bello University, 67
student riot in, 149, 150

Zukogi, Abubakar, 34

Zumunci, 115

Zumunta Mata, 155

Zungur, Sa'adu, father of radical politics in Northern Nigeria, 33

© IFRA-Nigeria, 1995

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